|What the sick man likes to eat is his medicine. - Russian Proverb|
No. 71, Part II, 10 April 1995
This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest. Part II is a compilation of news concerning East-Central and Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia, and the CIS, is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are available through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/OMRI.html EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE IMF APPROVES CREDITS TO UKRAINE. The IMF on 7 April voted to approve credits worth $1.96 billion to Ukraine, international agencies reported. The decision follows the Ukrainian parliament's approval the previous day of the state budget, which provides for a deficit amounting to 7.3% of GDP. The IMF credits include a $1.5 billion stand-by credit and $392 million, which is the second installment of a systematic transformation facility, the first part of which was released last fall. Reports say that France had been opposed to releasing the credits. The IMF decision paves the way for other credits, including $500 million, from the Export-Import Bank and $150 million from Japan. -- Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc. UKRAINE AND CHINA SIGN MILITARY COOPERATION AGREEMENT. Ukrainian Defense Minister Valerii Shmarov, during a visit to China on 6 April, signed a military cooperation agreement with his Chinese counterpart Chi Haotian, AFP reported the next day. China is Ukraine's largest trade partner after Russia, with a total turnover of $837 million in 1994. Shmarov also discussed balancing trade between the two countries. Currently, the balance is in Ukraine's favor, which exports 90% of the total turnover and imports only 10%. Most of Ukraine's exports are chemicals and metals. -- Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc. OVER A THIRD OF CRIMEAN DEPUTIES SUPPORT KIEV. Interfax on 7 April reported that 35 of the Crimean parliament's 98 members have written to Kiev supporting Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma's resolutions on Crimea's legislation. Deputies who signed the letter include the Tatars and several independents. The message also criticized the "Russia" alliance in Crimea's parliament for aggravating the situation between Kiev and Simferopol. -- Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc. GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER VISITS BALTIC STATES. Klaus Kinkel, at the end of a two-day tour of the Baltic States, met with Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas, Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius, and Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys in Vilnius on 7 April, Western agencies reported. Kinkel called for the creation of a new European security system that would include the Baltic States. He met the previous day in Tallinn with President Lennart Meri, Prime Minister Tiit Vahi, and Foreign Minister Juri Luik, saying that Bonn will press for the Baltic States to become full members of the European Union as a way of bolstering their security. Kinkel told a press conference that the major obstacle barring visa-free travel between Germany and the Baltic States was the absence of an agreement on readmitting illegal immigrants. He then flew to Riga for meetings with President Guntis Ulmainis, Prime Minister Maris Gailis, and Foreign Minister Valdis Birkavs. -- Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc. REPORT ON "ESTONIA" SINKING. The international commission from Sweden, Finland, and Estonia investigating the sinking of the ferry "Estonia" off the coast of Finland on 28 September has issued a partial report of its conclusions, Western agencies announced on 7 April. According to the report, the ship sank because the locks on its front cargo ramp broke, letting in water. The locks were apparently not strong enough to withstand constant pressure. Foul weather and the ship's speed and course contributed to the disaster, in which some 859 of the estimated 996 people on board perished. German shipbuilder Meyer-Werft disputed the findings. The ramp visor had been "substantially weakened by corrosion, previous mechanical damage, and missing stiffeners." Moreover, the captain had not reacted quickly enough to banging noises in the bow area. -- Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc. FORMER POLISH PRESIDENT INDICTED OVER 1970 SHOOTINGS. The Polish Justice Ministry on 7 April announced that prosecutors have filed an indictment against former President Wojciech Jaruzelski as well as 11 other former senior communist officials over 1970 shootings in the Baltic ports of Gdansk and Gdynia, Reuters reported. Ministry spokesman Andrzej Cubala told PAP that Jaruzelski and the others former officials are charged with acting as "guiding perpetrators" in the shooting by security forces of 44 protesters. Jaruzelski was serving as defense minister at the time of the riots, and he later became prime minister, communist party first secretary, and president. -- Sharon Fisher, OMRI, Inc. CZECH FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS U.S. WON'T ALLOW NATO EXPANSION TO BE VETOED. Josef Zieleniec, after meeting Secretary of State Warren Christopher and other senior officials in Washington on 7 April, said the U.S. will not allow any third party to veto the expansion of NATO, Czech media reported on 10 April. Zieleniec said he had the impression President Bill Clinton will make this clear to Russian President Boris Yeltsin when they meet in Moscow next month. Lidove noviny reports that the U.S. is prepared to tell Russia that the expansion of NATO has already been decided. Zieleniec said the likelihood is growing that the Czech Republic and Poland will precede other countries in being admitted to NATO. But American officials stress that admission to NATO is a "very individual" process, the Czech foreign minister added. -- Steve Kettle, OMRI, Inc. SLOVAK NATIONALISTS PREPARE LAW ON PROTECTION OF REPUBLIC. The Slovak National Party, a member of the governing coalition, on 7 April proposed amendments to provisions of the criminal law on the protection of the republic, Narodna obroda reported the next day. According to its proposals, punishment would be inflicted against anyone involved in undertakings that could endanger the country's constitutional order, territorial integrity, defense capability, or autonomy. The definition of criminal activity would also be expanded to include the dissemination on Slovak territory or abroad of information threatening the security of the republic. SNP Chairman Jan Slota said the SNP also wants to prepare a law on the state language and to reestablish the death penalty. -- Sharon Fisher, OMRI, Inc. SLOVAK PARLIAMENT NEWS. The Slovak parliament on 7 April voted in favor of amendments to the election law and supported the removal of Miroslav Kocnar, a breakaway deputy from the Association of Workers of Slovakia, from his post as chairman of the parliament's Mandate and Immunity Committee. The new chairman is another AWS member, Anton Poliak. Three deputies representing the AWS, including Kocnar, announced they were leaving the party's parliament caucus, Pravda reported on 8 April. The Party of the Democratic Left announced that it viewed these developments with great anxiety, noting that the government is trying to create an authoritarian regime. -- Sharon Fisher, OMRI, Inc. SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE CONTINUED FIGHTING IN NORTHERN-BOSNIA . . . Bosnian radio reported continued intense fighting between government and Bosnian Serb forces on 9-10 April in northern Bosnia around Tuzla and in Bihac. Bosnian government forces say they captured the strategically important Mount Vlasic, including a TV relay station north of Travnik, from the Bosnian Serbs on 9 April. Bosnian commander Mehmet Alagic is quoted as saying that this is one of the government's biggest victories in the war, international agencies reported on 9 and 10 April. He said government troops could now advance into Serb-held territory from several directions. Elsewhere, Hina reported on 9 April that Bosnian Federation Vice President Ejup Ganic has said the Bosnian government will not invite former U.S. President Jimmy Carter to undertake another mediating mission. Ganic is quoted as saying: "There is no need for Mr. Carter to visit Sarajevo again." -- Fabian Schmidt, OMRI, Inc. .. . . AND IN SARAJEVO. Artillery shelling in the Bosnian capital killed at least three people and wounded seven in the night from 9 to 10 April, international agencies reported. Several people had been wounded in mortar attacks on the capital in previous days. The UN blamed Serbian forces for the shelling, which involved large mortars fired from inside a NATO-declared exclusion zone. A UN spokesman said it appears that the Serbs are deliberately targeting civilians. The shelling prompted the UN to ask for a show of force by NATO, which responded by sending planes over Sarajevo. Meanwhile, the city's airport remained closed on 9 April after gunfire from Serb-held territory hit a cargo aircraft as it was landing the previous day. A UN spokesman said the Serbs refused to guarantee the safety of aircraft landing there. -- Fabian Schmidt, OMRI, Inc. SERBS DEMAND CONSTITUENT NATION STATUS IN BOSNIAN FEDERATION. The Assembly of Serbian Citizens of Bosnia-Herzegovina, a organization loyal to the Bosnian government, gathered in Sarajevo on 9 April, Hina reported the same day. The meeting was reportedly attended by members of opposition parties from Serbia proper and by Milorad Pupovac, leader of the Independent Serbian Party of Croatia. The assembly adopted a declaration calling on the Bosnian federal parliament to guarantee the Serbs constituent nation status in the Croat-Muslim federation. It stressed that the government of the self-declared Republika Srpska has no legitimate right to represent all Bosnian Serbs, since 150,000 Serbs live on the territory controlled by the federation and some 500,000 who opposed Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic have been forced to flee their homeland. -- Fabian Schmidt, OMRI, Inc. BELGRADE-BEIJING TIES. Tanjug reported that Chinese Foreign Minister Qian Qichen on 9 April began a three-day official visit to the rump Yugoslavia, where he met with his rump Yugoslav counterpart, Vladislav Jovanovic, and used the opportunity to criticize international sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. Reuters quoted Qian as saying that "We consider that sanctions do not solve anything and that they only further complicate the situation in this area. They must be softened and then fully lifted." But he stopped short of saying that China, the only Security Council member not to have supported the imposition of sanctions, would actively campaign to have sanctions removed. Qian is also expected to meet with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. -- Stan Markotich, OMRI, Inc. ZAGREB ON OPPOSITION TO PEACEKEEPING MANDATE. Vecernji list on 9 April reported that Croatian Foreign Minister Mato Granic has acknowledged that Zagreb may meet with opposition over the implementation of changes in the UN peacekeepers mandate, as delineated in UN Security Council Resolution 981. "We expect that there will be an intense political conflict," Granic said of relations between Zagreb and Croatia's rebel Serb population in the Krajina area. The Krajina Serbs, however, are not alone in registering dissatisfaction. Hina reported on 9 April that Mate Simic, leader of the Croatian Union of Displaced Persons, said his group "could not accept Resolution 981 without exactly defined implementing measures for full control of Croatia's internationally recognized borders." Nasa Borba on 8-9 April reports that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has strongly condemned any plans to station peacekeepers along Croatia's border with Bosnia, noting that such "pressure from the international community" may force the Bosnian and Krajina Serbs to forge a political federation in response. -- Stan Markotich, OMRI, Inc. MACEDONIA WILLING TO SIGN BORDER TREATY WITH GREECE. Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov on 8 April said his country is willing to sign a treaty with Greece on their common border, AFP reported the following day. In a radio address on the occasion of the second anniversary of Macedonia's admission into the UN, Gligorov said his country is willing to solve "irrational conflicts" with Greece and its other neighbors. At the same time, he regretted that the border between Macedonia and rump Yugoslavia is still considered an administrative boundary in UN documents, whereas the borders of the other successor states are internationally recognized. -- Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc. NORTH ATLANTIC ASSEMBLY DELEGATION IN ROMANIA. An NAA delegation met with Romanian President Ion Iliescu on 7 April to discuss Romania's relations with NATO, including plans to hold an NAA session in Bucharest. It also met with Emil Constantinescu, leader of the opposition Democratic Convention of Romania, who said that Romanians in general, and their army in particular, firmly supported the country's integration into NAT0's structures. Radio Bucharest on 9 April reported that the NAA's standing bureau approved holding the assembly's 1997 autumn session in Bucharest. Romania was represented at the meeting by Chamber of Deputies member Ion Ratiu of the National Peasant Party- Christian Democratic. -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI, Inc. ROMANIAN CABINET APPROVES ANTI-TERRORIST BILL. The government on 7 April approved a bill on preventing and combating terrorist acts. Interior Minister Doru Ioan Taracila was quoted by Radio Bucharest as saying that Romania has recently experienced both terrorist attacks and threats, the latter aimed at creating panic among the population. The bill, which provides for life imprisonment for convictions on terrorist charges, is soon to be forwarded to the parliament for emergency debate. Independent media have criticized the bill as an excuse to restore surveillance practices reminiscent of the communist era. -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI, Inc. GREATER ROMANIA PARTY TO QUIT RULING COALITION? PRM Chairman Corneliu Vadim Tudor said at a press conference on 7 April that party leaders will hold an extraordinary meeting in early May to decide whether to withdraw the PRM's support for the current government. He said that until then, his party considered itself free of any obligations toward either the cabinet or the Party of Social Democracy in Romania. Meanwhile, the Democratic Convention of Romania on 7 April launched an appeal to the opposition to unite in order to resist increasing government pressure, Radio Bucharest reported. The CDR, formerly Romania's main opposition alliance, recently lost several member parties. -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI, Inc. DEMONSTRATORS IN CHISINAU DIVIDED OVER FURTHER PROTESTS. Strikers in Chisinau decided on 8 April to suspend their three-week-old protest until 4 May to allow Moldovan President Mircea Snegur to find a solution that would bring an end to the strike, according to Radio Bucharest. The same source later quoted Oleg Cernei, leader of the Moldovan Students' League, as saying that many demonstrators intended to continue their protest action until the authorities offered firm guarantees for a compromise. The demonstrators, mainly students and teaching staff, are demanding that the name of the official language be changed from "Moldovan" to Romanian. In a related development, students in Bucharest rallied on 7 April in support of their colleagues in Chisinau. The rally was organized by youth organizations of the National Peasant Party- Christian Democratic. -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI, Inc. OSCE AS GUARANTOR FOR NO REPEAT OF 1992 CRISIS IN MOLDOVA? Moldovan Foreign Minister Mihai Popov said on 7 April that if the conflict in the Transdniester region were settled, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe might serve as the main guarantor that the 1992 crisis involving separatists would not be repeated. Interfax the same day quoted Popov as saying that an OSCE report has set the main parameters for settling the conflict. He added that he counted on the OSCE to help with the implementation of agreements on the withdrawal of the Russian 14th Army. However, the head of the OSCE permanent mission in Moldova, Phillip Han, said he regretted that Russia has given the "cold shoulder" to the OSCE proposal that it monitor the army's withdrawal. He added that the main goal of the monitoring would be to ensure that Russian and Moldovan arms did not fall into "alien hands." -- Michael Mihalka, OMRI, Inc. BULGARIA'S RADICAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY SPLITS. The RDP's 27th congress on 9 April has effectively led to a split within the party, Bulgarian newspapers reported the following day. A proposal that the RDP leave the opposition Union of Democratic Forces was passed by a vote of 131 to 119. But the legality of the vote is doubtful, as the proposal was not supported by an absolute majority of the 294 registered congress delegates. Those who voted against the proposal, including Party Chairman Aleksandar Yordanov, left the congress and asked for a extraordinary congress to be called within a month to discuss the matter again. Kiril Boyadzhiev was elected party chairman by the remaining delegates. In an interview with Trud, Yordanov said he will form a new RDP that will remain in the UDF. -- Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc. CAPE VERDE HOLDS BULGARIAN CARGO PLANE. A Bulgarian cargo plane carrying 100 tons of weapons was detained in Cape Verde on 9 April, Reuters reported the same day. The arms were discovered when the Air Sofia plane made a stopover. The plane's flight schedule listed Quito in Ecuador as its final destination. In an interview with Trud, Lt.-Gen. Simeon Petkovski, head of the Bulgarian Defense Ministry's economic department, said Bulgaria does not have airplanes that could transport 100 tons of material. He insisted that the Bulgarian army knows nothing about talks or offers to export weapons to South America. -- Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc. HOLBROOKE IN GREECE. U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs Richard Holbrooke on 9 April ended a two-day visit to Athens, AFP reported the same day. Talks with Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou, Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias, and Defense Minister Gerasimos Arsenis focused on Greek-Turkish relations. Papoulias said both sides agreed that progress has to be made on Cyprus in order to improve relations between Athens and Ankara. Holbrooke and Papoulias also discussed Greek relations with Albania and Macedonia. Holbrooke also handed over to Papandreou a letter from U.S. President Bill Clinton on problems in Greek-U.S. relations. -- Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc. [As of 12:00 CET] Compiled by Jan Cleave The OMRI Daily Digest offers the latest news from the former Soviet Union and East-Central and Southeastern Europe. It is published Monday through Friday by the Open Media Research Institute. The Daily Digest is distributed electronically via the OMRI-L list. To subscribe, send "SUBSCRIBE OMRI-L YourFirstName YourLastName" (without the quotation marks and inserting your name where shown) to LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU No subject line or other text should be included. To receive the OMRI Daily Digest by mail or fax, please direct inquiries to OMRI Publications, Na Strzi 63, 140 62 Prague 4, Czech Republic; or electronically to OMRIPUB@OMRI.CZ Tel.: (42-2) 6114 2114; fax: (42-2) 426 396 OMRI also publishes the biweekly journal Transition, which contains expanded analysis of many of the topics in the Daily Digest. For Transition subscription information send an e-mail to TRANSITION@OMRI.CZ
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