Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children's future. And we are all mortal. - John F. Kennedy

No. 23, Part II, 1 February 1995

This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest.  Part
II is a compilation of news concerning East-Central and Southeastern
Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia, and the
CIS, is distributed simultaneously as a second document.

The Daily Digest picks up where the RFE/RL Daily Report, which recently
ceased publication, left off. Contributors include OMRI's 30-member staff
of analysts, plus selected freelance specialists. OMRI is a unique
public-private venture between the Open Society Institute and the U.S.
Board for International Broadcasting.


EU ASSOCIATION AGREEMENTS GO INTO EFFECT.  Association agreements between
the European Union and the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria
go into effect on 1 February, international agencies report. The next step
for those countries is to apply for full EU membership. The Czech
government has not yet decided when to submit its application but plans to
do so sometime next year. Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec told Hospodarske
noviny on 1 February that the question of the precise date for application
is "irrelevant and unimportant." Slovakia plans to submit its application
by 30 June 1995 and hopes to join the organization by the year 2000. Both
the Czech and Slovak agreements replace a preliminary accord drawn up
before the split of Czechoslovakia in December 1992. The Romanian
government, in a statement released on 27 January, said it was working out
a "national strategy" for joining the EU as a full member. The statement
added that Romania planned to apply officially for full membership in the
near future. -- OMRI Staff, OMRI, Inc.

building the fourth and final apartment complex in Ukraine to house
Ukrainian troops returning from Germany, Reuters reports on 31 January. The
Ukrainian housing complexes cost the German government some $500 million
and were part of a larger project worth more than $5 billion to build
housing throughout the former USSR for servicemen returning from Eastern
Europe. German Finance Minister Theo Waigel, who attended the opening
ceremony at the housing complex, said Germany will not abandon Ukraine in
its economic reform efforts. Germany is Ukraine's largest aid donor,
providing some $1.7 billion in export credits, technical assistance and
other projects. -- Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc.

NEW DEPUTY PREMIER APPOINTED. President Leonid Kuchma has appointed Serhii
Osyka deputy prime minister in charge of CIS relations, Interfax reported
on 30 January. Osyka will continue in his post as minister of foreign
trade. He was an adviser to Kuchma when the latter was prime minister in
1993. -- Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc.

reported on 30 January that Supreme Soviet Chairman Mechyslau Hryb rejected
deputy Syarhei Antonchyk's offer to give another report on corruption. Hryb
explained that an investigation into the corruption charges made in
Antonchyk's first report had not yet been completed. The parliament was to
have heard the results of that investigation on 1 February, but Uladzimir
Paulau, deputy head of the investigative commission, asked for the hearing
to be postponed until 21 February, saying the fuzziness of some of
Antonchyk's charges had delayed the commission's investigation. -- Ustina
Markus, OMRI, Inc.

LUKASHENKA ATTENDS MVD MEETING. Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka
attended a meeting of the Interior Ministry, Belarusian TV reported on 30
January. One of the main issues discussed was the growing crime rate in
Belarus. Valeri Izotau, first deputy minister of the MVD, said more than
120,00 crimes were reported in 1994, up 17,000 on the previous year.
Lukashenka called on the militia to take measures to combat growing crime.
-- Ustina Markus, OMRI, Inc.

ESTONIAN DEFENSE MINISTER RESIGNS. Enn Tupp tendered his resignation on 31
January citing a "slander campaign" in his own office, BNS reports. Defense
Ministry Chancellor Tarmo Molder asked the Security Police at the end of
December to examine the minister's actions in a long-running court case and
scandal over military equipment purchased from Russia in 1991. Tupp had
tried to sack Molder in November saying the chancellor was unable to solve
problems arising from the takeover and use of former Russian military
facilities. But Prime Minister Andres Tarand had urged Tupp to retain
Molder for the sake of "domestic peace." After Tupp's resignation
announcement, Tarand said he had not yet decided whether to try to nominate
a new minister for the period remaining until the March parliament
elections. -- Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc.

Parliamentary Assembly on 31 January voted unanimously to accept Latvia as
a member, an RFE/RL correspondent in Strasbourg reports. The only speaker
opposed to Latvia's entry was Russian nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky, who
claimed Latvia was not an independent state but part of Russia. The council
is expected to admit Latvia formally as its 34th member on 6 February.
Latvia applied for membership in September 1991, along with Estonia and
Lithuania, which were admitted as members in May 1993. Latvia's membership
was approved only after the country passed legislation on national minority
rights that was acceptable to the council. -- Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc.

LITHUANIA PASSES LANGUAGE LAW. The Lithuanian parliament passed the State
Language Law on 31 January, RFE/RL's Lithuanian Service reports. The
requirement that officials pass examinations in the Lithuanian language as
a condition for holding government posts went into effect on 1 January
1995. Amendments proposed by Polish deputies to establish Polish as an
official language in the Polish-populated southeast raions of Lithuania
were defeated. -- Saulius Girnius, OMRI, Inc.

WALESA, PAWLAK COME TO TERMS? The Polish president's office announced on 31
January that President Lech Walesa has accepted candidates proposed by
Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak to head the Defense and Foreign Affairs
Ministries. The names of the candidates are to be keep secret until Pawlak
officially nominates them. Walesa's spokesman said the president would
agree to meet with the ruling coalition only if the two ministers took
office by 3 February. Parliamentary speculation pointed to acting Defense
Minister Jerzy Milewski (the president's former security adviser) and
presidential office chief Janusz Ziolkowski as the likely ministerial
choices, but Gazeta Wyborcza on 1 February tips right-wing politician
Romuald Szeremietiew for the defense post. Pawlak's maneuver left the
Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) speechless, as the prime minister had
previously agreed to propose candidates approved jointly with his coalition
partners. One SLD leader commented that by violating this agreement, Pawlak
has "lost his instinct for self-preservation." But Pawlak has successfully
outmaneuvered the SLD before. The real beneficiary of the move would be
Walesa, however, as it would reconfirm his control over the three
"presidential" ministries. -- Louisa Vinton, OMRI, Inc.

preparing legislation requiring the state-owned news agency CTK to publish
government press statements in full, Czech media report on 1 February.
Deputy Culture Minister Michal Prokop said amendments to the law
establishing and regulating CTK will be discussed before the end of this
week. Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus has several times complained about CTK's
editing of his speeches. His Civic Democratic Party recently criticized the
agency for not publishing in full a statement by the head of the
counterintelligence service on allegations of spying on political parties.
Although financed largely by the state, CTK has recently sought to become
independent. CTK editor-in-chief Petr Holubec responded to Prokop's
statement by saying "CTK's service should stem from the needs of the media,
not those of politicians." -- Steve Kettle, OMRI, Inc.

NEW SLOVAK ATTORNEY-GENERAL APPROVED. Michal Vala was sworn in on 31
January as Slovak attorney-general. Former Attorney-General Vojtech Bacho
was removed by the parliament in early November and replaced by Ludovit
Hudek, who was named interior minister when the new cabinet was formed in
December. In an interview with Sme on 1 February, Vala said he is not
preparing personnel changes, although some staff members could be removed
for what he called technical or moral incompetence. -- Sharon Fisher, OMRI,

HUNGARIAN COURT RULINGS ON 1956 CRIMES. Two members of the former Hungarian
communist militia were sentenced to five years in prison for their role in
shooting and killing at least 46 unarmed demonstrators on 8 December 1956
in Salgotarjan, MTI reports. The judge cited the New York Convention of
1968, according to which crimes against humanity committed in peace time
must also be prosecuted. These are the first convictions for crimes
committed during the 1956 revolution. Seven of the 12 men charged with the
killings were acquitted because of lack of evidence; and charges against
three others were dropped. Both the prosecution and the defense have the
right to appeal. The Budapest Military Court on 27 January dropped charges
against two military officers accused of ordering a pilot to shoot into a
crowd of unarmed demonstrators in Tiszakecske on 27 October 1956. The court
ruled that the 1949 Geneva International Convention on crimes against
humanity did not cover internal conflicts. It is estimated that some 1,000
unarmed demonstrators were killed by communists in 1956. -- Edith Oltay,
OMRI, Inc.


on 1 February is to begin proceedings against Greece, AFP reported the
previous day. The EU Commission accuses that country of violating EU rules
by maintaining an economic embargo against neighboring Macedonia. The
blockade was decreed by Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou in February
1994 to force Macedonia to change its name, flag, and constitution, which,
Greece argues, imply territorial claims to the northern Greek province of
Makedonia. After the Greek refusal to lift the blockade, the EU Commission
began legal proceedings last April. Greece insists that Article 224 of the
EU treaty--which allows an EU member to take measures in case of internal
unrest, war, or serious international tension constituting a threat of
war--supports the embargo. Greek European Affairs Minister
Georgios-Alexandros Mangakis said Greece is optimistic that the court will
decide in its favor. He noted that a ruling against Greece would set a
"serious precedent." A verdict is not expected until May, but Greece has
already said it will ignore the ruling. -- Stefan Krause, OMRI, Inc.

reported on 31 January that Croatian Serb rebels and Serbian President
Slobodan Milosevic would not meet with diplomats representing the Z-4
(Zagreb four) group. The mediators are promoting a package aimed at solving
Croatia's Serbian question and ending the armed Serbian occupation of
one-third of the republic's territory. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
on 1 February notes that the Z-4 program stresses practical ground rules
rather than political formulations. Many observers feel Milosevic holds the
key to peace, but neither he nor the Krajina leaders will see the diplomats
without advance assurance that UNPROFOR will remain in Croatia. Croatian
President Franjo Tudjman has said it must leave by 1 July. The BBC's
Serbian Service quoted The Times as saying that Milosevic's behavior
actually encourages those Krajina Serbs bent on continued conflict. The
broadcast also cited the US ambassador in Zagreb as calling the present
situation "dangerous." -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

on a visit to Washington, said the world community is displaying
"impotence" in failing to end the Bosnian conflict, The New York Times
reports on 1 February. He told CNN that the UN's refusal to lift the arms
embargo against his country recalls the Allied failure to bomb the railways
leading to Auschwitz. Silajdzic added that the least the international
community can do is to provide air strikes and sanctions against the
Bosnian Serbs if they continue not to accept the Contact Group's peace
plan, the BBC's Croatian Service reports. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

FRANCE WANTS NEW CONFERENCE ON BOSNIA. Foreign Minister Alain Juppe told Le
Monde on 31 January that leaders of former Yugoslav republics and
international representatives should convene new conferences to help end
the conflict. He said this is a "last chance scenario" before the war
spreads to Krajina or elsewhere in the Balkans. The New York Times,
however, quotes U.S. diplomats as saying they do not feel this is the right
time for another conference. Past summits have largely been grandiose
talking shops at which participants from the former Yugoslavia made vague
promises that were never kept. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

A FIRST FOR GORAZDE. The BBC said on 31 January that the Serbs and Muslims
in that UN-designated "safe area" have for the first time made and kept an
agreement. The issue was the evacuation of sick and wounded Muslims to
Sarajevo and Serbs to Kopaci, which is under way. The New York Times,
meanwhile, quotes a UN spokesman as saying that the fighting in the Bihac
area was the worst there since the current cease-fire took effect on 1
January. Local kingpin Fikret Abdic and his Krajina Serb allies have not
signed that document, despite repeated pleas from the UN to do so.
Elsewhere, observers have expressed concern lest fighting break out in the
"safe area" of Srebrenica, in eastern Bosnia, which is swollen with mainly
Muslim refugees, as is nearby Gorazde. -- Patrick Moore, OMRI, Inc.

Nasa Borba--successor to the independent Belgrade daily Borba, which fell
victim to a government take-over bid--have announced that their newspaper
will appear for the first time on 1 February. The Novi Sad-based paper was
incorporated on 19 January but has been kept out of circulation by a
newsprint shortage. Nasa Borba staff claim the shortage is
government-manufactured to keep the daily off the presses. Meanwhile,
Reuters, citing Tanjug, reported on 31 January that rump Yugoslav
authorities wish to close down the Josip Broz Tito Memorial Center, built
13 years ago to honor the former president of socialist Yugoslavia, because
"it is no longer needed." The government is expected to take over all
assets belonging to the center. -- Stan Markotich, OMRI, Inc.

German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe at his Bucharest residence on 31
January. The meeting was also attended by Romanian Defense Minister
Gheorghe Tinca, State Secretary for Defense Ioan Mircea Pascu, Gen. Vasile
Ionel, and presidential spokesman Traian Chebeleu. Iliescu and Ruehe
discussed, among other things, Romania's participation in NATO's
Partnership for Peace program and their countries' efforts to join UN
peacekeeping missions. Radio Bucharest quoted Chebeleu as saying Romania
was interested in the closest possible cooperation with Germany as part of
the larger process of integrating into European and Euro-Atlantic
structures. Ruehe visited the same day a Bucharest-based battalion that
will take part in UN peacekeeping operations. He also observed an exercise
staged by Romanian mountain corps in the town of Predeal. -- Dan Ionescu,
OMRI, Inc.

President Mircea Snegur on 31 January met with senior officials from the
U.S. Agriculture Department, an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington reports
on 1 February. Snegur, who headed a delegation including Moldovan Deputy
Minister of Agriculture Andrei Cheptine, stressed Moldova's interest in
closer cooperation with the U.S. in the agricultural sector and especially
in attracting US investment for agricultural industries. Agriculture is
Moldova's most important economic sector, accounting for some 42% of its
economy. An Agriculture Department official said the U.S. has been helping
Moldova by providing advanced training for agricultural specialists. He
added that his department was working with the U.S. Trade Development
Agency to explore trade and investment opportunities in Moldova. Snegur,
who is on a four-day working visit to the U.S., met the previous day with
President Bill Clinton, Vice President Al Gore, and Secretary of State
Warren Christopher. -- Dan Ionescu, OMRI, Inc.

PRICE RISES IN BULGARIA. The Bulgarian government has announced price hikes
for fuel, energy, and other goods, including flour, as of 1 February,
Bulgarian media report. The price of electricity is expected to rise by
70-200%. The Bulgarian Socialist Party is considering distributing vouchers
among lower income earners to cover higher electricity and heating costs,
Duma and Kontinent cited BSP deputy Atanas Paparizov as saying. -- Stefan
Krause, OMRI, Inc.

Helsinki Committee published a declaration on 30 January raising doubts
about the legality of the possible lifting of Chief Supreme Court Judge Zef
Brozi's immunity, Gazeta Shqiptare reported the next day. The committee
stated that "the case involving Brozi may violate the legal basis of the
state." Brozi is accused of wrongdoing by releasing a Greek citizen
involved in a drug case, but the judge claims he is the victim of a
campaign by President Sali Berisha and Chief Prosecutor Alush Dragoshi. The
Helsinki Committee backed Brozi, saying the accusations against him are far
removed from "legal regulations defining criminal acts." -- Fabian Schmidt,
OMRI, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by  Jan Cleave

The OMRI Daily Digest offers the latest news from the former Soviet Union
and East-Central and Southeastern Europe. It is published Monday through
Friday by the Open Media Research Institute. The Daily Digest is
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Telephone: (42 2) 6114 2114 Fax: (42 2) 426 396

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