|I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome while trying to succeed. - Booker T. Washington|
No. 238, 19 December 1994
As previously announced, the RFE/RL Research Institute will close at the end of December. The RFE/RL Daily Report will cease publication with the issue of December 23, 1994. A daily digest, similar to the RFE/RL Daily Report, will commence publication at the beginning of January 1995 and will be available both electronically, via Internet, and in hard copy. It will be published by the Open Media Research Institute in Prague--a public-private venture sponsored by the US Board for International Broadcasting and the Open Society Institute. Contributors to the Daily Digest will be the OMRI staff of some 30 country specialists. The length of the new daily digest and the extent of coverage will be comparable to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For more information, write to the Open Media Research Institute, Motokov Building, Na Strzi 63, 14062 Prague 4, the Czech Republic, tel. 0042-2-6114-2114; fax 0042-2-426-396. ------------------------------------------------------------- RUSSIA CHECHNYA: ULTIMATUM AND COUNTER-ULTIMATUM. Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev responded on 16 December to Russian President Boris Yeltsin's extension of the deadline for Chechens to disarm by reiterating that he would not agree to talks until all Russian forces withdrew from Chechen territory, Russian and Western agencies reported. On 17 December the Russian Security Council met for three hours and decided not to extend the deadline beyond midnight on 17 December. The Council invited Dudaev to travel to Mozdok in North Ossetia that evening for talks on disarming the Chechen military with Russian Deputy Prime Minister Nikolai Egorov and Federal Counter Intelligence chief Sergei Stepashin, and called for "decisive measures" to avert armed attacks on Russian troops and civilians. Chechen Vice President Zelimkhan Yandarbiev dismissed the invitation as "a joke," according to Reuters. Dudaev responded to Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin's 16 December offer to meet him anywhere for talks by inviting Chernomyrdin to Grozny; Chernomyrdin declined to do so unless the Chechens first lay down their arms. ITAR-TASS quoted Egorov as stating that Grozny would be bombed if Dudaev failed to comply with the extended ultimatum; the Chechen government press service threatened to execute some 20 Russian prisoners if Grozny was subjected to aerial attack. Dudaev met during the evening of 17 December with his military commanders to plan the defense of Grozny. Shortly before the midnight deadline Dudaev sent a telegram to the Kremlin agreeing to begin negotiations with no preconditions and to head a delegation to that purpose, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. Russian warplanes flew over Grozny and bombed military targets on the outskirts of the city during the morning of 18 December. Yeltsin acknowledged receipt of Dudaev's telegram of the previous evening and again called on him to travel to Mozdok for talks with Stepashin and Egorov, affirming that "if an agreement on a ceasefire and the laying down of arms is signed in your presence today I will consider it proof of your willingness to normalize the situation," ITAR-TASS reported. Dudaev dropped his insistence that he would talk to only Yeltsin or Chernomyrdin, but reiterated that any talks must be held in Grozny; he also stated that he would be prepared to hold a referendum on Chechnya's future status, according to Reuters. Interfax quoted Russian presidential spokesman Yuri Leonov as stating that Dudaev's latest offer of talks in Grozny had been rejected as it offered nothing new. Two bombs were dropped on central Grozny during the night of 18-19 December, and Russian forces were reported to be advancing towards the city. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. OFFENSIVE ON GROZNY. The one Russian column approaching Grozny continued using artillery and aerial power against Chechen positions and residential areas as well as engaging Chechen forces in tactical clashes, Russian and Western media reported. Moscow's official toll of 16 Russians killed through 16 December is generally deemed understated. The Russian side has yet to acknowledge the Chechen civilian casualties, estimated to number in the hundreds. One major official justification for the intervention is to protect the physical security of the Chechens, in their capacity as Russian Federation citizens, in connection with the "inter-Chechen conflict." -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. DIRECT RULE FROM MOSCOW ANNOUNCED. As predicted (16 December Daily Report), the Kremlin announced on 18 December that Yeltsin had decreed the introduction of a "territorial administration" in Chechnya, instituting direct rule from Moscow in place of the republic's government structures. The decree orders the Russian Federation government to form in Chechnya within five days organs of executive power directly subordinated to the central executive agencies. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Nationality Affairs Nikolai Egorov is appointed head of the territorial administration for Chechnya. The deputy head of President Boris Yeltsin's administration, Vyachaslav Volkov, told Russian media on 18 December that the territorial administration will be permitted to establish subordinate structures of Russia's Ministry of Internal Affairs and Federal Counterintelligence Service in Chechnya and to coordinate their activities effectively. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN GENERAL: LAW AND HUMANITY ABOVE ORDERS. On 15 and 16 December Major-General Ivan Babichev, commander of one of the three Russian columns moving toward Grozny, publicly announced that he was halting the advance and would refuse to use force against civilians. The military operation against Chechnya was unlawful and inhumane, and any orders to attack the population or residential areas would be "criminal," Babichev said. He made the statements to Russian and Western journalists and in a fraternizing encounter with a predominantly female Chechen peasant crowd astride his column's path. He also strongly implied that a nighttime attack by unidentified forces against his column had probably been orchestrated by Russian security services in order to provoke an attack on the Chechen. Officers from various elements of the column told the press that they had prepared letters of resignation from the military and would submit them if ordered to attack. Comprised of several hundred tanks and armored vehicles, elements of a motor rifle division and of the elite Pskov paratrooper division, MVD units, and other elements, Babichev's column had refrained from challenging civilian crowds thwarting its advance through Ingushetia and Chechnya toward Grozny. The column's head is still reported 35 kilometers from Grozny and its rear still in Ingushetia. Another column seems to be marking time on the Dagestan-Chechnya border. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. ETHNIC RUSSIANS ALSO VICTIMS. Ethnic Russians, whose share in the population of Grozny and environs remains substantial, are being made to suffer the rigors of bombardment and blockade alongside the indigenous Chechen population. Respected human rights campaigner and Duma deputy Sergei Kovalev told RIA on 16 December that "many of the industrial and residential buildings on the outskirts of Grozny have been destroyed." Outside Grozny, hardest hit by Russian forces has been the predominantly Russian-inhabited town of Pervomayskoe. Ethnic Russians interviewed by Russian and Western media express indignation at Moscow's use of force which puts their lives at risk. Reports from the field also speak of the emergence of a sense of solidarity among local ethnic Russians and Chechens in the face of common adversity. There are no reports of Chechen threats of any kind to local Russians. One of the justifications for the Russian intervention had been the presumed need to protect ethnic Russians in Chechnya. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. DUDAEV APPEALS TO TURKEY FOR HELP. Dudaev has addressed an appeal to Turkish President Suleyman Demirel to help achieve peace in Chechnya, and Demirel has informed Russian President Yeltsin of the contents of the appeal and called for resolving the Chechen crisis by peaceful means, ITAR-TASS reported on 18 December, quoting a Turkish television report. ITAR-TASS further quoted Turkish Foreign Minister Murat Karayalcin as assuring representatives of the Turkish Committee for Caucasian-Chechen Solidarity on 17 December that Turkey would take measures to reach a peaceful solution in Chechnya. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. SHEVARDNADZE SUPPORTS RUSSIAN ACTION IN CHECHNYA. Russia must defend its national interests and territorial integrity in Chechnya, Eduard Shevardnadze told ITAR-TASS on 18 December. Shevardnadze said Georgia supports a united and indivisible Russia, because if Moscow will not curtail an "aggressive separatism," it could lead to the disintegration of the Russian Federation. Georgia, which has a joint border with Chechnya, has, of course, a special reason to support military action against Dudaev; it has its own separatist territory, Abkhazia, and Shevardnadze hopes that the Chechen example will help legitimize Georgian policy towards its secessionist state. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. DUMA APPROVES YELTSIN'S BILL ON PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. Russian TV newscasts and news agencies reported on 16 December that the State Duma approved the first reading of a bill on the election of the Russian president. Proposed to parliament by Yeltsin, the draft law is surprisingly similar to the one advocated by the leader of democratic opposition, Grigorii Yavlinsky (see Daily Report of 11 November). According to the bill, a candidate must collect two million signatures to be nominated for the presidency. Political parties and parliamentary factions would also have to submit two million signatures to nominate their candidates. Most importantly, members of the government and journalists would have to suspend their professional activities should they decide to run for the presidency. Over 200 lawmakers voted for the law, and only two abstained. The only controversial provision, according to TV's "Vesti," was the requirement that more than 50 percent of eligible voters have to take part in the election. Some legislators voiced their concern over this provision in view of the evident decrease in people's participation in the political process the past few years. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. FOREIGN TRADE ACT PROPOSED TO PROTECT RUSSIAN ECONOMIC SECURITY. The government has introduced a foreign trade bill to the State Duma that would substantially centralize foreign economic activity in the state and private sectors. The central provision of the bill is a temporary restoration of the state monopoly in several import and export branches, reported ITAR-TASS and Russian television on 15 December. According to Deputy Foreign Trade Minister Mikhail Fradkov, the goal of the bill is "to protect the economic security and sovereignty of Russia." (Russian television on 13 December expressed the concern of some Russian economists about the structure of state imports. According to statistics, foreign food imports have moved towards the top of Russian imports). It is doubtful that the proposed protectionist bill would bring the expected results, but rather could increase corruption among the officials responsible for issuing quotas and licenses. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. LIBERAL NEWSPAPER ACCUSES WEST OF TRYING TO UNDERMINE RUSSIAN BANKS. Mikhail Leontiev, the senior editor of the liberal newspaper Segodnya, has accused Western secret services of "instigating" a smear campaign in the American and French mass media against Russian commercial banks. In an article published on 16 December, Leontiev wrote that the CIA and the other Western intelligence services organized a "leak" of information alleging that the Russian banks "Menatep" and "Most" are connected to organized crime. Leontiev said he believes that the goal of "this action" is to compromise Russian financial institutions, which the West sees as potential competitors. In fact, the information about connections between criminal entities and Russian financial institutions was published earlier this year by various members of the international and Russian organizations. Among them were the United Nations, Interpol and the Russian Academy of Sciences. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA FORMER EREVAN MAYOR ASSASSINATED. Former Erevan Mayor Ambartsum Galstyan was shot dead outside his home in Erevan on 17 December, according to a stringer for Radio Liberty's Armenian Service. One of the founding members of the Karabakh Committee and its successor, the Armenian Pan-National Movement, Galstyan left the APNM in 1992 and joined the opposition National Democratic Union headed by former Prime Minister Vazgen Manukyan. A government commission has been formed to investigate the murder. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE FORMER COMMUNISTS WIN ELECTIONS IN BULGARIA. The Bulgarian Socialist Party, successor to the communist party, has won the 18 December general elections, international agencies report. But with 75 percent of the votes counted, it seems unlikely that the Socialists will have an absolute majority in the new parliament. According to preliminary results, the BSP won between 42-43 percent of the votes (between 118 and 120 seats in the 240-seat legislature). The Union of Democratic Forces, the largest alliance of opposition parties, gained 23-24 percent of the vote, a loss of about 10 percentage points. The Movement for Rights and Freedom, whose supporters are largely ethnic Turks, chalked up 5 percent. The People's Union and the Business Bloc of Georgi Ganchev both gained parliamentary representation for the first time, receiving 6 percent and 5 percent, respectively. The Democratic Alternative of Republicans, a coalition of several small parties, also seems likely to be represented, having won about 4 percent of the vote. Bulgarian Television estimated turnout at 75 percent and reported that 2 percent of the votes cast were invalid. According to observers, the main reason for the BSP's success is the UDF's failure to solve the grave economic crisis in Bulgaria and to stem the growing crime rate. -- Stefan Krause, RFE/RL, Inc. MUSLIM REBELS RETAKE VELIKA KLADUSA. International media reported late on 17 December that Velika Kladusa in the Bihac area fell to troops loyal to local kingpin Fikret Abdic and his Krajina Serb allies. Abdic declared autonomy from the Bosnian government, of which he had been a member, earlier this year but was defeated late in the summer by the government's Fifth Corps. Velika Kladusa was the headquarters in the 1980s of Abdic's Agrokomerc business empire, which later crumbled under a mountain of worthless promissory notes and bad loans. He was tried and imprisoned, but locals always regarded him as a folk hero and called him "Babo" (or daddy) as a sign of affection for the prosperity he brought the region. Abdic may now be dependent on Serb backing, but he has already established himself as something of a Richard Nixon of ex-Yugoslav politics as far as political comebacks are concerned. So, it is too early to say his career is over. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CARTER OFF ON BOSNIAN PEACE MISSION. International media reported on 17 December that former US President Jimmy Carter left on a three- or four-day trip to the former Yugoslavia. His goals are to obtain a cease-fire in Bosnia and to win support for the existing Contact Group peace plan. His first stop was Zagreb, where meetings with Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic were slated. In the course of his stay in the region, he is expected to meet with UN representative Yasushi Akashi, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, and Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic. The BBC on 18 December said that diplomats and most other observers give Carter little chance of succeeding. It noted that Karadzic has yet to implement his promised six-point peace plan, which, in any case, would simply involve his returning to promises he has already broken. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. MILOSEVIC IN ATHENS. Both Borba and Politika on 19 December report that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic arrives in Athens the same day for meetings with Greek Premier Andreas Papandreou and other officials. The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina and bilateral relations are expected to top the agenda. Accompanying Milosevic is rump Yugoslav Foreign Minister Vladislav Jovanovic, who is slated to meet with his Greek counterpart, Karolos Papoulias. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. SITUATION TENSE OVER ALBANIAN-LANGUAGE UNIVERSITY IN MACEDONIA. News agencies reported on 17 December that Macedonian authorities are maintaining a strong police presence in Tetovo and are controlling roads leading into the town, which is a stronghold of Albanian nationalism. The latest tension stems from the Albanians' announcement that they would open a university of their own on 17 December because the authorities have for years refused to introduce one as part of the official education system. The police responded last week by destroying the building the Albanians had put up to house their classes, but the Albanians opened the university anyway at midnight on 17 December at the offices of their leading Party for Democratic Prosperity. Nevzet Halili, a prominent Macedonian Albanian who is heavily involved in the university issue, said the institution would hold its first classes on 19 December as scheduled but gave no other details. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SEJM FAILS TO CONDEMN MARTIAL LAW. The Polish parliament on 16 December failed to condemn the 1981 martial law that crushed the Solidarity labor movement and arrested political change for almost a decade. The nationalist Confederation for an Independent Poland and the leftist Union of Labor presented draft statements commemorating the 13th anniversary of the 1981 events, but the confederation's draft was rejected and the union's changed through votes by the postcommunist Alliance of the Democratic Left. All opposition deputies subsequently left the chamber, and a statement on martial law could not be approved owing to the lack of a quorum. Both Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita on 17-18 December recalled that many people were arrested and interned during martial law and that some were even killed, but neither the perpetrators of crimes nor the initiators of martial law have been punished. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC. At its congress in Karlovy Vary on 18 December, the Civic Democratic Party reelected Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus as party chairman. Of the 275 delegates, 266 voted for Klaus, who was the only candidate for the post. Libor Novak, a 32-year-old lawyer, replaced Petr Cermak as executive deputy chairman. Cermak has recently been involved in several controversies. Klaus told the congress's delegates that the CDP's victory in the November local elections had proven wrong those who had predicted a decline in the party's popularity. Meanwhile, three centrist parties (the Liberal Social Union, the Agrarian Union, and the Bohemian-Moravian Party of the Center) completed a merger on 17 December. Jan Jegla was elected chairman of the new group, which will be called the Bohemian-Moravian Party of the Center. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH-RUSSIAN DEAL ON REPROCESSING NUCLEAR MATERIAL. The environmental group Greenpeace on 16 December accused the Czech Republic and Russia of having struck a secret nuclear reprocessing deal whereby the Czechs will send nuclear waste to Russia for reprocessing. Products gained from reprocessing, including plutonium and radioactive waste, are to be sent back to the Czech Republic, Reuters reported. However, the Vienna-based International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said the same day that there was nothing illegal about Prague sending spent nuclear waste to Russia for reprocessing and receiving other materials in return. Both Russia and the Czech Republic are signatories to a treaty under which they agree to inform the IAEA about nuclear materials entering or leaving their countries. An IAEA spokesman said he was sure the two countries would comply with this stipulation. He also said the planned exchange of nuclear material is "a completely legal and normal procedure." -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. NUCLEAR MATERIAL SEIZED IN PRAGUE. Czech police officials on 16 December announced they had seized a large quantity of what they described as "strategic nuclear material." CTK quotes Czech Interior Ministry spokesman Jan Subert as saying that the confiscated material is uranium. He said it was discovered in Prague on 14 December. According to Subert, the material is safely stored and the public is not in danger. He added that the seriousness of the case and its ongoing investigation barred him from disclosing further information. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CHANGES IN SLOVAK STATE MEDIA. The Slovak parliament on 16 December recalled Ivan Stadtrucker from his post of director of Slovak Television, TASR reported. Both coalition and some opposition deputies voted for Stadtrucker's removal. He has been accused of incompetence and the failure to cooperate with the Board for Radio and Television Broadcasting. Jozef Darmo was appointed as Stadtrucker's replacement. The new Slovak administration, led by Vladimir Meciar, also installed Erika Vincourkova, a journalist working for the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia's daily Slovenska Republika, as head of the popular radio program "Radiozurnal." The appointments are the latest in a wave of personnel changes initiated by the new government. Meciar said on 16 December that the changes did not constitute a purge and were not politically motivated. He said his government was "only seeking to improve quality where it was lacking." -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PREMIER ON NEW LAW, PARLIAMENTARY INVESTIGATION. Vladimir Meciar, in an interview with the Czech daily Mlada Fronta Dnes on 17 December, defended the need for "a law on the protection of the republic," which, he said, could be used "if the opposition does not accept the fact it lost the elections and tries to organize mass protests" or if ethnic and social conflicts threaten the country's stability. Meciar also alleged that when he was recalled from his post in March as a result of a parliamentary no confidence vote, "money and bribes in the parliament" played a role. The prime minister said there would be an investigation and those found guilty punished. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. NATO DEPUTY SECRETARY-GENERAL IN HUNGARY. At the invitation of the Lajos Batthyany Foundation, NATO Deputy Secretary-General Gerhard von Moltke on 16 December spoke in Budapest about the role of Central Eastern Europe and NATO, MTI reports. Moltke stressed that major steps had been taken over the past five years toward a more democratic and united Europe, but he warned that the interim period seemed to be lasting longer than expected. The NATO deputy-secretary said the concept of security had also changed in recent years. Admission as a NATO member depended not only on the political makeup of a country but also on its social, economic, demographic, and environmental structures. Moltke stressed that in order to continue to be a major security factor in Europe, NATO must remain effective and trustworthy. He also said a reformed and democratic Russia must actively participate in the Partnership for Peace program. -- Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. US CONCERNED ABOUT EXTREMIST INFLUENCE IN ROMANIA. The new US ambassador to Romania, Alfred Moses, said on 16 December that the United States was concerned about the influence of extremists on the country's government, Reuters reported the same day. The US diplomat said Washington had expressed its concern to the Romanian government, but he added "We don't make political marriages in Romania" He declined to name parties but made these statements in response to a question about the influence of nationalists and neo-Communists. Moses urged the government to move faster on economic reform, particularly the privatization of state companies. He praised Romania as a beacon of stability in the region, despite the war in nearby former Yugoslavia. He also said the US was determined to help Romania gain closer links to Western security and political structures. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT ATTACKS HDFR DECLARATION. In a statement issued on 16 December and carried by Radio Bucharest the same day, the Romanian government said a declaration adopted by the Council of Representatives of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania on 10 December was to be rejected as expressing "anti-nationalist positions" which insult both Romania's history and its people. According to the 16 December statement, the HDFR had said that in Romania, the "idea of the national state has been resurrected from the dustbin of history." The government also said the HDFR's repeated demands for autonomy and self-determination for the Hungarian minority contradicted the "most elementary ideas of a state based on the rule of law and of democracy." It said these were "extremist manifestations, wrapped-up in demagogy and combined with complaints addressed to the highest European forums." The HDFR said in response that its declaration had been mistranslated into Romanian and that the Romanian government was exploiting a mistake of which it was well aware in order to encourage bad feelings toward the Hungarian minority and the HDFR. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. TIMISOARA MARKS REVOLUTION ANNIVERSARY. Several thousand people marched in Timisoara on 16 December to mark the fifth anniversary of the events that sparked the overthrow of Nicolae Ceausescu's regime, Radio Bucharest and international agencies reported the same day. The march began at the former residence of Laszlo Tokes, now a bishop of the Reformed Church, and proceeded to Opera Square. The Romanian revolution started with demonstrations near Tokes's home on 16 December 1989 in protest at the authorities' decision to force the priest to leave Timisoara. The crowd in Opera Square was addressed, among others, by the president of the opposition Democratic Convention of Romania, Emil Constantinescu. Many demonstrators shouted anti-government slogans and accused President Ion Iliescu and his colleagues of having hijacked the revolution. The official ceremonies marking the uprising in Timisoara were held separately on 17 December and are to continue over the next few days. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. MEETING OF BALTIC AND NORWEGIAN DEFENSE MINISTERS. Meeting in Tallinn on 16 December, Foreign Ministers Enn Tupp (Estonia), Janis Trapans (Latvia), Linas Linkevicius (Lithuania), and Jorgen Kosmo (Norway) agreed that all major obstacles to the formation of the joint Baltic Peacekeeping Battalion (BaltBat) had been removed, BNS reports. Kosmo said tasks for the immediate future included setting up a functional system for information exchange between BaltBat and the foreign states that support it and continued English-language instruction for BaltBat peacekeepers. Kosmo officially handed over to Estonia a 36-meter Storm class ship that Norway had donated. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS TO BE HELD 25 MARCH. The Seimas on 15 December voted 59 to 10 with 15 abstentions to set the date of local elections for 25 March, BNS reports. Candidates are to be nominated by political organizations and the winners determined by a proportional system. The parliament also ratified Lithuania's free trade agreement with Ukraine by a vote of 74 to one. President Algirdas Brazauskas nominated Pranas Kuris and Vladas Nikitinas as chairman of the Lithuanian Supreme Court and prosecutor-general, respectively. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIAN PREMIER IN FINLAND. Andres Tarand flew to Helsinki on 16 December for meetings with his counterpart, Esko Aho, President Martti Ahtisaari, and parliament chairwoman Riitta Uosakainen, BNS reports. Ahtissari pledged Finland's support for Estonian associate membership in the European Union. The two premiers discussed visa-free travel between their two countries, but Aho said this would be possible only after Estonia has tightened control over its borders. Aho also told Tarand that Finland would provide 1.3 million kroons to clean up liquid waste at the former Russian submarine base at Paldiski and 500,000-750.000 kroons to improve Estonian-language instruction in Narva. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Pete Baumgartner) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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