|Every man passes his life in the search after friendship. - Emerson|
No. 232, 9 December 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES CHECHEN CRISIS. Both chambers of the Russian parliament discussed the Chechen crisis behind closed doors on 8 December, Russian and Western agencies reported. The Federation Council condemned attempts to resolve the crisis by force, and called on the prosecutor general to investigate who had initiated the air raids on Grozny. The State Duma adopted a draft resolution criticizing as unsatisfactory the activities of federal bodies in Chechnya and called on President Boris Yeltsin to use only constitutional means to restore the situation to normal. The presidium of the parliament of Tatarstan similarly expressed deep concern over Moscow's "shortsighted and ambitious" use of force in Chechnya, Interfax reported. Also on 8 December, the last remaining seven Russian troops captured during the abortive attempt by the opposition Provisional Council on 26-27 November to take control of Grozny were released in accordance with the agreement reached on 6 December between Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev and Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. A Chechen spokesman denied reports by ITAR-TASS that talks between the Chechen and Russian governments and the Chechen opposition would begin on 12 December, affirming that the Chechen government would never negotiate with the Provisional Council, according to Reuters. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. FIGHTING SPIRIT IN RUSSIA'S TASK FORCE FOR CHECHNYA . . . In Mozhdok (North Ossetia), where a large Russian task force stands poised on Chechnya's border, officers interviewed by Western reporters are in a robust mood. One officer told a correspondent for Le Monde (8 December) that "we need a new Stalin who would show us how to deal with these dark-skinned types." Another officer told a correspondent for The Independent (6 December) that Chechnya "must be not merely defeated but destroyed." He endorsed the view of a 19th century Russian commander in the protracted Caucasus war that "extermination rather than pacification is the way to secure long-term control" of the region. Russian TV on 7 December described the "fighting spirit" in the Russian task force and interviewed two of its officers who presented themselves as "mercenaries" recruited and paid specially for operations against Chechnya. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . BUT SOME BRASS OBJECT. Deputy Defense Minister Georgii Kondratev on 8 December joined fellow Deputy Minister Boris Gromov and Lieutenant General Aleksandr Lebed in publicly criticizing the use of force against Chechnya. "The problem of Chechnya will not be solved through military means. . . . There must be no repetition of the ill-considered [military] actions of a few days ago," Kondratev told ITAR-TASS. He urged Yeltsin and the Russian government to seek a political solution and called for negotiations with "the elected president" of Chechnya. Gromov was even more outspoken, telling Russian TV on 7 December that he would join other parents in resisting efforts to send their conscript sons to invade Chechnya. On the same day, Duma Military Affairs Committee Chairman Sergei Yushenkov (Democratic Russia) told Interfax that "the more or less democratic-minded people on the presidential team are absolutely powerless." That major military figures and political and parliamentary groups ranging from democrats to nationalists have all criticized the government's policy on Chechnya underscores the personal responsibility of Yeltsin and Grachev for the decision to use force against Chechnya. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. GORBACHEV TO MEDIATE IN CHECHEN CONFLICT? Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev told RFE/RL on 8 December that he had been approached by the Chechen president to serve as a mediator between the Chechen and Russian leaderships. According to Gorbachev, Dudaev had decided to turn to him after the former Soviet leader had told journalists at a press conference held earlier in the month to mark the publication of his book on the collapse of the USSR that he opposed the use of force against the breakaway Russian republic. Gorbachev added that he had accepted Dudaev's request and was going to contact Russia's leaders; their willingness to accept him as a go-between is by no means certain. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. INGUSH LEADERS' WARNINGS. In Komsomolskaya pravda of 8 December, Ingush President Ruslan Aushev stated that he was categorically opposed to the use of force against Chechnya. A Russian invasion, if mounted, would succeed at the cost of "massive bloodshed" and would lead to a guerrilla war, he predicted. Ingushetia would oppose the transit of Russian forces through its territory en route for Chechnya "because the Chechen are our brothers," Aushev said. Ingush Vice President Boris Agapov similarly warned via Interfax on 8 December that "Ingushetia can never be turned into a bridgehead against Chechnya." Passage of Russian forces to Chechnya via Ingushetia "may compel people to take up arms, since most Ingush see the situation in Chechnya as a conflict between Chechnya and Russia," Agapov said. Until 1992, the Ingush and Chechens formed a common republic, and both were persecuted under Soviet rule. On 7 December 1994 delegates to a congress of repressed peoples, held in the Ingush capital Nazran, were barred by the Moscow-installed Temporary Administration from visiting Prigorodnyi Raion, whose Ingush population was violently evicted in 1992 by the Russian-backed North Ossetians. Those developments seem to have shaken Aushev's loyalty to Moscow as a former Soviet paratroop general with a distinguished combat record in Afghanistan. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. LEADER OF RUSSIA'S FIRST ANTICOMMUNIST PARTY RESIGNS. Nikolai Travkin, the founder of the first noncommunist political party in modern Russia--the Democratic Party of Russia (DPR)--has resigned as DPR chairman and as leader of its faction in the Duma, Russian Television's "Vesti" reported on 7 December. Founded in 1990 as a strongly anticommunist party, the DPR, along with fellow activists in the Democratic Russia movement, supported Yeltsin during his campaign for the Presidency in June 1991. In December of the same year, Travkin's party split the movement, and Travkin became one of the most eloquent spokesmen of the centrist opposition to Yeltsin in the former parliament. In the run-up to the last parliamentary elections, in December 1993, Travkin persuaded a number of prominent intellectuals, who had never before been DPR members, to stand on the DPR list. Those people--including Yeltsin's former minister of foreign trade, Sergei Glazev, the film director Stanislav Govorukhin, and the economist Oleg Bogomolov--did not share the procommunist or Russian nationalist views of the illiberal opposition but also rejected Yeltsin's policies. Earlier this year, Travkin was appointed minister without portfolio, and he subsequently lost all interest in opposition activities. As a result, he lost the support of his faction and had to resign. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. DUMA REJECTS PROPOSAL TO DECLARE 12 DECEMBER A HOLIDAY. According to Ostankino TV news, on 8 December the Duma rejected Yeltsin's proposal to declare 12 December, the day when the first postcommunist Russian Constitution was approved in a referendum in 1993, a holiday. By voting to retain 12 December as a working day, the Russian parliament is breaking with a tradition that dates back to 1936, for the anniversaries of the constitutions adopted under Stalin and Brezhnev (5 December and 7 October, respectively) were both holidays. Moreover, the vote of 8 December suggests that a majority of deputies have doubts about whether the constitution, adopted in a vote called by Yeltsin that contradicted the then law on referendums, is an entirely legal document. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. CRACKDOWN ON DRAFT DODGERS. The Russian government on 8 December endorsed a Defense Ministry proposal to take much harsher action against those who avoid the draft or other military obligations. Interfax quoted Colonel General Mikhail Kolesnikov--chief of the Russian General Staff--as saying that on average 250,000 men each year either dodge the draft, fail to report for reserve training, or neglect to register with their local army commissariat. Kolesnikov charged that the existing punishments for such offenses were purely symbolic: a 5-25 ruble fine. The new punishments--which have yet to be endorsed by the Duma--would call for a one to three year jail term, up to two years corrective labor, or a fine equal to 50 times the monthly minimum wage for draft dodgers. Those who did not register with their local commissariat would have to pay a fine equal to five times the monthly minimum wage, while reservists who did not show up for training when called could be put in jail or given corrective labor for one year or fined 25 times the monthly minimum wage. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENSE MINISTRY'S NEW PROCUREMENT PLAN. ITAR-TASS on 8 December reported that the Russian Defense Ministry had worked out the basic areas of a new "military-technical policy" under the pressure of a severe budget deficit. Quoting the ministry's information and press department, the agency said that the new plan envisaged cutting the number of enterprises that supply military equipment and increasing the funds for research. Priority would be given to new technology. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. INSTITUTE SUING CHEMICAL WEAPONS WHISTLE-BLOWER. Dissident scientist Vil Mirzayanov told Interfax on 8 December that his former employer--the State Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology--was suing him for 33 million rubles for the damage to the institute's prestige caused by his revelations. In September 1992 Mirzayanov published an article in Moscow News charging that Russia had created a new binary chemical weapon at the institute. Subsequently, he was charged with disclosing state secrets, but the case against him was eventually dropped. He called the institute's behavior "completely absurd." Mirzayanov claimed that he had written the original article on the initiative of the institute and that the decision to drop the case indicated that he had written the truth. "It is unclear to me what I must refute now," he declared. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ASIAN LOANS TO CENTRAL ASIAN STATES. Western news agencies reported on 8 December that the Manila-based Asian Development Bank (ADB) had approved a $40 million loan to Kyrgyzstan to help stabilize the country's economy. On 6 December the same organization had approved a $60 million loan to Kazakhstan to assist that country's transition to a market economy. Kyrgyzstan's economy has suffered more than that of any other Central Asian state except war-torn Tajikistan from the rupture of Soviet era economic ties, and it has sought extensive assistance from foreign countries and financial institutions for help in stopping the decline and instituting a market economy. The interest-free ADB loan is earmarked for the financing of imports to strengthen the energy and transportation sectors, for educational services, and for the revitalization of public and private enterprises. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. REACTION TO CSCE KARABAKH DECISION. Speaking to journalists in Erevan on 8 December, acting Armenian presidential press secretary Levon Zurabyan characterized the decision of the CSCE Budapest summit on creating a peacekeeping force for Nagorno-Karabakh as "a success for Armenian diplomacy" and a move toward resolving the conflict, Interfax reported. At the same time, he reiterated that Armenia still abided by the principle that Nagorno-Karabakh itself was a main party to the conflict. Russia's mediator for Nagorno-Karabakh, Vladimir Kazimirov, described the ruling as "realistic and balanced" and expressed the hope that it would end what he termed "speculations" about tension between Russia and the CSCE Minsk Group. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE US TO SEND GROUND TROOPS TO BOSNIA AFTER ALL? In what The Chicago Tribune on 9 December calls a "major turnaround," President Bill Clinton has approved the deployment of up to 15,000 US combat troops to protect any UN withdrawal from Bosnia and Herzegovina. A State Department spokesperson said "the president believes that it is important that the United States, as the leader of the Atlantic Alliance, be ready to assist its allies in the event their forces are in danger." A Republican senator told the BBC, however, that the Clinton administration's Bosnian policy is changing "by the hour, by the minute." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BRITAIN IN NO HURRY TO WITHDRAW UNPROFOR CONTINGENT. The 9 December Financial Times reports that London does not share the sense of urgency felt in Paris on possibly pulling its troops out of Bosnia. Britain's UN ambassador told news agencies simply that "the behavior of some of the parties, particularly the Bosnian Serb party, is putting into question the carrying out of the mandate and that . . . raises the issue of a withdrawal." In a related development, The New York Times says that British Major General Rupert Smith will replace his countryman General Sir Michael Rose when the latter's term as UNPROFOR commander in Bosnia runs out on 24 January. Meanwhile in Bosnia itself, Serbian forces released some 55 Canadian peacekeepers they had been taken hostage, but they continue to hold some 300 UNPROFOR troops. A US and a French photographer "were handcuffed, hooded, and repeatedly beaten" while held north of Bihac after being arrested in Krajina on 5 December. A UN spokesman said the men had been submitted to "outrageous treatment." It is reported that they were beaten by a unit of Yugoslav army soldiers from Belgrade. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA INSISTS ON LOWER TAXES. President Lech Walesa on 8 December instructed his aides to ask the Constitutional Tribunal to rule on the Sejm's vote overriding his veto of the income tax bill. The president had argued that high tax rates provided by the bill would cripple the public's purchasing power. The parliament, for its part, overrode the veto, arguing that high taxes are necessary to maintain a balanced budget. Walesa wants the tribunal to determine whether the bill complies with the constitution; but since it is unlikely that the tribunal will make a ruling before the end of the year, the public will probably continue to pay lower taxes during at least the first part of 1995. Gazeta Wyborcza on 9 December said the presidential maneuvers appear politically motivated--Walesa wants to gain public sympathy in view of the forthcoming elections--but are also backed by solid economic arguments (maintaining the public's purchasing power and forcing the government to prepare a leaner budget and cut unnecessary expenditures). Walesa's action also suggests his determination to intervene further in the government's economic programs, including vetoing other bills. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. HAVEL MEETS ESTONIAN PRESIDENT. Czech President Vaclav Havel on 8 December held talks with Estonian President Lennart Meri, after meetings with the two other Baltic presidents. After the meeting with Meri, Havel told journalists that his talks had been very useful. The Estonian president told journalists that Estonia will become an associate member of the European Union in 1995. He said the West should not delay incorporating East European states into Western organizations, because "Russia is on the brink of chaos, and it is possible that the West does not have much time to act." -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH GOVERNMENT APPROVES LAW ON MONEY LAUNDERING. The draft law on money laundering, approved by the Czech government on 7 December, stipulates that financial institutions be obliged to report "every unusual financial transaction" to the Finance Ministry's analytical center. CTK reports that "unusual transactions" are defined as those "untypical for trade activities of a certain kind or for some people." Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus told journalists that the government is not certain "who should report and how one should report such unusual transactions." He added that the mere fact that a financial institution reported such transactions should not lead to any charges until the case has been thoroughly investigated by the responsible state agencies. The draft law has to be approved by the parliament, which is likely to ask for changes to the bill. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH JEWS PROTEST OVER PROPERTY RETURN. Jiri Danicek, chairman of the Czech Republic's Federation of Jewish Communities, told a press conference in Prague on 8 December that the government's method of returning Jewish property seized by the Nazis and the Communists is "neither fortunate nor effective in many respects," Reuter reports. Danicek complained that the Jewish side has been put into the role of petitioner, obliged to submit to all the quirks of bureaucracy and forced to hold endless talks with an unclear prospect of success. The parliament in April passed a law providing for the return of 202 state-held buildings and pieces of land to the Jewish community. The Jews were not permitted, however, to claim former state property transferred to municipalities or already privatized. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. ANTI-MECIAR RALLY IN BRATISLAVA. Several thousand demonstrators staged a protest in Bratislava on 8 December against what they see as the undemocratic practices of Slovakia's Prime Minister-designate Vladimir Meciar. The rally was organized by university students on the occasion of International Human Rights Day. Politicians and representatives of the Slovak Council of Bishops, the Jewish Community, and other religious groups addressed the crowd. Reuter reports Jan Findra, chief of President Michal Kovac's office, as telling the demonstrators that "people are afraid that [communist-style] habits and practices are returning. Democracy is not a dictatorship of the majority over the minority." -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK FOREIGN MINISTER ON TREATY WITH HUNGARY. Eduard Kukan told CTK on 8 December that an early conclusion of the Slovak-Hungarian treaty was unlikely. He noted that Slovak and Hungarian views were very different, especially on the status of ethnic minorities. Kukan noted that Bratislava has been waiting for an answer from Budapest on Slovakia's draft of the treaty for more than four months. He added that experts from both countries will meet to discuss the treaty in the next few days. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. ENERGY PRICE HIKES IN HUNGARY. The Hungarian government announced on 8 December that electricity and gas prices for consumers will increase by an average of 65 and 53 percent, respectively, as of January, MTI reports. The government will allocate 9 billion forint ($8.2 million) from the state budget to compensate those hardest hit by the increases. It is estimated that a 100% hike in household energy prices is needed to bring them up to world levels and to cover production costs. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. UPDATE ON PROTESTS IN RESITA. For the third consecutive day, workers protested in the Romanian town of Resita, an RFE/RL correspondent and Radio Bucharest reported on 8 December. The Romanian government has dispatched a team of experts to Resita to analyze the 1995 prospects for the town's steelworks. Radio Bucharest reported at noon that the situation was "tense." Tensions apparently increased after the release of a communique by the President's office saying that the situation in Resita and elsewhere reflects the hardships brought about by restructuring but no solution could be found outside the "strict rules of the market economy." President Ion Iliescu added that joint teams of management, trade unions, government representatives, and privatization funds should work out a long-term program for the restructuring of enterprises encountering difficulties. Trade union leaders said the presidential press release contradicted proposals made to them earlier in the day in a telephone conversation with the president. Following that conversation, the union leaders had announced they accepted the proposals, which the President apparently later withdrew. Meanwhile, numerous trade unions have expressed solidarity with the strikers and some have dispatched representatives to Resita. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ILIESCU ATTACKS MOLDOVAN GOVERNMENT. Romanian President Ion Iliescu has attacked the Moldovan government in an interview with the Chisinau weekly Saptamina. Asked to comment on the reactions of the Moldovan leadership and the parliament to official Romanian irredentist statements, Iliescu said they were "nervous" and "lacking in judgment." He termed Moldova "a Romanian province" and rejected the notion of a Moldovan identity, insisting that Moldovans are Romanians. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. BERISHA DISMISSES TWELVE MINISTERS, APPOINTS FIVE. Albanian President Sali Berisha dismissed twelve ministers and appointed five on 4 December, Rilindja Demokratike reported two days later. Among those dismissed were Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Economic Reforms Bashkim Kopliku and the ministers for justice, finance, industry and trade, housing and construction, culture and youth, transportation and communication, tourism, interior, and labor and social affairs. Also sacked was a minister without portfolio and the head of the commission for the former politically persecuted. Central Bank Governor Dylber Vrioni has been appointed deputy prime minister and finance minister in the reshuffled cabinet. Albert Brojka is the new minister for industry, trade, and transportation, while Hektor Frasheri has been appointed justice minister. The new minister for culture, youth, and sports is Teodor Laco. Berisha's reshuffled came in response to recent charges of incompetence against the government in the Albanian media. The scope of the reshuffle may also be a result of Berisha's defeat in the November constitutional referendum. -- Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. OTHER ALBANIAN DEVELOPMENTS. According to a Reuters report from Tirana on 8 December, Albanian government officials denied that President Sali Berisha gave an interview to the daily Ta Nea, which the Greek paper published on 8 December. In it, the Albanian leader allegedly said his country would "soon" free the five ethnic Greeks sentenced earlier this year for espionage. A presidential spokesman refused to comment further on the fate of the five men. Elsewhere, some 113 peasants from the Kukes area are in the seventh day of a hunger strike to demand compensation for land belonging to them that was flooded by a communist-era dam project. Berisha had promised them a package including an interest-free loan of $1,600 per capita to rebuild; but, as with his promises to the communist-era political prisoners, the pledge has yet to be met. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE LIFTS PRIVATIZATION BAN AFTER ALL. The Ukrainian parliament on 8 December again voted to lift a four-month ban on privatization, international agencies reported. The decision was taken after deputies approved a list of more than 6,000 companies that will remain in state hands. While the list was not made public, it is reported to include large and medium-sized enterprises in the defense, communications, energy, and transportation sectors. Viktor Pynzenyk, first deputy prime minister in charge of economic reform, said after the 8 December vote that "the moratorium is lifted, but privatization is still an extremely complicated business." The previous day, the legislators had first voted to lift the ban and then voted to suspend that decision. -- Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE TO PARTICIPATE IN OSCE PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma said on 7 December that Ukrainian peacekeepers will participate in missions overseen by the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (the CSCE becomes the OSCE on 1 Jan. 1995), Reuters reported. Kuchma said Ukraine has decided to take an active role in international peacekeeping efforts, including those in Nagorno-Karabakh and Abkhazia. He said Ukrainian troops would participate only as peacekeepers and only as part of OSCE missions. Kuchma said any deployment of Ukrainian peacekeepers would have to be approved by parliament. The OSCE agreed at a summit this week to send a multi-national peacekeeping force to Nagorno-Karabakh. -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN DEPUTY PREMIER RESIGNS. Reuters reports that Viktar Hanchar announced his resignation on 8 December, criticizing President Aleksandr Lukashenko for poor leadership. He noted at a Minsk conference press that the president has become "a tool in the hands of rogues and outrageous dilettantes who paid for his election campaign," but he did not elaborate. Singling out the president's chief of staff Ivan Tsitsyankou and State Secretary for Security Viktar Sheiman, he said the two politicians had used their positions for personal advantage and created "a paranoid atmosphere" in government. Hanchar, a former professor of law and legislator, was a major supporter of Lukashenka's successful presidential campaign in July. -- Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC SEA STATES MINISTERS MEET IN TALLINN. At the third conference of ministers of Baltic Sea states, which ended on 8 December in the Estonian capital, the participants adopted the principles of strategy for regional development. In planning the development of cities and transportation systems, each country was urged to regard improving the environment as the primary consideration. The conference also expressed support for closer interstate cooperation on economic and social issues. The discussion of the region's transportation system ended with the acceptance of the Latvian delegation's proposal to include Latvia's major port cities, which so far have been outside the network, BNS reported on 8 December. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN MILITARY RECEIVED TEMPORARY LATVIAN RESIDENCE PERMITS. Latvia's Citizenship and Immigration Department issued 1,213 temporary residence permits to Russian military personnel and 2,208 permits to their family members for the period 31 August to 5 December 1994, BNS reported on 7 December. The permits were issued to military personnel living in Latvia as well as those who asked for permission to come to the country to settle repatriation issues. The department also said the 1,501 military staff who, under Latvian-Russian agreements, should have left Latvia by 31 August 1994 have not yet done so. Russia has submitted a list of 22,320 military personnel who, Russia says, are entitled to stay in Latvia under interstate agreements. The department has started to check that list and obtained information about 15,701 military personnel who were in Latvia as of 28 January 1992. Of that number, 1,061 have never had residence permits. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN PREMIER ON BUDGET. Adolfas Slezevicius told reporters on 8 December that the government has increased anticipated revenues in its 1995 budget to 5,200 million litai ($1,300 million) and that he expected the parliament would approve the budget on 14 December, BNS reports. He noted that revenues rose from an average of 330 million litai a month during the period August-October to 427 million litai in November, owing to stricter control on liquor and oil import and trade. He predicted that Lithuania's gross domestic product in 1995 would increase by 5 percent and inflation would be held at 25 percent. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. PROBLEMS FOR LITHUANIAN REFINERY. A lack of crude oil has closed down the Nafta refinery in Mazeikiai since 17 November, resulting in losses of more than 1 million litai ($250,000) per day, RFE/RL's Lithuanian Service reported on 7 December. Although the Russian firm Lukoil signed an agreement with Lithuania in January to supply 6 million tons of oil in 1994, it has sent only 1 million tons. Gediminas Kiesus, the refinery's deputy director, said on 8 December that although the refinery received 40,000 tons of oil from the Russian company Rosneft that day, it would start up again only when it receives another 60,000 tons from Rosneft or the 150,000 tons from Lukoil for which it has already paid $7.4 million as a guarantee for shipment. The oil supplied by Rosneft will be shipped to Kaliningrad after it is refined. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. NOVEMBER INFLATION IN ESTONIA. The Estonian Statistics Department announced that the consumer price index in November grew by 1.6 percent or 0.5 percent more than in October, BNS reported on 7 December. The costs of goods increased by 1.7 percent (1.4 percent for food and 2.2 percent for manufactured goods), and services went up by 1.4 percent. While the prices for dairy products and eggs increased 7.8 percent, those for fruits and vegetables declined by 3.6 percent. Compared with November 1993, the costs of goods and services were up 45.4 percent and housing expenses up 100.7 percent. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Penny Morvant) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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