Man will occasionally stumble over the truth, but most times he will pick himself up and carry on. - Winston Churchill
Here follows Part II of the 3 October 1995 OMRI Daily Digest, which was not transmitted by the listserv yesterday. OMRI Publications Department OMRI DAILY DIGEST

No. 192, Part II, 3 October 1995

This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest.
Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and
Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central
Asia, and the CIS, is distributed simultaneously as a second document.
Back issues of the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are
available through OMRI's WWW pages:


UKRAINIAN COAL MINERS STAGE WARNING STRIKE. Some 2,000 miners from 200 or so
coal mines throughout Ukraine staged a warning strike on 2 October demanding
payment of wages owed them since May by the government, Reuters and
Interfax-Ukraine reported the same day. Thousands also held a rally in the
main square in Donetsk protesting economic hardships in their sector and
demanding increased government subsidies. A representative of the Ukrainian
Coal Workers' Union said the strikers want the parliament to increase budget
spending for their industry and that if it fails to do so, they will hold a
strike calling for its dissolution. But leaders of the powerful Independent
Miners' Union denounced the strike, claiming it was organized by coal mine
managers who oppose economic reforms. -- Chrystyna Lapychak, OMRI, Inc.

NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY FORMED IN BELARUS. The United Democratic Party and the
Civic Party on 2 October merged to form a new opposition formation--the
United Civic Party, Belarusian TV reported on 2 October. Former Chairman of
the National Bank of Belarus Stanislau Bahdankevich was elected head of the
new party, which he described as liberal-conservative. Bahdankevich said its
priorities are to protect the country's sovereignty and proceed with market
economic reforms, including land privatization. As regards the immediate
future, the party wants to win seats in the new parliament. -- Ustina
Markus, OMRI, Inc.

Alyaksandr Lukashenka, in an interview with Belarusian TV on 2 October, said
the country's military was not to blame for the 12 September shooting of a
balloon, which resulted in the deaths of two Americans. According to
Lukashenka, the air defense forces dealt with the balloon as an illegal
intruder into Belarusian air space. He said the blame lay to some extent
with bureaucrats and the balloon competition organizers, who failed to
properly inform Belarusian authorities about the race. After the incident
Lukashenka sent a personal letter of regret to U.S. President Bill Clinton
but neither apologized nor accepted responsibility for the downing. --
Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc.

RUSSIAN SPECIALISTS REMAIN IN PALDISKI. Parliamentary deputy Toomas Alatalu
said that some of the Russian military specialists who worked on the
dismantling of two nuclear reactors at the former Soviet submarine base at
Paldiski did not leave Estonia by 30 September as required by agreements,
BNS reported on 2 October. The government on 28 September approved only 11
of the 30 requests from specialists to allow family members to continue
residing in Estonia. Government representative in Paldiski Juri Tiik said
that the police and border guards were informed about the situation and
would expel any persons remaining illegally. -- Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc.

Movement for Latvia's strong showing in the parliamentary elections (16
seats) has made the formation of a majority coalition in the Latvian
parliament difficult. Joachim Siegerist, leader of the movement, was
considered a right-wing extremist but is now stressing the need to build
good relations with Russia. Neither the left-wing nor the right-wing parties
can form a parliamentary majority without Siegerist. If the leading
parties--the leftist Democratic Party Saimnieks and the ruling Latvia's Way
(18 and 17 seats)--have said they will not cooperate with him but may be
forced to form an alliance with some of the other rightist parties. The
parliament's first session is scheduled for 7 November. -- Saulius Girnius,
OMRI, Inc.

WORLD BANK SURVEY ON BRIBERY IN LITHUANIA. A survey conducted by the World
Bank in July among 200 foreign investors and 200 Lithuanian businessmen
revealed a serious problem with bribes, BNS reported on 29 September.
Lithuanian businessmen were estimated to spend an average of 13,000 litai
($3,250) per year on bribes. Fifty-four percent of businessmen in Vilnius
and Kaunas admitted they had paid official bribes, ranging from 50 litai to
200,000 litai. While 80% of foreign investors said they had been asked to
pay bribes, 90% stated corruption was preventing them from developing
business and increasing investments. Foreign investors mentioned tax
inspectors and customs officials as the most corrupt groups, although they
usually demanded relatively small bribes, ranging from $30 to $100. --
Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc.

POLISH PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION UPDATE. The Central Election Commission on 2
October decided not to register Boleslaw Tejkowski, head of the rightist
Polish National Community, as a candidate in the upcoming presidential
elections. The commission suspected that some of the 100,000 signatures
supporting Tejkowski were falsified. The same day, the radical peasant
activist Andrzej Lepper became the 17th candidate to be registered.
Meanwhile, there was a record low turnout in by-elections for two Senate
seats. Only 10% and 6.5% of voters turned out in Szczecin and Wroclaw,
respectively. -- Jakub Karpinski and Dagmar Mroziewicz, OMRI, Inc.

POLAND PAYS BACK ITS DEBTS. Poland on 2 October paid the first $55 million
installment this year of its $28 billion debt to the Paris Club of
creditors. The Paris and London Clubs have cut Poland's $47 billion debt by
half, but the debt to the clubs has increased to $36 million owing to
outstanding interest rates, Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 3 October. -- Jakub
Karpinski and Dagmar Mroziewicz, OMRI, Inc.

Minister Jan Ruml on 2 October recalled the ministry's chief internal
investigator for allegedly leaking secret information, Czech media reported.
Vladimir Nechanicky, his deputy, and four other members of the ministry's
Inspectorate were suspended on half-pay pending an inquiry. They are accused
of revealing data incriminating Ruml's deputy and senior police officials in
alleged criminal actions in connection with a raid last May on a Prague
restaurant known to be a meeting place for foreign organized criminal gangs.
Following a tip-off that a Russian mafia boss was to be murdered there,
police raided the restaurant and detained around 200 people. None was
charged with a crime, but the restaurant's Ukrainian owner was later
expelled from the Czech Republic. Ruml said the information leaks
jeopardized the fight against Russian-speaking mafiosi operating in the
Czech Republic. -- Steve Kettle, OMRI, Inc.

Czech Republic have secured the authorities' promise to help more Roma
become policemen by allowing them to enter without a secondary school
diploma, although they will have to finish it while on the job, CTK reported
on 2 October. The action, intended to balance educational disadvantages, was
announced after a meeting between Romani representatives and members of the
government Committee for Nationalities, which was also attended by Premier
Vaclav Klaus. Igor Nemec, chairman of the committee, noted that Romani
police could deal with cases concerning Roma better than "ordinary
employees." -- Alaina Lemon, OMRI, Inc.

SLOVAK PRESIDENT'S SON FREED ON BAIL. Michal Kovac Jr., who was arrested in
late August after being abducted from Slovakia and dumped in Austria, was
freed from prison on bail totaling 1 million schillings ($108,000),
international media reported on 2 October. Austrian police were acting on an
international arrest warrant issued by a Munich prosecutor who charged Kovac
Jr. with suspected fraud. Kovac Jr. is not permitted to leave Austria until
officials decide whether to extradite him to Germany. The case of abduction
currently remains unresolved, although Slovak police have found evidence
suggesting the Slovak Information Service (SIS) was involved. This find has
caused further tension and polarization of Slovakia's political scene. --
Sharon Fisher, OMRI, Inc.

Democratic Movement (KDH) Deputy Chairman Ivan Simko on 2 October announced
that all opposition parties have agreed on the need to call an extraordinary
parliament session. Only 30 signatures are required for such a move. The
session is expected to address the conflict between the SIS and the police
in connection with the Kovac Jr. case. Interior Minister Ludovit Hudek, SIS
director Ivan Lexa, and Attorney General Michal Valo will be expected to
address the parliament. The opposition will also demand representation on
the parliamentary organ overseeing the SIS, Narodna obroda reported.
Augustin Marian Huska of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia told
Slovak Radio that the KDH is attempting to "show its muscles more than its
share in the parliament allows," but he stressed that "the parliamentary
majority is unwilling to give any space to KDH representatives." -- Sharon
Fisher, OMRI, Inc.

Hungary new loan guarantees worth up to 1 billion German marks ($710
million) to help finance the country's reform process, Hungarian newspapers
reported the next day. The agreement was signed by Hungarian Prime Minister
Gyula Horn and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl in Bonn, where Kohl reaffirmed
his pledge to help Hungary gain membership in the EU and supported Hungary's
restructuring and modernization plans. The credit agreement, granted to
Hungary under very favorable conditions, is aimed at financing projects in
transportation, environmental protection, and energy distribution and
helping the Hungarian economy prepare for European integration. -- Zsofia
Szilagyi, OMRI, Inc.


Gligorov failed on 3 October, AFP reported, citing Macedonian TV. A car bomb
exploded in central Skopje at 9:30 a.m. local time as Gligorov's car drove
by. The president's driver was killed and his security officer and several
other people injured. Gligorov has been admitted to the hospital, where he
is "under medical care." According to Macedonian TV, his life is "not
threatened," but there are contradictory reports about the extent of his
injuries. Two persons have been arrested in connection with the blast.
According to MIC, they were driving a car registered in the Macedonian town
of Titov Veles. All frontier checkpoints have been put on alert. So far, no
one has claimed responsibility for the explosion. -- Stefan Krause, OMRI,

GLIGOROV IN BELGRADE. The previous day, Gligorov had met with his Serbian
counterpart, Slobodan Milosevic, in Belgrade on 2 October, Vecher and Nova
Makedonija reported. Milosevic said he favored "full normalization" of
relations between Macedonia and Greece and between Macedonia and the rump
Yugoslavia "as soon as possible," saying it is "crucial for political
stability in the Balkans." Gligorov called Belgrade and Skopje's mutual
recognition and the establishment of diplomatic relations "essential." He
added that an agreement might be reached in November if a peace accord for
Bosnia-Herzegovina has been reached by then. It was Gligorov's first visit
to Belgrade since Macedonia declared independence in 1991 and the first
meeting between the two presidents since 1993. -- Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc.

ministers on 2 October backed a French-German initiative for Bosnian
post-war reconstruction, international agencies reported. The EU Commission
is to finalize the details of a plan to rebuild Bosnia by 30 October. This
move reflects growing optimism that U.S. Assistant Secretary of State
Richard Holbrooke's peace initiatives will succeed. It also reveals the EU's
willingness to take the lead on economic reconstruction once peace is
achieved. The EU plan will provide help for refugees, for the reconstruction
of towns destroyed by war, and for the building of economic and
institutional relations between the countries of the former Yugoslavia and
the EU. The EU has said it is willing to foot a third of the bill for
post-war reconstruction, which has been estimated at $4 billion. -- Michael
Mihalka, OMRI, Inc.

October said that one of its reporters has completed interviews with
witnesses of alleged Serbian massacres in July of Muslim males of military
age. He told Monitor Radio that the people agreed on even minor details and
provided information that only someone who had actually seen the site of the
murders could have known. The reporter said some 2,000 men were
machine-gunned and dumped into a mass grave. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

BOSNIAN SERBS ON COUNTEROFFENSIVE. Beta reported on 2 October that Bosnian
Serb forces are on the move against Bosanska Krupa and Kljuc. International
media said the Bosnian Serbs around Sarajevo released the armored car
carrying the Slovenian ambassador, which they had earlier fired on when it
strayed into their territory by mistake. U.S. negotiator Richard Holbrooke
broke off his marathon cease-fire talks after a session in Sarajevo ended
"inconclusively." The Bosnian government and the Serbs cannot even agree as
to what such a truce would entail. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

Gunness told Reuters on 2 October that the UN is looking into the probable
murder of 12 elderly Serbian civilians in Varivode in Krajina on 28
September. He added that the Croatian authorities for the first time have
acknowledged that a mass killing took place. Serbian civilians said armed
men in military dress had previously looted and torched only abandoned
property but that they were now robbing elderly Serbs in their houses and
killing livestock if the Serbs had no money. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

and Democratic Party of Serbia, together with the extraparliamentary Serbian
Liberal Party and United People's Party, have signed a joint political
declaration, Nasa Borba reported on 2 October. To "save the people and the
homeland," they propose replacing the "communist regime" with a democratic
one and the unification of all "Serbian lands and people." It is unclear if
this means the opposition is uniting for the first time since 1990 or if
this is just an attempt to show the opposition is still alive. In another
development, the Hague-based International War Crimes Tribunal for the
Former Yugoslavia has asked Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic to deliver
up indicted war criminals Radovan Karadzic and General Ratko Mladic, Novi
list reported on 2 October. -- Daria Sito Sucic, OMRI, Inc.

Romanian government's mass privatization program officially started on 2
October, Romanian media reported. Romanians are expected to trade nominal
coupons, as well as vouchers received in 1991, for shares in a company by 31
December. They can also opt to entrust their coupons by 31 March 1996 to one
of the six Private Property Funds, which will act as mutual funds after that
deadline. The exchange of coupons and vouchers for shares will be brokered
by some 1,000 centers. -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI, Inc.

MOLDOVA SIGNS INTERIM TRADE DEAL WITH EU. European Union foreign ministers
on 2 October signed in Luxembourg an interim trade agreement with the
Republic of Moldova, Reuters reported. The deal includes the economic
aspects of a broader EU-Moldova agreement signed in November 1994 but not
yet ratified. The broader agreement, which paves the way for strengthened
diplomatic, political, and economic ties between the EU and the former
Soviet republic, is similar to agreements concluded by the EU with Russia
and Ukraine. The interim accord focuses on trade and other economic issues.
It provides for tariff cuts and extra aid to be put into effect before the
broader framework for closer relations is implemented. -- Matyas Szabo,
OMRI, Inc.

Solonari, chairman of the Moldovan parliamentary Human Rights and Minorities
Committee, told Infotag on 2 October that deputies of the Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly have expressed concern over President Mircea Snegur's
plans to turn Moldova into a "presidential republic." Snegur last week
accused parliamentary leaders of tarnishing his image in a message addressed
to Miguel Angel Martinez, chairman of the CE Parliamentary Assembly,
suggesting that Snegur was seeking to establish dictatorship in Moldova.
Parliamentary chairman Petru Lucinschi responded that the letter to Martinez
was a brief, purely factual overview of the political situation in Moldova.
-- Dan Ionescu, OMRI, Inc.

HOLBROOKE IN SOFIA. U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Richard Holbrooke
visited Sofia on 1-2 October to brief Bulgarian politicians on the peace
process in Bosnia and to discuss U.S.-Bulgarian relations, RFE/RL and
Bulgarian newspapers reported. He met with President Zhelyu Zhelev, Prime
Minister Zhan Videnov, and Foreign Minister Georgi Pirinski. Holbrooke said
Bulgaria has made significant sacrifices in enforcing sanctions against rump
Yugoslavia and that the U.S. will bear in mind any sacrifices by so-called
front-line states when it comes to post-war reconstruction programs. He
added that Bulgaria "will play an important role in reconstructing the
Balkan region after [the end of] the Yugoslav conflict." On Bulgaria's
possible NATO membership, Holbrooke said the country must "decide what it
wishes to do in terms of its future orientation in Europe." -- Stefan
Krause, OMRI, Inc.

GREEK-TURKISH UPDATE. Vessels from Greece and Turkey took part in a military
exercise in the Aegean Sea for the first time since 1974, AFP reported on 2
October. Greek government spokesman Tylemachos Hytiris said a Greek, a
Turkish, a Dutch, and a U.S. warship took part in a "technical exercise"
organized on the sidelines of NATO's Partnership for Peace maneuvers in the
Black Sea. Greece had previously boycotted NATO exercises in the Aegean Sea
in protest at the Turkish occupation of northern Cyprus in 1974 and because
of disputes over the delineation of territorial waters in the Aegean Sea
between Athens and Ankara. Hytiris also announced that Greece is sending a
relief team to southeastern Turkey, where at least 71 people were killed by
an earthquake on 1 October. -- Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc.

[As of 12:00 CET]

Compiled by Jan Cleave

The OMRI Daily Digest offers the latest news from the former Soviet
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            Copyright (C) 1995 Open Media Research Institute, Inc.
                             All rights reserved. ISSN 1211-1570

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