...пора перестать ждать неожиданных подарков от жизни, а самому делать жизнь. - Л. Н. Толстой

No. 143, Part II, 25 July 1995

This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest.
Part II is a compilation of news concerning East-Central and
Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central
Asia, and the CIS, is distributed simultaneously as a second document.
Back issues of the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are
available through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/OMRI.html


POLISH ECONOMIC GROWTH QUICKENS . . . The Polish economy grew faster in
the first half of this year than in the past three years, thanks to
booming exports and investment spending, according to the Main
Statistical Office (GUS). First-half industrial production rose by 13%,
and 55.8% of firms are now making profits, up from less than half one
year ago. Exports were up by 18.4% and imports by 19.3% in constant
prices. GUS set the first-half trade deficit at $1.2 billion, but IMF
officials told Rzeczpospolita on 24 July that unrecorded cross-border
purchases (estimated at $3 billion so far this year) mean that Poland
has a sizable trade surplus. -- Louisa Vinton, OMRI, Inc.

. . . WHILE POLISH FAMILIES IN TROUBLE. One in five Polish families
lives below the poverty line, according to a report by the government's
plenipotentiary for women summarized in Rzeczpospolita on 25 July. Only
55% of Polish families are able to cover their expenses from wages
alone, down from 68% in 1989. The proportion of single-parent families
rose from 21% in 1989 to 38% last year, largely because of alarmingly
high mortality rates among middle-aged men. Ten percent of Polish
children do not get enough to eat, and nearly half have health problems.
The report apparently did not take into account the substantial benefits
accruing to some families from the extensive semi-legal "gray economy."
-- Louisa Vinton, OMRI, Inc.

UKRAINE TO CONDUCT CENSUS IN 1999. Ukrainian Radio reported on 24 July
that the Ukrainian government has ordered a national census to be
conducted in 1999, the first since independence. The last census was
conducted in 1989 as part of an all-union census in the USSR. --
Chrystyna Lapychak, OMRI, Inc.

FOREIGN VISITORS IN UKRAINE. A military delegation from Moldova headed
by Defense Minister Pavel Creanga arrived in Kiev on 24 July, Ukrainian
Television reported. Creanga discussed military cooperation in a number
of areas with his Ukrainian counterpart, Valerii Shmarov. He is also
scheduled to meet with Ukrainian Prime Minister Yevhen Marchuk. In other
news, a delegation from the permanent Committee for the All-Chinese
Assembly of National Representatives ended a five-day visit. The
delegation met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma to discuss
increasing cooperation. -- Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc.

MOSCOW PATRIARCH IN BELARUS. Aleksii II, patriarch of Moscow and all
Russia, arrived in Minsk on 22 July for a two-day visit, Belarusian and
Russian Public Television reported. During the visit, Belarusian
President Alyaksandr Lukashenka said that Orthodoxy united the Russian,
Belarusian, and Ukrainian peoples. He added that divisions and
separatism within the Orthodox Church such as witnessed recently in
Ukraine should not be allowed. The Belarusian Metropolitan of Minsk and
Slutsk said there is no conflict between members of the Orthodox Church
and Catholics in Belarus, unlike in Ukraine. Lukashenka presented the
patriarch with the medal of Francis Skarinyn. -- Ustina Markus, OMRI,

PRIVATIZATION PLANS IN BELARUS. Belarusian Television on 23 July
reported that more than 1,000 collective enterprises will be privatized
this year in Belarus. Most will be agrarian complexes, shops, services,
and enterprises dealing with foodstuffs. Some 35,000 people are employed
at the enterprises, which are valued at some 5 trillion Belarusian
rubles ($430 million). -- Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc.

CRIME IN BALTIC STATES. In the first half of 1995, Estonia registered
126 crimes per 10,000 population, considerably higher than Lithuania
(82) and Latvia (72), BNS reported on 21 July. Crime in Lithuania was up
16.7% on the same period in 1994, primarily owing to a 22.8% increase in
theft. In Latvia, the number of registered crimes decreased by 11.6%,
with murders declining by 16.9% and robberies by 27.6%. But the number
of fraud cases in Latvia grew by 33.8% and pickpocketing by 54.9%. --
Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc.

Citizenship and Immigration Department head Ints Citars on 24 July said
that his office will probably begin issuing stateless persons'
certificates this week, BNS reported. The certificates will serve as an
identity and travel document for permanent residents of Latvia who were
former Soviet citizens but have not acquired another citizenship. The
failure of the Latvian foreign and interior ministries to coordinate
instructions on filling out and distributing the certificates delayed
their issuance from the original 20 July target date. -- Saulius
Girnius, OMRI, Inc.

Ceslovas Jursenas, accompanied by a 10-member delegation, traveled to
Moscow on 24 July for a three-day official visit, BNS reported. He
discussed with Russian Federation Council Chairman Vladimir Shumeiko the
Russian-Chechen peace talks, Russian transit through Lithuania, and a
possible Russian-Lithuanian-Polish meeting in October on cooperation in
border regions. Jursenas is to meet with State Duma Chairman Ivan
Rybkin, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov, and
other officials. Topics of discussion will include the upcoming Russian
parliament elections, Moscow's position on NATO expansion, and economic
questions such as the implementation of the most-favored-nation trade
agreement between the two countries. -- Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc.

Vilem Holan on 24 July denied reports that his ministry has decided to
modernize 24 MiG-21 jets (see OMRI Daily Digest, 24 July 1995), Rude
pravo reported the next day. The daily said Holan told journalists that
the only decision taken so far is for two jets to be upgraded by next
year, one as a fighter and the other for training. Further steps will be
taken only after this project has been evaluated. Members of the
parliament's Defense and Security Committee told Mlada fronta dnes that
the option of buying American F-16 fighters, though expensive, has not
been ruled out. One committee member said that if the modernization of
the 24 MiGs goes ahead despite their opposition, the parliament could
reduce the Defense Ministry's budget next year. -- Steve Kettle, OMRI,

CZECH-ROMANIAN MILITARY ACCORD. Romanian Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca
signed an agreement on military cooperation with his Czech counterpart,
Vilem Holan, in Prague on 24 July. CTK reported that Tinca told a press
conference the agreement covered virtually all spheres of cooperation,
including technology, military training, and the exchange of observers
during exercises. -- Doug Clarke, OMRI, Inc.

sharp criticism for personnel changes and plans to implement
"alternative" (bilingual) education in schools for the Hungarian
minority, visited Budapest on 24 July to meet with her Hungarian
counterpart, Gabor Fodor. Discussions focused on minority education in
both countries as well as general educational concerns, TASR and Pravda
reported. Following the meeting, Slavkovska said a 1994 poll conducted
to determine interest in the alternative education program revealed that
21% of parents agreed with it. She criticized the politicization of the
issue, noting that the percentage agreeing with the program will
certainly decrease this year. Even so, Slavkovska said, the program will
not be canceled, as it is anchored in the cabinet's program. Stressing
that the program will be implemented on a voluntary basis, she said that
if a sufficient number of students want to enroll in an alternative
school, the ministry will allot the necessary funding. According to
Slavkovska, approximately 30 alternative kindergartens will be
established this year. -- Sharon Fisher, OMRI, Inc.

SLOVAK SKINHEADS ATTACK ROMA. Some 30 skinheads attacked several young
Romani men in the central Slovak town of Ziar nad Hronom on 21 July, the
Internal Ministry told TASR three days later. One youth who was set
afire sustained second- and third-degree burns and was hospitalized in
serious condition. Eight of the skinheads were arrested, and four
charged with causing grievous bodily harm. Reuters on 24 July quoted a
human rights activist as saying this was one of the most serious attacks
on Roma in years: "We've heard of attacks with weapons but never
immolation." -- Alaina Lemon, OMRI, Inc.

Gonzales, following a meeting in Madrid on 24 July with Hungarian
Premier Gyula Horn, told journalists that Spain will support the
European Union's eastward expansion. International media report Gonzales
as saying he will suggest to fellow EU prime ministers that East
European leaders be invited to the next EU summit in Madrid in December.
According to Gonzales, Spain "will never be an obstacle" to Hungary's
entry into the EU. Spain assumed the EU's six-month rotating presidency
on 1 July. Horn told the same press conference that EU membership is
"vital for Hungary." Gonzales's meeting with Horn was the second in a
series of talks scheduled with leaders of former communist countries. --
Jiri Pehe, OMRI, Inc.


HAS ZEPA FALLEN? International media on 25 July said that the Bosnian
government in Sarajevo has denied UN accounts that Zepa has in effect
surrendered. Bosnian authorities in the embattled "safe area" reportedly
made an agreement with the Serbs on the evacuation of women, children,
the sick, and the elderly. It is unclear what this would mean for
military-aged men, who appeared to prefer to die fighting rather than
face a massacre like the one that followed the Serbian conquest of
Srebrenica. UN special envoy Tadeusz Mazowiecki said on 24 July that the
Serbs had committed "barbaric acts" against the Muslims in that eastern
Bosnian town. "What happened cannot be described as [moderate]
violations of human rights but as extremely serious violations on an
enormous scale," he concluded. UN spokesman Chris Gunness added that the
Serbs' "actions are an affront to the values of all civilized people."
-- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

SERBS CLOSE IN ON BIHAC. The four-way assault by Krajina Serb, Bosnian
Serb, and rebel Muslim forces on the Bihac pocket continues. AFP on 25
July reported that Krajina units have reached the fringes of the "safe
area" itself, and Reuters wrote the previous day that the Serbs appear
to be trying to split the pocket in two and then mop up the separate
halves. A UN spokesman said that "this coordinated, deliberate attack on
all fronts represents arguably the most considerable military action in
Bosnia for many months." The VOA added that the UN Security Council has
warned the Serbs not to press their attack on Bihac. A French Foreign
Ministry spokesman urged "all parties to show restraint" and said that
the goal was to prevent another Srebrenica. He warned there could be a
"substantial and decisive response" if attacks persist. -- Patrick
Moore, OMRI, Inc.

WHO BOMBED PALE? Meanwhile near Sarajevo, British and French units of
the new Rapid Reaction Force continued to arrive on Mt. Igman on 24
July. It remains uncertain, however, what accounted for the reported
bombings of the Bosnian Serb "capital" on the 23-24 July. Both France
and NATO denied they were responsible, although Liberation on 24 July
ran a detailed account of what it called a mission ordered personally by
President Jacques Chirac. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

Atlantic alliance meeting in Brussels on 24 July failed to agree on a
program for implementing the resolution approved in London on 21 July.
Another session is scheduled for the afternoon of 25 July. The
International Herald Tribune quoted an American official as saying that
"there's no snag. It's just complicated and time-consuming." But the VOA
said there are differences as to what would trigger air strikes, what
would be the targets, and who would order the missions. UN Secretary-
General Boutrous Boutrous Ghali insists that he have the final say, but
this is unacceptable to Washington, which wants the operations
exclusively in NATO hands. The International Herald Tribune on 24 July
quoted a French official as saying that "the object is to diminish the
firepower of the Serbs to a level where the Bosnians can hold their own,
not to raise the firepower of the Bosnians." U.S. Senate Majority Leader
Bob Dole has other ideas, however. The VOA reported that he will soon
call a vote on a unilateral lifting of the arms embargo against the
Bosnian government. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

MILOSEVIC MEETS WITH KOZYREV. BETA on 24 July reported that Russian
Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, allegedly acting on instructions from
Russian President Boris Yeltsin, arrived in Belgrade the same day for
talks with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. Accompanying Kozyrev
were Russian Ambassador to Brussels and former special envoy to the
former Yugoslavia Vitalii Churkin and Contact Group representative
Aleksandr Zotov. The apparent reason for the visit, which followed the
London Conference's threat to use military action against the Bosnian
Serbs if they attacked the Bosnian Muslim enclave of Gorazde, was to
secure Milosevic's help in reining in the Bosnian Serb side. Kozyrev
reiterated Moscow's oft-repeated commitment to a peaceful resolution to
the Bosnian conflict. According to AFP, Milosevic used the opportunity
to condemn international "threats . . . [and] military action" aimed at
the Bosnian Serbs. "The international community must engage in creating
political conditions that are effective and capable of leading to a
stable peace," said Milosevic. AFP reported on 25 July that Kozyrev left
Belgrade saying he was "satisfied" with his visit. -- Stan Markotich,
OMRI, Inc.

Greek Deputy Foreign Minister Ioannis Tzounis said the Greek government
has made a "mistake" by interrupting the Greek-Macedonian talks and
perpetuating the economic embargo against Macedonia. In an interview
with the Greek newspaper To Vima he noted that "the battle over the name
of Greece's northern neighbor is the core of the problem, [which is
endangering] security and peace in the region." To resolve the conflict,
he proposed bilateral treaties on the inviolability of existing borders
between Macedonia, rump Yugoslavia, Greece, Bulgaria and Albania, BETA
reported on 24 July. -- Fabian Schmidt, OMRI, Inc.

promulgated the controversial education law, Romanian media reported.
The law, which has sparked widespread criticism from ethnic minorities
and especially from the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania
(UDMR), was recently denounced as detrimental to minority rights in a
resolution passed by the European Parliament. Iliescu defended the new
law at a press conference, saying he had "no reservations whatsoever"
about signing the bill. "The objections formulated by the UDMR are
groundless," he stressed. Asked about the campaign of civic disobedience
planned by the UDMR, Iliescu said the party was assuming "great
political responsibility." He expressed the hope that "the Hungarian
population will carefully weigh such actions." -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI,

Finance Minister Florin Georgescu, Chairman of the National
Confederation of Romanian Employers George Paunescu, and Pavel Todoran,
chairman of the National Confederation of Romania's Free Trade Unions--
The Brotherhood, signed a social accord at the government's headquarters
on 24 July, Radio Bucharest reported. The accord states that the unions
must refrain from staging or encouraging strikes as a means of meeting
union members' claims. The government, in turn, pledged that the average
net wage would reach 75,000 lei ($38) by 1 September, which means a pay
rise of 20.7% as against current salaries. The National Confederation,
the country's largest labor organization is the only union confederation
to have approved the accord. -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI, Inc.

Bulgarian deputies on 24 July, Bulgarian media reported. Saying that all
rump Yugoslav citizens enjoy equal rights, Savovic dismissed a report by
UN special envoy Tadeusz Mazowiecki on human rights violations in her
country as "not objective." On the situation of the Bulgarian minority
in eastern Serbia, Savovic said Bulgarian is regarded as a mother tongue
by the authorities, but many Bulgarians do not have the desire to learn
it properly. She said the term "Western regions," used in Bulgaria to
describe the territories ceded to Yugoslavia in 1919, is "unacceptable"
and constituted interference in Yugoslav internal affairs. Former Prime
Minister Filip Dimitrov from the opposition Union of Democratic Forces
boycotted the meeting, saying he "will not meet with the minister for
human rights of a state that brutally violates them." -- Stefan Krause,
OMRI, Inc.

of Bulgarian National Television, announced on 23 July he is canceling
two weekly entertainment programs, international media reported the same
day. The two programs are a beauty contest and a game show. Granitski,
who was appointed by the Socialist majority in June, said he will ban
programs "propagating, violence, homosexuality, prostitution, gambling,
and drug addiction" as part of his "struggle for higher professional and
artistic levels of programs and against those [who] oppose national
interests." Prosecutor-General Ivan Tatarchev said he fully supports
Granitski's move because "national interests" require it. A commentator
for the independent weekly 168 chasa called the move "sheer nonsense."
-- Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc.

SLOVENIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN TIRANA. Zoran Thaler visited Albania on 21
July, Gazeta Shqiptare reported the following day. At meetings with
Albanian President Sali Berisha and Prime Minister Aleksander Meksi,
both sides agreed to improve economic and military cooperation. They
also discussed the Bosnian crisis and the Kosovo conflict, reportedly
agreeing that "the aggressor must be punished." In other news, a high-
ranking U.S. diplomatic delegation arrived in Tirana for a two-day visit
on 24 July to discuss bilateral relations and the situation in the
region, Montena-fax reported the same day. -- Fabian Schmidt, OMRI, Inc.

Karolos Papoulias on 24 July said Greece will try to arrange a dialogue
between Bosnia's religious leaders, AFP reported the same day.
Papoulias, who was on two-day visit to Jordan, called such a meeting
"essential to finding a solution." He also said Greece will send
humanitarian aid to "all those suffering" in Bosnia. -- Stefan Krause,
OMRI, Inc.

[As of 12:00 CET]

Compiled by Jan Cleave

The OMRI Daily Digest offers the latest news from the former Soviet
Union and East-Central and Southeastern Europe. It is published Monday
through Friday by the Open Media Research Institute. The OMRI Daily
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OMRI also publishes the biweekly journal Transition, which contains
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            Copyright (C) 1995 Open Media Research Institute, Inc.
                             All rights reserved.

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