|The absence of alternatives clears the mind marvelously. - Henry Kissinger|
RFE/RL DAILY REPORT
NO. 233, 12 DECEMBER 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIAN TROOPS INVADE CHECHNYA. On 9 December Russian President Boris Yeltsin issued a decree ordering the Russian government to use all resources at the state's disposal to disarm "armed formations" in Chechnya and the region of the Ingush-Ossetian conflict, ITAR-TASS reported; the decree stressed that actions aimed at destroying the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation were illegal under the terms of the Russian Constitution. Liberal members of the State Duma sent a telegram to Yeltsin urging him to desist from the use of force in Chechnya that could turn Russia "from a democratic into a police state" but postponed until 14 December voting on a draft resolution censuring Yeltsin's Chechnya policy. On 10 December Russian military aircraft bombed Grozny, and the Russian government announced that Chechnya's land and air borders had been sealed. The leader of the opposition Provisional Council Umar Avturkhanov was quoted by Reuters as welcoming Yeltsin's decree and urging that it be immediately implemented. Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev, for his part, warned in an interview with Izvestiya cited by Reuters that he no longer controlled the actions of Islamic guerrillas from within Chechnya and from other Muslim countries who had vowed to defend Chechnya. Both Dudaev and Avturkhanov affirmed their readiness to participate in talks with Russian officials scheduled to open in Vladikavkaz on 12 December, according to ITAR-TASS. On 11 December Russian Defense and Interior Ministry forces entered Chechnya from Ingushetia, North Ossetia, and Dagestan and proceeded toward Grozny, encountering virtually no resistance. A Russian military spokesman told RFE/RL that the troops would seal off Grozny but would not attempt to storm the city. Whether Russian troops attempted to disarm the Chechen opposition is unclear. The invasion was condemned as "idiotic" by Russian State Duma Defense Committee Chairman Sergei Yushenkov in an interview with RFE/RL. A group of deputies to the Federation Council appealed to speaker Vladimir Shumeiko on 11 December to convene an emergency session to debate the Chechen situation, according to Interfax. In a written appeal, Dudaev called upon Russia "to step back from the brink of war." In an address to the Russian people carried by ITAR-TASS on 11 December, Yeltsin reiterated that "our goal is to find a political solution" to the Chechen crisis. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. INVASION OF CHECHNYA UNPOPULAR IN RUSSIA. In an interview with RFE/RL on 11 December, former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev noted that the Russian invasion of Chechnya was extremely unpopular among all major political parties and the general public in Russia. In a survey published by Interfax a few weeks ago, the majority of respondents disapproved of the use of force against Chechnya; only slightly over 20 percent approved. With a few exceptions, the democrats, communists, and even Russian nationalists all oppose the intervention. Last week, both chambers of the Russian parliament voiced their opposition to the use of force--a stand that differs considerably from that of the USSR parliament at the time of the attempted military crackdown in the Baltic States in 1990. Authoritarian regimes often attempt to improve their popularity ratings by way of a small victorious war, but such wars usually enjoy public support, at least in their initial stages. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. ABKHAZ, NORTH CAUCASIANS, CRIMEAN TATARS SUPPORT DUDAEV. An emergency session of the Congress of Caucasian Peoples opened in Nalchik on 11 December and called for mass protest actions against the Russian invasion of Chechnya, Interfax reported. Spontaneous protest demonstrations also took place in Abkhazia, and members of the Crimean Islamic Party and the Organization of the Crimean Tatar National Movement stated their intention of recruiting volunteers to fight in support of the Dudaev regime. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. INGUSHETIA, DAGESTAN: RESISTANCE TO RUSSIAN ADVANCE REPORTED. At least four Ingush civilians were killed and others were wounded when local people in Barsuki, Ingushetia, attempted to stop a Russian armored column en route to Chechnya. Several tanks were burned out, and the column moved on under the protection of combat helicopters. In Dagestan, another Russian armored column moving toward Chechnya was reported to have been stopped at the border, also by civilians, Interfax, AFP, and Reuters reported on 11 December. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. NORTH OSSETIA-INGUSHETIA: STATE OF EMERGENCY EXTENDED. Russia's Council of the Federation approved on 9 December a revised version of Yeltsin's 2 December decree (whose initial version it had rejected) extending by two months the state of emergency in the North Ossetian-Ingush conflict area. The text instructs Russia's Security Council to consider proposals by the Federation Council and by the North Ossetian and Ingush presidents on developing measures to stabilize the region and to prepare conditions for lifting the state of emergency. In addition, the Federation Council created a commission to monitor the implementation of the presidential decree jointly with the Security Council. Ingush President Ruslan Aushev told Interfax on 9 and 10 December that he found the amendments inadequate. The text appears to continue favoring North Ossetia in that it does not stipulate that the Ingush expelled from Prigorodnyi Raion must be allowed to return to their homes in Prigorodnyi Raion. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CONGRESS OF PERSECUTED PEOPLES. Ingushetia's capital Nazran hosted on 9 and 10 December a Congress of Persecuted Peoples, attended by representatives of Caucasian peoples that had been deported or undergone other forms of collective repression under Soviet rule. The congress called for the withdrawal of Russian troops from Chechnya; for the resignation of "all of Russia's power ministers," deemed responsible for using force against civilians and against Chechnya's "legitimate government"; and for the resolution of the crisis exclusively by political means. It also created a special contact group with Chechnya and dispatched it there, Interfax reported on 9 and 10 December. In addition, the congress called on the UN Secretary General to define the repression suffered by those peoples during the Soviet period as genocide and to condemn it under the UN convention against genocide. Addressing the congress, Aushev criticized attempts in Moscow to "emasculate" Russia's 1992 law on the rehabilitation of the repressed peoples by omitting the provisions on territorial restitution and right of return. Such changes would adversely affect the Chechen and Ingush, among others, while pleasing the Moscow-backed North Ossetians. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. FEDERATION COUNCIL REJECTS LAW ON STATE SUPPORT FOR MEDIA. On 9 December the upper chamber of the Russian parliament voted down the controversial Law on State Support for the Media, adopted earlier by the State Duma. Like most Russian editors and journalists, the Federation Council objected to the provision stipulating that all subsidies, whether from private persons or the state budget, must be administered by a monopolistic supervisory council, to be composed of deputies of both houses of the parliament and presidential representatives. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN ELECTED PUBLIC TV GUARDIAN. At a meeting of shareholders of Russian Public Television (formerly Ostankino) on 10 December, Yeltsin was elected chairman of the companies' Board of Guardians. Aleksandr Yakovlev, chairman of the Federal Broadcasting Service and of the Ostankino Radio and TV Company, was elected chairman of its Board of Directors. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN OVERRULES DUMA ON CONSTITUTION DAY. On 7 December the State Duma voted against the president's proposal that 12 December, the anniversary of the new Russian Constitution, be declared a holiday. The next day, 8 December, Yeltsin issued a decree making 12 December a national holiday. Why Yeltsin spends state money on maintaining the parliament is a mystery. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. GROUND FORCES GENERALS CONTRADICT GRACHEV. Komsomolskaya pravda on 10 December carried an article stating that eleven top generals in the Russian Ground Forces--including the commander-in-chief, Colonel General Vladimir Semenov--had sent an appeal to the parliament decrying the poor condition of the forces. The paper contrasted this with the recent declaration by Defense Minister Pavel Grachev that the military was fully combat ready. The paper quoted the appeal as saying that without "immediate intervention at the state level" the Ground Forces might not be able to carry out their duties. The generals were quoted as saying that there had not been a single divisional training exercise since 1992, that the forces were drastically undermanned, that more than a third of the helicopters were grounded, and that equipment was inadequate. The paper ended by saying it was talking not just about an attempt by a group of generals to stand up to Grachev but also the complete disintegration of Russia's Army. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. NAVY DEPUTY CHIEF SAYS NATO CONTACTS WITH RUSSIA "SUPERFICIAL." Admiral Igor Kasatonov--the deputy commander-in-chief of the Russian Navy--told Interfax on 8 December that NATO countries were maintaining only "superficial contact" with Russia and had not changed their Cold War doctrine of military superiority. Kasatonov pointed to a recent incident where North Fleet forces had detected what he claimed was a US nuclear submarine in Russian territorial waters in the Barents Sea. He charged that such incidents "make mutual relations between the world's largest powers rather problematic." Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN SPACE EFFORTS NEED MORE STATE MONEY. Yurii Koptev, the director general of the Russian Space Agency, told a news conference in Samara on 8 December that the Russian space industry needed at least as twice as much support from the government as it was now receiving. As quoted by Interfax, he said that more than 2.2 trillion rubles (some $670 million) were needed for research and design work in 1995. Koptev was in Samara to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Progress plant--builder of the "Soyuz" medium-weight space booster. The plant is preparing to introduce a follow-on "Rus" booster that will be able to put a heavier load in orbit. "Rus" is being designed for use from Russia's Plesetsk launch site, and its first launch is expected in 1997. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS RUSSIAN SECOND THOUGHTS ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM MOLDOVA. Russia's Foreign Ministry, in a statement distributed by Russia's embassy in Chisinau and reported by Basapress on 10 December, took issue with Moldova's recent appeals for international monitoring of the withdrawal of Russian troops, armaments, and ammunition from Moldova. Monitoring should only be conducted by the Russian and the Moldovan side, the Russian statement said. Moldova, however, had pointed out in its appeals to the UN, the CSCE, the North Atlantic Assembly, and several Western governments that it lacked the means to monitor the withdrawal. Meanwhile, the troop withdrawal agreement signed by the prime ministers on 21 October is being thrown into question by Russian military and civilian authorities. In the latest instance, Konstantin Zatulin, chairman of the Russian Duma's Committee on CIS Affairs, said during a visit to Tiraspol that the agreement would definitely be submitted to the Duma for ratification. Zatulin met with "Dniester republic" leaders in Tiraspol, bypassing Chisinau. The latter thought it had signed an executive agreement not subject to parliamentary approval, and it fears that the Duma's hard-line majority may kill or shelve the agreement. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE HAS MILOSEVIC'S BREAK WITH BOSNIAN SERBS BEEN "A RUSE"? This is the question posed by a lengthy article in the 10 December Los Angeles Times and by a shorter piece in the International Herald Tribune. The Los Angeles daily points to a growing list of evidence, including anti-aircraft missile batteries cropping up around Bihac and an apparently good supply of oil for Bosnian and Krajina Serb forces. One diplomat said of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic: "There's a good chance he's been double-dealing and is involved in the Bihac stuff. I'm suspicious as hell." The article notes that Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev met not only with Milosevic on a recent visit to Belgrade but also with Bosnian Serb commander General Ratko Mladic. It concludes that "the fine hand of Belgrade...is increasingly visible in the latest Balkan violence. [Diplomats] say they fear that Milosevic has been maneuvering his Bosnian and Croatian Serb pawns in a clever endgame." The goal is the establishment of a greater Serbia. Elsewhere, The New York Times quoted the Croatian foreign minister as saying that Russian missiles have reached Serbian forces around Bihac via Montenegro. Finally, Reuters reported that Belgrade has restored telephone links with Bosnian Serb territory, and on 12 December Politika quoted the rump Yugoslav foreign minister as calling for good relations between Belgrade and Pale. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BOSNIAN SERB FORCES CONTINUE CAT-AND-MOUSE GAME WITH THE UN. International media reported on 10 December that Bosnian Serb forces have freed the last of their UN hostages but continue to deny fuel to UNPROFOR forces. This means there is no gasoline for UN patrols in places like Sarajevo, Gorazde, and Srebrenica. The 11 December Los Angeles Times reported that the Serbs prevented UN commander General Sir Michael Rose from visiting Bangladeshi troops around Bihac. Rose then used a word many have employed in recent days to describe the Serb treatment of UNPROFOR--namely, "humiliation." The New York Times reported on 12 December that Serbs the previous day hijacked UN fuel trucks and communications vehicles and issued an order banning UN use of armored personnel carriers to escort future convoys. UN spokesmen said such actions were "totally unacceptable" and "outrageous." The BBC on 10 December noted that Croatia has admitted having regular troops on Bosnian territory, but the UN withdrew its criticism of Zagreb after the Croats pointed out that their involvement is at the invitation of the Bosnian government. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ANOTHER BLOW AGAINST MEDIA FREEDOM IN CROATIA. News agencies reported from Zagreb on 9 December that the chief editor of Vjesnik, Kresimir Fijacko, has been sacked by the paper's new owner, a bank run by people close to the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ). Fijacko, who turned Vjesnik from a semi-official government mouthpiece into a critical voice, slammed his firing as "a purely political move." Similar takeovers have been used by the government of President Franjo Tudjman to muzzle other independent publications, like the weekly Danas and the daily Slobodna Dalmacija, which now toe the line of the HDZ, as do most of the print and virtually all of the electronic media. Fijacko's successor, Ante Ivkovic, says "our primary interests are Croatian national interests, and there is nothing above them." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CONSOLATION PRIZE FOR SLOVENIA? International media reported on 9 December that Slovenia has sought admission to the dwindling European Free Trade Association. That body has been drained of members over the years as countries like Great Britain or Austria left for what is now the EU; it currently consists only of Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Iceland. Slovenia is considered the former Yugoslav republic with the best credentials for closer economic and social integration with Western Europe, but Italy has vetoed Slovenia's attempts to win associate-member status in the EU. Rome has tried to reopen the question of compensation for Italians who lived in what is now Slovenia prior to the end of World War II. Ljubljana says that the matter was settled by a 1975 treaty and that it has reemerged only because of domestic Italian political pressures from the far Right. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH PREMIER SATISFIED WITH EU SUMMIT. Rzeczpospolita and Gazeta Wyborcza on 12 December report that Waldemar Pawlak was "pleased" with the results of the European Union summit in Essen on 9 and 10 December. In particular, he welcomed the summit's decision to go ahead with high-speed rail and road projects that provide for EU investments in Poland. Pawlak noted that West European leaders stopped short of setting a precise timetable for entry negotiations but emphasized that Poland's active and sustained efforts to join the union may make those negotiations easier. Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND AND SOUTH KOREA TO INTENSIFY ECONOMIC COOPERATION. Presidents Lech Walesa and Kim Young-Sam on 9 December announced an agreement to build a joint-venture auto plant in Poland and strengthen economic ties in general. No details on the projects were released during Walesa's visit to Seoul, but Rzeczpospolita on 12 December reported that the South Korean automaker Hyundai planned to construct a plant near Gdansk and that Daewoo might be interested in a joint-venture agreement with some Polish vehicle manufacturers. Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH PREMIER ON EU. Speaking at the European Union summit in Essen on 9 December, Vaclav Klaus said that joining the EU is his country's main strategic goal. He also noted he was glad "we are approaching the moment when the final residuals of the Cold War division of Europe will be overcome." Klaus and the leaders of five other Central and East European nations were invited to hear the EU's plans for gradually admitting their states into the organization. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. HAVEL DISCUSSES BOSNIA. Czech President Vaclav Havel told Czech Radio on 11 December that it was "almost shocking" that at the recent CSCE summit in Budapest, "top representatives of Europe were unable to agree on a joint resolution [on the situation in Bosnia] that would condemn several bandits." But he did note that it would have been "unrealistic to expect that Russia, Croatia and Bosnia could agree on a joint resolution." Havel added that the failure to adopt such a resolution does not necessarily mean the overall work of the CSCE will be adversely affected. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECHS LIKE SLOVAKS, DISLIKE GYPSIES. The results of a recent opinion poll conducted by the Institute for Public Opinion Research indicate that Slovaks are the most-liked minority in the Czech Republic. A total of 65 percent of Czechs had a positive attitude toward Slovaks, while only 7 percent of the poll's 877 respondents displayed a negative attitude toward them. Conversely, 68 percent of the respondents revealed a negative attitude toward Gypsies; only 5 percent said their relations with Gypsies were good. The respondents were generally well inclined toward Poles and Germans, although 20 percent said they disliked Germans. Only 14 percent were well inclined toward Vietnamese, 13 percent toward Russians, and 10 percent toward citizens of Balkan states. The poll's findings, published by CTK on 7 December, confirm the results of previous polls. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PREMIER-DESIGNATE FORMS COALITION. After ten weeks of political stalemate following the parliamentary elections on 30 September and 1 October, Slovak Prime Minister-designate Vladimir Meciar on 11 December signed a coalition agreement with the extreme-right Slovak National Party and the left-wing Association of Slovak Workers. Together, the three parties hold 83 seats in the 150-member parliament. Meciar was ousted twice as prime minister, most recently in March following a parliamentary no-confidence vote. Meciar told a 11 December press conference that his government will pursue integration into Western structures. Both the SNP and the ASW have expressed doubts about the value of European integration and NATO membership. But SNP Chairman Jan Slota argued on 11 December that his party has never rejected joining NATO and is "interested in Slovakia's integration into the EU." ASW Chairman Jan Luptak said "one has to distinguish between the opinions of the [coalition] parties and the government as a whole." According to Meciar, the new government should be able to work out its program and draft state budget within one month of its appointment. He said he wanted to meet with both Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus as soon as possible to resolve important bilateral issues and Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Horn to resolve disagreements. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. DEMOCRATIC UNION WARNS OF NORMALIZATION IN SLOVAKIA. The Democratic Union of outgoing Slovak Prime Minister Jozef Moravcik issued a statement on 11 December saying it was seriously worried that "a normalization process" had been launched when the Slovak Parliament set up a special committee to investigate the union. It claimed that such a process would return Slovak society to the situation that had existed before November 1989. The Democratic Union noted that since the parliamentary elections at the beginning of October, it had been under attack and "its legitimacy questioned." Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and its allies set up the special committee at a parliament session on 3-4 November to investigate whether the union had collected the 10,000 valid signatures necessary for participating in the elections, despite the fact that the party won more than 200,000 votes in the elections. Before the special committee was set up, the Constitutional Court and the Central Electoral Commission ruled that the 10,000 signatures were valid. The Democratic Union also argued in its 11 December statement that the MDS's actions are "a clear sign of the destruction of Slovakia's democratic system." Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. INDEPENDENTS PREVAIL IN HUNGARIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS. According to the preliminary results of Hungary's second free municipal elections since 1990, independent candidates won 2,573 of the 3,146 mayoral posts, MTI reports on 12 December. They were followed by the Hungarian Socialist Party (107), the Alliance of Free Democrats (55), the Alliance of Young Democrats and the Christian Democratic People's Party (44 each), the Independent Smallholders' Party (36), and the Hungarian Democratic Forum (23). Independent candidates won a total of 15,176 local government mandates, followed by the HSP with 1,614, the AFD (608), and the AYD (470). Incumbent Budapest Mayor Gabor Demszky (AFD) held on to his office with 66.2 percent of the vote, ahead of the opposition candidate Janos Latorcai (28.7 percent) and HSP candidate Etele Barath (26 percent). Opposition candidates won 12 of Budapest's district mayoralty races, the AFD five, and the HSP four. The united conservative opposition parties, especially the Young Democrats, fared better than in the May 1994 parliamentary elections. Voter turnout was 43 percent. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN NUCLEAR PLANT MANAGEMENT REPLACED. At an extraordinary meeting of the co-owners of the Paks Nuclear Works Inc. on 9 December, the plant's entire management was replaced, MTI reported the same day. Laszlo Marothy was appointed board chairman for the next three years, and Istvan Szabo, Janos Marton, and Zoltan Szatmary were named board members. Marothy and Szabo have held leading positions at Paks for decades. The reason for the dismissal of general manager Erno Petz was not disclosed. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. WORKERS' PROTEST CONTINUES IN ROMANIA. A protest staged by thousands of industrial workers in the town of Resita entered its sixth day on 11 December. Radio Bucharest reported that demonstrators gathered outside the offices of local authorities and chanted anti-government slogans. They insisted that Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu come to Resita and talk to them. Vacaroiu is scheduled to receive a government commission's report on the protest on 12 December. Steel and heavy industry workers in Resita are complaining about delays in wage payments and falling living standards. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN-ROMANIAN DISPUTE. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma told a news conference in Kiev that he told President Ion Iliescu during a conversation at the CSCE summit in Budapest that the bilateral treaty under negotiation must "codify Ukraine's territorial integrity and the inviolability of its borders." Kuchma made his remarks in response to the Romanian parliament's repeated territorial claims, UNIAN reported on 7 December. The negotiations toward the bilateral treaty are stalled by the Romanian Foreign Ministry's demands for the inclusion of language that would imply a Romanian right to recover territories currently in Ukraine and Moldova. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN PRESIDENT IN UKRAINE. During a three-day official visit to Ukraine from 8-10 December, Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev said that bilateral relations "are not overshadowed by any problems" and that Bulgaria "highly values Ukraine's foreign policy for its positive, stabilizing role in Europe," UNIAN and ITAR-TASS reported. He called for a new era of cooperation between the two countries, saying that "we must develop relations anew, on market principles." Zhelev, accompanied by a high-level delegation, signed agreements to boost military and trade ties. Eight cooperation accords were signed in the energy, air and overland transportation, shipping, and other sectors, including a special agreement on "military-technical cooperation" and repairs of Bulgarian naval ships in Ukraine's docks at Nikolaev. Zhelev also visited the Black Sea port of Odessa, where he met with representatives of the Bulgarian population in southern Ukraine. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma told journalists in Kiev on 10 December that he and Zhelev resolved problems related to Russian gas supplies transiting Ukrainian territory. Ukraine in November admitted to siphoning off Russian gas deliveries bound for European countries, including Bulgaria. Vladimir Socor and Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN RELATIONS. President Algirdas Brazauskas told a press conference in Vilnius on 9 December that he met with his Russian counterpart, Boris Yeltsin, during the CSCE summit in Budapest, RFE/RL's Lithuanian Service reports. Brazauskas noted that the talks on military transit and bilateral trade became stalled after Russia expressed dissatisfaction with Lithuanian military transit regulations, due to go into effect on 1 January. He said that Foreign Ministry officials would resume talks soon and probably prepare a transit agreement. Brazauskas said he would telephone with Yeltsin to settle any matters the negotiators were unable to solve. Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius discussed similar matters with his Russian counterpart, Viktor Chernomyrdin, in a telephone conversation on 8 December. The two leaders agreed to meet in Moscow in mid-January. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN TEACHERS ANNOUNCE GENERAL STRIKE. Following a five-day warning strike, the teachers' trade union on 9 December announced a general strike beginning 12 December. They threatened to remain on strike until the government meets its demands, BNS reports. The teachers are demanding a 16 percent wage increase as of 1 January 1995, changes in pensions, and improved funding for schools. President Guntis Ulmanis, while supporting the teachers' demands, urged them to return to work and argued that striking would not help their situation. Finance Minister Andris Piebalgs said it might be possible to find an additional 7 million lati for teachers in the 1995 budget, but not the 11.8 million lati that the union is demanding. The government will discuss the teachers' strike at its regular meeting on 13 December. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA STOPS OIL DELIVERIES TO ESTONIA. Rudolf Puks, head of Eesti Energia's fuel department, said the Russian government's 2 December decree ordering that fuel oil exports to Estonia be halted until 1 April 1995 may cause heating prices to rise in Estonia, BNS reported on 9 December. He added that because there are no indications yet that Russia plans to halt gas shipments to Estonia, Eesti Energia will convert its boiler houses to use gas. This move will raise the costs for households, since gas energy is more expensive. The oil stoppage is not expected to have a significant effect on industrial production, because most enterprises use domestic shale oil for fuel. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 12:00 CET] By Jan Cleave and Penny Morvant The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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