The sum of human wisdom is not contained in any one language, and no single language is capable of expressing all forms and degrees of human comprehension. - Ezra Pound

No. 189, Part II, 28 September 1995

This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest.
Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and
Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central
Asia, and the CIS, is distributed simultaneously as a second document.
Back issues of the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are
available through OMRI's WWW pages:


CZECH PARLIAMENT CREATES SENATE. The lower chamber of the Czech
parliament on 27 September approved the establishment of the
legislature's upper chamber, Czech media reported. The creation of the
Senate was provided for in the Czech Constitution, which went into
effect on 1 January 1993 when the independent Czech Republic was
established. Since then, the lower chamber has rejected three draft laws
that would have established the Senate. It substituted for the upper
chamber in its absence and could not be dissolved; furthermore, new
elections could not have been called in case of a political crisis.
Under the new electoral law, Senate elections will take place in 81
electoral districts in a two-round majority system. Candidates must be
over 40 years old. They can be nominated by a political party or must
gather at least 1,000 signatures. At the outset, one-third of the
senators will be elected for two years, one-third for four years, and
one- third for six years. -- Jiri Pehe

CZECH LUSTRATION LAW EXTENDED. The Czech parliament on 27 September
extended for another four years the screening law that bans former
secret police agents and collaborators as well as high communist
officials from holding government office, Czech media reported. The
lustration law, which was adopted in 1991 and was to expire at the end
of 1996, affected some 140,000 people when it was adopted by the former
Czechoslovak Federal Assembly. Hundreds of people protested that they
were registered as police collaborators without reason and have sued the
Ministry of Internal Affairs. Most won their cases due to lack of
evidence. -- Jiri Pehe

CZECH-RUSSIAN TREATY RATIFIED. The Czech parliament on 27 September
approved a friendship treaty with Russia that replaces a Soviet-era
treaty signed in 1970, Czech media reported. The treaty, signed by
Presidents Vaclav Havel and Boris Yeltsin in 1993, denounces the 1968
Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia and calls for mutually
advantageous economic relations and respect for sovereignty and
territorial integrity. The Russian parliament ratified the treaty in
July 1994. Jiri Payne, chairman of the Czech parliament's Foreign
Relations Committee, told journalists on 27 September that "Russia is
not our enemy at the current time" and that the treaty should not pose a
threat to the Czech Republic's desire for early NATO membership. -- Jiri

Bolychevtsev, an adviser to Ukraine's Foreign Ministry Administration
for Arms Control, has said that Ukraine will fulfill on time all its
commitments specified in the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty, Holos
Ukrainy reported on 26 September. His statement contradicts a recent
Interfax report stating that Ukraine, together with other CIS countries,
will not meet the deadline for meeting the requirements (see OMRI Daily
Digest, 13 September 1995). Bolychevtsev said that the 1992 Tashkent
Accord specified that Ukraine had to cut additional equipment belonging
to the Black Sea Fleet Shore Defense Forces and Marines. Because the
Black Sea Fleet dispute between Russia and Ukraine remains unresolved,
"Ukraine is unable to resolve the question of additional cuts," he
noted. -- Michael Mihalka

Minister Yurii Kostenko told a news conference on 27 September that G-7
experts have rejected a Ukrainian proposal to build a gas-fired power
plant to replace Chornobyl and offered instead their own plan for
shutting the nuclear station by 2000, Interfax-Ukraine and Reuters
reported the same day. Kostenko said that the experts believed the
construction of a single thermal power-generating station was
insufficient. According to him, they proposed a more cost efficient and
"comprehensive solution" to Ukraine's energy problems, including adding
new units to Ukraine's four other nuclear plants, renovating existing
thermal plants and increasing the productivity of hydroelectric stations
for an estimated total cost of $1.44 billion. -- Chrystyna Lapychak

LATVIA'S BANKING CRISIS SUBSIDES. Bank of Latvia Governor Einars Repse
told the international conference "Banks and Finances in the Baltic
States" on 27 September that Latvia's banking system was showing signs
of recovery, BNS reported. He noted that although since January the
number of operating banks declined from 55 to 39 (with 10 being declared
insolvent), the stability of the lats was preserved by his bank's sale
of 18.5% of its currency reserves. He said the crisis was caused by the
fact that the banking system had developed more rapidly than other
spheres of the economy. -- Saulius Girnius

adviser on foreign affairs Justas Paleckis has decided to give up the
Seimas seat he gained earlier in the month when Social Democrat Audrius
Rudys resigned, BNS reported on 27 September. Paleckis said that a major
reason for his decision was that the Social Democratic Party had
demanded that he specify those presidential measures he considers
incorrect and evaluate the foreign policy of the ruling Lithuanian
Democratic Labor Party as a precondition for working in its faction. --
Saulius Girnius

of Ministers has adopted a resolution to sign an agreement with Russia
on helping to fund measures to strengthen control of the borders between
Belarus and the republics of Lithuania and Latvia, Belarusian Radio
reported on 26 September. The chief of the Main Directorate of Border
Troops was authorized to sign the agreement. -- Saulius Girnius

commission drafting the new Polish constitution on 27 September decided
that if the Constitutional Tribunal rules that a law violates the
constitution, that legislation will be rendered null and void. Under
current "constitutional provisions," the Sejm can overrule the
tribunal's verdicts by a two-thirds majority. Meanwhile, Stanislaw
Ciosek, the Polish ambassador to Russia, has been recalled, Gazeta
Wyborcza reported on 28 September. But Rzeczpospolita stresses that
information on his recall is "unofficial." -- Jakub Karpinski

POLISH PREMIER IN SPAIN. Jozef Oleksy, during a three-day visit to
Spain, was received on 27 September by Spanish Prime Minister Felipe
Gonzalez. Gonzalez said that Spain will be backing Poland's aspirations
to join the European Union by 2000 but that it fears the expansion of EU
membership will reduce subsides for the poorer Mediterranean member
states. Oleksy encouraged Gonzalez to increase Spanish investment in
Poland, noting that he would like to see the volume of trade between
Poland and Spain amount to $1 billion in 1997 (at present it totals $700
million), Polish dailies reported on 28 September. -- Dagmar Mroziewicz

SHALIKASHVILI VISITS SLOVAKIA. Gen. John Shalikashvili, chairman of the
U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, said on 27 September that he is "absolutely
satisfied" with the level of cooperation between the Slovak and U.S.
armies and with Slovakia's participation in the NATO Partnership for
Peace program, Sme reported. At a joint press conference with his Slovak
counterpart, Jozef Tuchyna, Shalikashvili stressed that NATO is not yet
in a position to say which countries will join NATO and when. In
contrast to U.S. Defense Minister William Perry, who in a recent visit
to Slovakia emphasized that Slovakia needs to strengthen democracy
before it can join NATO, Shalikashvili avoided discussion of the
country's political situation. During the visit, he held talks with
Slovakia's president, prime minister, and defense minister. -- Sharon

coalition partners still have not reached agreement over the issue of
cabinet reform, Magyar Hirlap reported on 28 September. The two parties,
fiercely criticized by the opposition for openly discussing their
"internal" disputes, previously agreed to settle any disagreement by 26
September. Socialist leader and Premier Gyula Horn and Gabor Kuncze,
Horn's deputy coalition leader from the Alliance of Free Democrats, said
at a press conference on 27 September that the failure to reach an
agreement does not mean the dissolution of the coalition, since the
original coalition agreement is still in force. Socialist deputy Imre
Szekeres recommended that if the coalition stays together, its internal
differences be patched over until next year so that the government can
focus on the 1996 budget proposal and draft tax legislation still to be
presented to the parliament. -- Zsofia Szilagyi


MIXED REACTIONS TO BOSNIAN AGREEMENT. Nasa Borba on 28 September cited
U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher as calling the accord of two
days earlier a "psychological step toward peace." Tanjug quoted Serbian
President Slobodan Milosevic and EU mediator Thorvald Stoltenberg as
dubbing it "a major step toward establishing a final peace." The
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung cited Bosnian Serb leader Radovan
Karadzic as saying that the pact firmly establishes his Republika
Srpska. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, however, stressed that the
agreement keeps Bosnia as a single state. Hina reported that Bosnian
Croat leader Kresimir Zubak argued that "the signed document is so vague
that it has no clear provisions" for the future constitutional order.
The Frankfurt daily quoted the Bosnian foreign minister as saying that
free elections can take place only after Karadzic and Bosnian Serb
General Ratko Mladic are sent to The Hague to be tried for war crimes.
Bosnian army commander General Rasim Delic warned against "euphoria."
Deutsche Welle on 27 September noted that the agreement is imprecise,
sounds too much like earlier failed Yugoslav models, does not include a
ceasefire, and involves making deals with indicted war criminals. --
Patrick Moore

BELGRADE CALLS FOR A CEASEFIRE . . . Rump Yugoslav Foreign Minister
Milan Milutinovic has urged an end to fighting across Bosnia within a
few days, international media reported on 28 September. U.S. negotiator
Richard Holbrooke is continuing his shuttle diplomacy with that end in
mind, but AFP on 27 September cited complaints from the French and
Italian foreign ministers about Holbrooke's alleged one-man show that
ignores Washington's European allies. Bosnian President Alija
Izetbegovic said earlier that a ceasefire must involve the
demilitarization of Banja Luka, an end to the "ethnic cleansing" there,
the effective lifting of the siege of Sarajevo, road access to Kiseljak
and Gorazde, and a large foreign troop presence to implement any peace
agreement. The International Herald Tribune on 28 September reported
that Bosnian Serbs fired rockets with cluster bombs at Zenica two days
earlier and at Travnik the previous day. Bosnian Prime Minister Haris
Silajdzic said that "this is an indication that the Serb terrorists are
looking for a way to stop the negotiating process." Some other observers
have suggested, however, that the Serbs have the most to gain by an end
to the fighting. -- Patrick Moore

Tanjug reported that rump Yugoslav President Zoran Lilic on 26 September
received a high level delegation from the Russian Federation, headed by
State Duma speaker Ivan Rybkin. Lilic thanked Russia for its backing of
Belgrade's "peace efforts" and for sending humanitarian aid. But while
stressing rump Yugoslavia's alleged commitment to the peace process, he
also observed that an end to the Balkan crisis was not necessarily in
the offing. "What we do not want is to have our patience tested to the
limit. . . . It is critical to concentrate our efforts on trying to stop
the fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina . . . [otherwise] it is certain that
the war will spill over its existing borders." -- Stan Markotich

Hague-based International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
has made further charges against Dusko Tadic following the recent
discovery of mass graves in northwestern Bosnia, Nasa Borba reported on
27 September. Tadic is a Bosnian Serb who is the only accused war
criminal in the Bosnian conflict to have been delivered to the Hague.
One of the tribunal's investigators went to the field near Kljuc to see
a mass grave where the bodies of 540 people were at first reported to
have been found. But Oslobodjenje on 27 September noted that about 2,000
bodies were eventually located. The new accusations charge Tadic with
"war crimes committed between May and December 1992 in the concentration
camps Omarska, Keraterm, and Trnopolje" as well as crimes connected with
the "expulsion of Muslims from the Prijedor area." -- Daria Sito Sucic

CROATIA ARRESTS 395 FOR KRAJINA CRIMES. Croatian authorities have
arrested 260 civilians, 70 police, and 65 soldiers in connection with
the looting and torching of abandoned Serbian property since the
collapse of Krajina in early August. UN spokesman Chris Gunness told
news agencies on 27 September that he is still waiting for Zagreb to
investigate the alleged murder of Serbian civilians by Croatian troops
and to control continuing looting and torching. The Croatian authorities
argue that their army is tied up in Bosnia and cannot effectively patrol
all of Krajina. Novi list on 28 September reported that some abandoned
Krajina Serbian homes are being given to Croatian refugees and displaced
persons from the Banja Luka area. In Jajce, however, Croatian
authorities have told Croats not to take homes belonging to local
Muslims. -- Patrick Moore

September reported that an additional 20 ethnic Albanian students from
Montenegro will be enrolled this year at Albanian universities. To date,
only 30 or so Albanians from Montenegro have been studying in Albania.
-- Stan Markotich

Europe's Parliamentary Assembly on 27 September approved Macedonia's
request for membership, AFP reported the same day. CE officials said the
Committee of Ministers will formally approve the admission on 15
October; and Macedonia will officially join, together with Ukraine, on 9
November under the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Macedonia will have three seats in the assembly. Macedonia's admission
to the organization is the first concrete result of the recently signed
Greek-Macedonian accord, whereby Athens agreed not to object to
Macedonian membership in international organizations of which it is a
member. -- Stefan Krause

NEW POLITICAL ALLIANCE IN ROMANIA. The opposition Democratic Party-
National Salvation Front and the Social Democratic Party of Romania on
27 September signed an accord on forming a political alliance, Romanian
media announced the same day. Called the Social Democratic Union, the
new alliance plans to run on joint lists in the 1996 parliamentary
elections and in many electoral districts in local elections due to be
held in early 1996. -- Michael Shafir

Deputies on 27 September voted to impose sentences of 25 years to life
for drug trafficking. The relevant provisions are to be included in the
new Penal Code under review by the chamber. Romanian media and
international agencies reported that the legislation also provides for
jail terms of up to 15 years for the production and use of narcotics. --
Michael Shafir

addressing the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly in Strasbourg
on 26 September, said that Moldova wants to settle the conflict in the
Transdniester region by peaceful political means, Infotag reported. He
called on the Council of Europe to organize an international conference
on separatism in Chisinau. In Snegur's opinion, finding a resolution to
the conflict is being hampered by "Tiraspol's reluctance to agree on a
compromise and by external factors, including backing by some interested
forces in the Russian State Duma." Snegur also noted the Moldovan
Constitution "prohibits the country's participation in any military
blocs and deployment of foreign military bases on the national
territory." He stressed that Moldova may participate only in programs of
cooperation and training, such as NATO's Partnership for Peace program.
-- Matyas Szabo

Petrencu, leader of the Moldovan student strike committee, told BASA-
press on 27 September that the committee is demanding that the
parliament and the president dismiss the cabinet. If they fail to do so,
Petrencu said, the students' demonstrations will resume on 18 October.
He added that the decision was prompted by the present economic plight
of the population and the authorities' indifference toward it.
Presidential adviser Tudor Colesnic, who heads the commission for
dealing with the strikers' economic grievances, said that for the time
being, "there are no grounds" to change the government. -- Michael

reacted angrily to the European Union's decision to include the country
on a list of nations deemed to pose a security or immigration threat,
Reuters reported on 27 September. Of the six former communist countries
with associate membership in the EU, only Bulgaria and Romania are
included on the list of countries for which tough visa requirements will
be required. Foreign Ministry spokesman Radko Vlaykov called the
decision "groundless and totally unacceptable" because it puts Bulgaria
"in a discriminative position compared to other East European
countries." Justice Minister Mladen Chervenyakov said Bulgaria's
inclusion on the list contradicted its associate EU membership. Foreign
Ministry officials said they hope to get Bulgaria removed from the list
before it becomes effective in six months. -- Stefan Krause

[As of 12:00 CET]

Compiled by Jan Cleave

The OMRI Daily Digest offers the latest news from the former Soviet
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            Copyright (C) 1995 Open Media Research Institute, Inc.
                             All rights reserved. ISSN 1211-1570

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