|One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: that word is love. - Sophocles|
NO. 239, 20 DECEMBER 1994
As previously announced, the RFE/RL Research Institute will close at the end of December. The RFE/RL Daily Report will cease publication with the issue of December 23, 1994. A daily digest, similar to the RFE/RL Daily Report, will commence publication at the beginning of January 1995 and will be available both electronically, via Internet, and in hard copy. It will be published by the Open Media Research Institute in Prague--a public-private venture sponsored by the US Board for International Broadcasting and the Open Society Institute. Contributors to the Daily Digest will be the OMRI staff of some 30 country specialists. The length of the new daily digest and the extent of coverage will be comparable to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For more information, contact the Open Media Research Institute, Motokov Building, Na Strzi 63, 14062 Prague 4, the Czech Republic, tel. 0042-2-6114-2114, fax 0042-2-426-396, or send an e-mail to OMRI-L@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu. RUSSIA CHECHNYA: MILITARY SITUATION. Having initially claimed that the intervention in Chechnya was meant to defend the welfare of Chechens caught in an "inter-Chechen" conflict and also to protect local Russians, Moscow escalated military operations against Chechnya on 19 and 20 December by subjecting the capital city Grozny with its mixed Chechen-Russian population to air and missile bombardment. Russian and Western media reports from the field featured interviews with local ethnic Russians who observed that it was Russia's military intervention that was placing them in danger. Industrial plants, bridges, municipal utilities and residential quarters were hit, along with a few military targets. One Russian combined-arms column inched toward the northern approaches to the city, shelling Chechen and Russian-inhabited villages in its way. Weapons used included Uragan artillery installations, Sukhoi-27 fighter-bombers, and helicopter gunships. Although regularly stressing in other contexts that Chechnya's residents were Russian Federation citizens entitled to full protection under its laws, the Russian authorities avoided all mention of casualties. Meanwhile, the other two Russian columns were still 40 to 50 kilometers away, having allowed their progress to be thwarted by protesting villagers in Ingushetia, Dagestan, and Chechnya itself. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. ARMY DEMORALIZED. In a speech to Russia's Federation Council and at a news conference in Moscow, both on 15 December, Ingush President Ruslan Aushev confirmed earlier reports that Russian soldiers in the columns crossing Ingushetia en route to Chechnya had often urged the protesters on the highway to disable the military vehicles and had shown them simple ways to do that. The eastern column was reportedly still mired on the border with Dagestan; information about it remained sketchy, but Ekho Moskvy reported from the field on 17 December that the column was not about to move forward and had been partially disarmed. Besides passivity and fraternization with civilians, Russian soldiers began displaying the more brutal side of military demoralization. In a widely reported incident partially witnessed by visiting Russian Duma deputies, at least nine Ingush civilians were murdered by Russian soldiers; an ethnic Bashkir soldier was also killed by apparently drunk Russian fellow servicemen. (In earlier incidents, another Russian soldier and the Ingush minister of health were killed by drunken Russian soldiers, as were five Ingush villagers.) Units approaching Grozny were for the first time reported by correspondents to be committing violent robberies. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE RUSSIAN TROOPS ON THEIR WAY? Radio Liberty reported on 19 December that some troops from the Ural Military District had been ordered to Chechnya and that public protests were under way in Sverdlovsk Oblast against the proposed deployment. The Black Sea Fleet, for its part, command denied to Interfax the same day that preparations were under way to send marine infantry troops to Chechnya. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. FURTHER ETHNIC CLEANSING FEARED. The most recent Russian official statements and actions tend to reinforce fears expressed by the Chechens since the beginning of the invasion that another deportation may be in the offing. Those fears stem not only from the memory of the 1944 deportation of Chechens and Ingush but also from the 1992 ethnic cleansing of the Ingush from Prigorodnyi Raion with Russian military support. In statements carried by Russian TV and ITAR-TASS in recent days, Russia's Security Council Secretary Oleg Lobov and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Nationality Affairs Nikolai Egorov, among others, have called on the population in areas controlled by Chechen authorities--which at present still means most of Chechnya--to flee to safe areas through corridors to be opened by Russian forces. Officials of the Federal Migration Service told ITAR-TASS and Interfax on 19 December that accommodation had been arranged for refugees from Chechnya in seven regions of central and southern Russia and that an operational group had been set up to coordinate the action. While "assuming the obligation to resettle the refugees and to find accommodation for them in Russia in the future," the officials acknowledged that most refugees were expected to wish to remain close to their homeland until the emergency had passed, and they gave assurances accordingly. The service said that nearly 9,000 refugees from Chechnya had crossed into Dagestan and nearly 5,000 into Ingushetia as of 19 December. But Russia's Ministry for Emergency Situations disputed these figures, claiming that the number of refugees was far higher. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. FOUR MEN IN A BOAT. In a statement reported by Russian media on 18 December, Aleksandr Barkashov, the leader of the Russian National Unity Party, which styles itself a fascist party, endorsed the military intervention in Chechnya. During the preceding days the ultranationalist leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky and the leader of the pro-Soviet and nationalist All-Russian People's Party, Sergei Baburin, also announced their support for the intervention and for Yeltsin's decisions on Chechnya. Evidently taking into account the unpopularity of intervention against Chechnya, Zhirinovsky and Baburin had initially adopted a cautious position, with Zhirinovsky even recommending restraint. They must since, however, have concluded that they cannot afford politically to concede primacy in matters concerning the preservation of Greater Russia to Yeltsin. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. MOSCOW EXPERT DOES NOT BELIEVE IN CAUCASIAN WAR. In the opinion of Pavel Felgengauer, a military correspondent for Segodnya there is no danger of an all-Caucasian war breaking out, as supporters of Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev claim. Writing in the paper on 19 December, Felgengauer points out that Chechen forces are cut off from the rest of the country and possible help from neighboring republics by a blockade at the perimeter of Chechnya and around the capital Grozny; this, he argues, makes the situation very different from that faced by the Soviet army in Afghanistan. Felgengauer also contends that Dudaev's supporters differ considerably from those of the legendary Imam Shamil, who led Chechen resistance to Russia in the last century. In Shamil's time, Chechens were united around a strong religious leader, while Chechnya today is splintered and disorganized. Felgengauer adds that the leaders of neighboring Caucasian peoples are competing with Dudaev rather than supporting him. Felgengauer concludes that Dudaev's only hope is that the forces in Moscow protesting against the Russian army's intervention in Chechnya will persuade the president to change his policy, but he thinks this is unlikely. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. DEPUTY QUITS COMMISSION OVER MILITARY BUDGET. Aleksandr Piskunov, chairman of the joint government-Duma commission for finalizing the draft 1995 federal budget, told a Moscow news conference on 16 December that he was withdrawing as chairman. Interfax said Piskunov quit because the commission had refused to accept a single proposal to increase the military's funding. He pointed out that the government's proposed defense budget of 45 trillion rubles represented a real loss of 45 percent compared with 1994 because of inflation. He again advocated an extra 10.8 trillion rubles for the military and 5 trillion rubles in credits for defense conversion. Without these, he warned, "we will completely demoralize the armed forces and bring about the collapse of the defense industries." Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. GENERAL ELECTRIC TO SUPPLY JET ENGINES FOR RUSSIAN AIRCRAFT. Bill Clapper, vice president of General Electric's aircraft engine division, told a Moscow news conference on 15 December that the giant American company planned to install its engines in Russian aircraft. According to Interfax, he said that the CT-7 jet engines would be used in the Kamov Ka-62 civilian helicopter and that negotiations were under way to use them in the Sukhoi S-80. He also said that GE hoped to produce power installations for pumping Russian natural gas. The aircraft engines would be built in Rybinsk--some 300 kilometers north of Moscow--in a joint venture with Rybinsk Motors. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA STATE TV EMPLOYEES IN KAZAKHSTAN PROTEST CHANNEL SHUTDOWN. A decision by the management of Kazakhstan's state radio and television corporation to stop broadcasts on a popular TV channel has led to conflict with state TV and radio staff, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 December. During the previous week, protesting staff drew up a letter to President Nursultan Nazarbaev, Prime Minister Akezhan Kazhegeldin, and parliament head Abish Kekilbaev asking them to put an end to the dictatorial methods of the head of the state TV corporation, Leila Beketova, who was accused of lack of professionalism and incompetence in selecting managers. Beketova has been described by Western observers in Almaty as an example of Soviet-style mentality; Kazakh intellectuals have complained that she has reversed the "Kazakhization" of state radio and TV initiated by her predecessor. According to the ITAR-TASS report, Beketova has reacted to the staff letter by firing 11 of the most active protesters. The Supreme Soviet is reported to have set up a commission to investigate the staff complaints. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. GERMAN, WORLD BANK ASSISTANCE TO UZBEKISTAN. The German government will grant Uzbekistan 25 million German marks for construction of a German business center in Tashkent in 1995-1996, Interfax reported on 16 December. On the same date, Interfax also reported that President Islam Karimov had received a World Bank representative who gave a positive assessment of Uzbekistan's economic reforms. The World Bank is considering granting Uzbekistan a $150-180 million credit in 1995 to sustain economic reform plus an additional $400-500 million for specific investment projects including development of the Kokdumalak oil and gas deposits and construction of an oil refinery in Bukhara. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. ARMENIAN DEPUTIES RESIGN OVER COLLEAGUE'S MURDER. Two prominent Armenian opposition figures, the former prime minister and present chairman of the National Democratic Union Vazgen Manukyan, and David Vardanyan, chairman of the Armenian parliament commission for foreign relations, resigned as parliament deputies on 19 December after the Armenian parliament refused to debate Manukyan's demand that President Levon Ter-Petrossyan be summoned to report on measures to combat terrorism in Armenia following the assassination on 17 December of former Erevan Mayor Ambartsum Galstyan, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. All four men had been founder members first of the Karabakh Committee and then of the Armenian Pan-National Movement. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS SEVERAL CIS COUNTRIES MIGHT DISAVOW CFE CUTS. Belarusian First Deputy Foreign Minister Valerii Tsypkalo, told Interfax on 19 December that Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova might soon disavow their commitments to cut their conventional arms under the terms of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty. He claimed that NATO's plans to expand to the East were prompting this decision. "If NATO draws nearer to the CIS borders," he said, "the CIS countries located in Europe will probably have to revise the agreement on cuts in conventional arms in Europe and stop scrapping their tanks, lanes, and the like." Tsypkalo conceded that Belarus would remain one of the world's most heavily armed countries even if it honored the agreement, since it had inherited Soviet forces meant for use in Western Europe. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CARTER AND KARADZIC MEET, DISCUSS PEACE PLAN. Former US President Jimmy Carter, who is on a private and controversial peace mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina, met with Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic on 19 December, international agencies report. Following several hours of talks, Carter told a news conference in the Bosnian Serb stronghold of Pale, near Sarajevo, that "the Bosnian Serb side agreed to an immediate ceasefire and to negotiate a lasting cessation of hostilities." But Karadzic, who initiated Carter's peace mission in what is regarded as an attempt to break the Bosnian Serbs' international isolation, quickly poured cold water on Carter's statements. In an interview with CNN, the Bosnian Serb leader said "We can't stop our activities until we get an agreement on the cessation of hostilities." He added that once such an agreement was reached, a ceasefire could go into effect. While saying that peace negotiations could be held on the basis of the Contact Group's peace plan, he noted that "everything is negotiable. . . . We have worked out a new interpretation of the . . . plan." The Bosnian Serbs have repeatedly rejected the five-nation Contact Group's plan, under whose terms they would receive 49 percent of Bosnian territory. They now hold some 70 percent after nearly three years of war. Carter is due to meet with Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic in Sarajevo on 20 December. Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc. INTENSIFIED ASSAULT ON BIHAC. Reuters on 19 December reported that Bosnian Serb forces have stepped up their assault on the Muslim enclave and UN "safe area" of Bihac. Fierce fighting was reported on the outskirts of the town. In addition to small arms and anti-aircraft machinegun fire, two tank rounds were fired into the town center, destroying two houses. There were no immediate reports of casualties. Meanwhile, a Bosnian government soldier was killed and several civilians wounded by gunfire in Sarajevo, AFP reports. A spokeswoman for UNPROFOR said the dead soldier was one of two Bosnian troops hit on the front lines in the western part of the city. Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc. NATO, RUSSIA DISCUSS BOSNIAN PEACEKEEPING MISSION. Meeting in The Hague on 19 December, NATO defense chiefs and Russian Ambassador to Belgium and NATO Vitalii Churkin discussed plans to prevent the Bosnian Serbs from further humiliating UN peacekeeping troops in Bosnia, international agencies report. The plans include sending more equipment to the former Yugoslav republic, redeploying small groups of troops into larger units to make them less vulnerable, and opening an aid corridor from the Adriatic to Sarajevo. Dutch Chief of Defense Staff General Henk van den Breemen told reporters after the meeting that "there was great resolve . . . and general agreement on the ways in which the effectiveness of UNPROFOR could be improved." But he declined to say what measures would be taken to stop Bosnian Serb harassment of the peacekeepers. In recent weeks, UNPROFOR troops have been attacked and held hostage by Bosnian Serbs. The NATO states and Russia are to be joined on 20 December by other countries contributing to UNPROFOR in the former Yugoslavia to endorse the plans before they are sent to the UN for final approval. Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc. RUMP YUGOSLAV PREMIER ON THE ECONOMY. Politika on 20 December reports that rump Yugoslav premier Radoje Kontic held meetings the previous day with several ranking government officials, including his Serbian and Montenegrin counterparts at the republican level and National Bank Governor Dragoslav Avramovic. Their discussions focused on budgetary and economic policy in 1995, which is likely to be a continuation of 1994 policy. For instance, the agenda for 1995 is reported to include a renewed commitment to the stability of the national currency--the dinar. In January 1994, Avramovic sought to eradicate hyperinflation by introducing the so-called "super dinar," which was pegged to hard-currency and gold reserves as well as to the German mark. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. FORMER COMMUNISTS GAIN ABSOLUTE MAJORITY IN BULGARIA. Officials of the Bulgarian Central Electoral Commission told the media on 19 December that the Socialist Party (the former Communists) won an absolute majority in the 18 December general elections. With about 95 percent of the votes counted, the Socialists were poised to gain 124 seats in the 240-member parliament. The Union of Democratic Forces placed second with 68 seats, followed by the Popular Union (19 seats), the Turkish minority's Movement for Rights and Freedoms (16 seats), and the Bulgarian Business Bloc (13 seats). Socialist Party leader Zhan Videnov told journalists on 19 December that society expects his party to govern "actively, directly, and responsibly." Nikola Koichev, the chairman of the party's economic and social policy committee, was quoted by Reuters on 19 December as saying some 300 state firms will be transferred to private owners under a program of mass privatization similar to that carried out in the Czech Republic. But he warned that enterprises no longer able to be saved will be liquidated. According to Koichev, the party will seek to boost production by "restoring our markets in former socialist countries." Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH ZLOTY TO BECOME PARTLY CONVERTIBLE. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Grzegorz Kolodko on 19 December announced that as of January 1995, the Polish zloty will be convertible in trade (export and import) and tourism but not in capital transactions. Kolodko said the Polish currency will be converted in accordance with international standards and that it may become fully convertible by 1996. Rzeczpospolita reported on 20 December that the announcement was fully supported by IMF executive director Michel Camdessus, who was paying an official visit to Poland. Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF INSISTS ON LOWER INFLATION IN POLAND. IMF executive director Michel Camdessus on 19 December said Poland must intensify its efforts to curb inflation if it wants to join the European Union. The 1994 annual inflation rate in Poland is hovering around 30 percent. Camdessus urged the Polish government to stick to its planned target of 17 percent by the end of 1995. According to Rzeczpospolita and Gazeta Wyborcza on 19 and 20 December, Camdessus praised the Polish government for its current economic policies but said it should speed up the privatization of state enterprises and limit its support for inefficient sectors of the economy. Camdessus noted such measures would result in lower inflation levels. Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. UPDATE ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL SEIZED IN PRAGUE. A Czech police spokesman told journalists on 19 December that the nuclear material seized recently in Prague was three kilograms of uranium sufficiently enriched for use in a nuclear warhead. In connection with the seizure, Prague police arrested a Czech nuclear physicist and two men from the former Soviet Union. The spokesman said police were convinced that the material came from the former USSR. A certificate written in Russian was found during the seizure. According to the spokesman, "only certain superpowers can produce uranium of this quality." Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. PRAGUE CATHEDRAL DECLARED CHURCH PROPERTY. A Prague court on 19 December ruled that one of the cityecember ruled that one of the city's most famous landmarks--St. Vitus' Cathedral, which towers over Prague Castle--belongs not to the state but to the Roman Catholic Church. The court also ruled that the same applies to two other churches at Prague Castle--St. George's Church and St. Ann's Chapel. The three churches were nationalized in the 1950s. The decision ends a legal dispute between religious and state authorities that began in the communist era and has continued until now, with President Vaclav Havel asserting the state's ownership rights. In response to the court's decision, Havel was quoted by CTK as saying it was necessary to distinguish between "the physical and psychological owner" of the churches. While the court is able to decide on the physical owner, "the Czech nation remains the psychological owner," he stressed. Jiri PeheED. The Slovak government on 19 December approved a provisional budget for the first three months of 1995, TASR reports. The budget foresees expenditures in the first quarter of 1995 totaling some 38 billion koruny. The Slovak parliament has been unable to adopt a regular budget owing to differences between the former government of Jozef Moravcik and Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, which won the October parliamentary elections, over who should submit a budget proposal. Moravcik's government finally submitted a draft budget, but Meciar indicated that his party and its coalition allies would reject it in the parliament. Meciar also stressed that he was in favor of a provisional budget. Deputy Prime Minister Sergej Kozlik told a press conference on 19 December that his government will submit a regular budget proposal by 16 February. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK INTERIOR MINISTER ON CZECH-SLOVAK BORDER. Ludovit Hudek told CTK on 19 December that the situation at the Czech-Slovak border was "bad" and "that is why one of the first steps taken by the new Slovak government will be to strengthen the Slovak side of the border," despite budgetary constraints. He added that Slovakia should not become a "detention camp for people no other state wants to accept." To avoid such a scenario, Slovakia wants to adopt a number of personnel and technical measures, he said. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK TV HEAD ON TELEVISION'S ROLE. Jozef Darmo, newly appointed director of Slovak Television, told journalists in Bratislava on 19 December that "any spiritual renewal in Slovakia cannot be accomplished without the help of television." He noted that the media law demands that television be a "national, independent, nonpartisan, information, cultural, and educational institution." In his opinion, this meant that television cannot be used "to offend the [Slovak] nation and the nationalities living on Slovakia's territory." "It will not be used to attack and devalue national institutions," Darmo said. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PREMIER IN GERMANY. Gyula Horn on 18 December met with Bavarian head of state Edmund Stoiber and German Chancellor Helmuth Kohl, German media reported the same day. According to the Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Hungary will receive a DM 200 million credit from Bavaria, Baden-Wurtenberg, and Bonn. The money will be spent on economic projects such as the construction of a highway system, the privatization of radio and television, and the expansion of the telecommunications system. Both Horn and Stoiber agreed that Hungary is an "open field" for Bavarian industry, although there are already more than 1,000 Bavarian joint ventures in the country. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. NO-CONFIDENCE DEBATE IN ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT. The two chambers of Romania's parliament met in joint session on 19 December to discuss a motion of no confidence tabled by the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front against Nicolae Vacaroiu's government, RFE/RL's correspondent in Bucharest and Radio Bucharest reported the same day. The motion proposes that the government be dismissed for failing to solve the nation's social and economic problems. The debates proper will take place on 23 December. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN EXTREME NATIONALISTS URGE CRACKDOWN AGAINST HUNGARIAN MINORITY. The Party of Romanian National Unity, a member of the ruling coalition, asked President Ion Iliescu and the parliament to crack down on alleged anti-Romanian actions by the Hungarian minority and the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania. RFE/RL's correspondent in Bucharest reported on 19 December that a statement released by the PRNU called on the parliament to pass weapon control regulations immediately, claiming that many citizens, especially ethnic Hungarians, have illegally bought guns and ammunition abroad. The statement also demands that the financial courts investigate how the HDFR spends its share of the state funds allocated to all political parties. It says the HDFR used its share in 1994 for "actions directed against the Romanian nation." The PRNU also urges that Romanian parliamentary delegations visiting foreign countries no longer include HDFR representatives, pointing out that two years ago all Hungarian deputies swore loyalty to Hungary. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ILIESCU APPEALS FOR "MORE ACCURATE" COVERAGE BY FRENCH MEDIA. President Ion Iliescu told visiting French Minister of Culture Jacques Toubon that French-language media should provide more accurate coverage of Romania, RFE/RL's correspondent in Bucharest reported on 19 December. Iliescu and other Romanian officials have often complained that Western journalists are hurting Romania's image abroad. During his visit to Bucharest on 18 and 19 December, Toubon also met with Minister of Foreign Affairs Teodor Melescanu and Minister of Culture Marin Sorescu. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. CORRUPTION IN BELARUS. Interfax on 19 December reported that Belarusian deputies have asked the prosecutor-general to supply information on the 60 ranking officials whom President Alyaksandr Lukashenka accused of corruption during his election campaign in the summer. The deputies demanded that the prosecutor-general either confirm or reject the information he had received from Lukashenka, who at the time was chairman of the parliament's anti-corruption committee. They added that if Lukashenka's corruption charges had been simply "a political pre-election game," he would have to reckon with libel suits. The parliament on 20 December will hear a report by leader of the Belarusian Free Trade Unions Sergei Antonchik on corruption in the president's administration. Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN OIL REFINERY RESUMES WORK. After a four-week shutdown due to a lack of crude oil, the Nafta refinery at Mazeikiai resumed operations on 19 December, Interfax reports. Nafta concluded an agreement with Lukoil in January to receive six million tons of oil in 1994, but only 1 million had been delivered by December. Talks with Lukoil on 1995 oil deliveries are under way, and it is thought that Lukoil will agree to ship 250,000 thousand tons a month. Nafta will likely also refine about 100,000 tons of oil received from Rosneft. These supplies will then be shipped to the Kaliningrad region. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIA, CHINA SIGN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis and his Chinese counterpart, Jiang Zemin, signed an agreement in Beijing on 19 December establishing most-favored-nation trade status between the two countries, Western agencies report. The countries established diplomatic relations in 1991, but China broke them off in 1992 after Latvia took up consular relations with Taiwan. The relations were restored in July 1993 when Latvia officially cut its diplomatic ties with Taiwan. A Latvian trade exhibition involving 40 companies opened in Beijing the same day. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN LATVIA. The State Statistical Committee announced that Latvian industrial enterprises produced goods worth 815 million lati ($1.482 billion) in the first eleven months of 1994 or 9.3 percent less than in the same period in 1993, BNS reported on 16 December. Production in November was worth 83 million lati, up 8.6 percent on the October level. Products unsold at the end of November were worth 73.4 million lati and accounted for 88.4 percent of the total volume of goods produced that month. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 12:00 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Penny Morvant) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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