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No. 231, 8 December 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIAN SECURITY COUNCIL, COUNTERINTELLIGENCE SERVICE ON CHECHNYA. Addressing the Russian Security Council on 7 December, President Boris Yeltsin demanded the unconditional observation by the Chechen leadership of constitutional requirements and the laws of the Russian Federation. In a statement carried by ITAR-TASS and subsequently denounced by Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev as "the imposition of war," the Security Council denied any conflict between Russia and Chechnya, describing events there as "a struggle for power between illegal armed groups"--a formulation that effectively denies the legitimacy of the Dudaev leadership. Liberals within the Federation Council criticized the Security Council statement as "lacking any legislative base," counterproductive, and likely to lead to a further escalation of the conflict, Western agencies reported. The Federal Counterintelligence Service issued a statement on 7 December claiming that the situation in Chechnya "endangered Russia's vital interests and national security" and accusing Dudaev of recruiting Afghan mujahedin and adherents of the extremist Turkish Grey Wolves, according to Interfax. Also on 7 December, Yeltsin promoted Minister for Nationalities Nikolai Egorov to the post of deputy prime minister and charged him with coordination of measures to restore constitutional order in Chechnya. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. GROMOV REINCARNATED AS DOVE. Deputy Defense Minster Colonel General Boris Gromov told a news conference reported by Russian media on 6 and 7 December that he categorically opposed military action against Chechnya. Citing his experience in Afghanistan (where he was the last commander of Soviet forces before their withdrawal), Gromov warned Russia's civilian and military leadership against creating "another Afghanistan or another Tajikistan," this time on Russian Federation territory. Warning against the unconstitutional use of the army in internal conflicts and against further bombings and spilling of blood in Chechnya, Gromov called for a peaceful solution to the conflict by political means. On 3 December Gromov had sent a conciliatory cable to the Chechen president regretting the covert participation of "misinformed and bought off" Russian soldiers in military operations against Chechnya and pleading for their release on humanitarian grounds. Gromov, who last week was stripped of some major duties by Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, has recently been linked to liberal circles in Moscow and has been cited as a possible presidential contender, as is Lieutenant General Aleksandr Lebed, another hard-liner who is taking a dovish position on Chechnya. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. JUSTICE MINISTER REMOVED. On 7 December, according to ITAR-TASS, Yeltsin signed a decree dismissing Justice Minister Yurii Kalmykov. Yeltsin appointed Kalmykov in 1993 during the confrontation between the Yeltsin team and the former parliament, in which both sides repeatedly accused the other of corruption. In early 1993, the then justice minister was one of four officials who organized the highly publicized news conferences aimed at incriminating Yeltsin's opponents, particularly former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi. Kalmykov submitted his resignation shortly after the publication in the liberal weekly Obshchaya gazeta on 21 October 1994 of an editorial attacking him for his involvement in the falsification of evidence in that case. In the meantime, Yeltsin nominated Kalmykov as a judge for the Constitutional Court, but the Council of Federation rejected his candidacy. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. MARI-EL TO ADOPT NEW CONSTITUTION. The Russian republic of Mari-el is expected to adopt a new constitution in May 1995, according to a decision made by the republic's Constitutional Commission. At a meeting held on 6 December in Yoshkar-Ola, the commission decided to amend the draft constitution in February 1995 and disseminate it for public discussion in March. The draft is expected to be passed by the republic's parliament in April. It will then be approved by a constitutional assembly to be formed from members of the parliament and government, representatives of the president of Mari-el, and members of various political parties and movements. -- Charles Carlson, RFE/RL, Inc. ST. PETERSBURG ACADEMICS TO GO ON STRIKE. At a meeting on 7 December, academics and scientists in St. Petersburg voted to hold a strike to protest the crisis in Russian science caused by inadequate financing, Ostankino TV news and an RFE/RL correspondent reported. According to the latter report, the academics are not demanding improvements in their own situation, such as the payment of back wages, but only action on the problems facing scientific institutions and related issues, such as the threat to the city's historical buildings and statues because of the lack of money to repair them. According to Ostankino, the proposed strike would be the first industrial action by St. Petersburg academics since the city was founded in 1725. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. SPACE COMPANIES HOPE TO GAIN BUSINESS. Interfax reported on 6 December that Russia's two largest builders of space launch vehicles hoped to become more active in launching commercial satellites following recent launch failures by the European Ariane space consortium. The company most likely to benefit, the report said, is the Central Specialized Design Bureau in Samara, maker of the "Soyuz" and "Progress" medium-sized boosters. The "Soyuz" is now competing with the European agency's Ariane-4 for the right to launch 26 low-orbit satellites under the Globalstar program. Moscow's Khrunichev Research and Production Center produces the large "Proton" booster. However, a 1993 agreement with the United States authorizes Russia to launch no more than 12 Western commercial telecommunications satellites into geostationary orbit by the end of the year 2000. Anatolii Kiselev, Khrunichev's general director, said that the Proton was fully booked until 1997 and that the international company marketing the Proton had used all the quotas of the 1993 agreement. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE IN KYRGYZSTAN. Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev has told a Constitutional Conference called to draft a law on amending the country's constitution that the Western parliamentary system is taking root in CIS states only with great difficulty and that it is unlikely to be fully adopted by any of them, including Kyrgyzstan, Interfax reported on 7 December. Akaev has sought to bring as much of a Western orientation as possible to his country, with less than full support from much of the political community. Defending his decision to seek amendments to Kyrgyzstan's constitution only 18 months after its adoption, Akaev asserted that a constitution must reflect ongoing changes in society and not be used as a canonical text like the Koran or the Bible. The necessity of altering the constitution became pressing after 22 October, when voters in Kyrgyzstan approved in a referendum changes to the structure of the country's legislature. According to the report, various political parties and other public organizations are represented at the conference, which also includes leading entrepreneurs and heads of local governments. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. NEXT ROUND OF TAJIK TALKS REPORTED TO BE POSTPONED. An official of the UN mission to Tajikistan told Interfax on 7 December that the next round of talks between the government of Tajikistan and the Tajik opposition, scheduled to start in Moscow in mid-December, had been postponed to mid-January. The postponement was reported to be at the request of UN special envoy Ramiro Piriz-Ballon. The same day Interfax reported that nominations of candidates for Tajikistan's new parliament were to begin on 25 December. The election is scheduled for 26 February. A source in the Tajik government told Interfax that the Communist Party, Tajikistan's largest legal political group, could take all the seats in the new legislature if it chose to do so. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS PEACEKEEPING DEVELOPMENTS: ABKHAZIA. Following a meeting with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma at the CSCE summit in Budapest, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze said that Georgia hoped for the implementation of understandings with Ukraine concerning the deployment of Ukrainian military observers in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone. Shevardnadze also hoped that it would become possible to deploy an international peacekeeping contingent under CSCE auspices in the conflict zone, and he regretted that only a few countries had shown an interest, Interfax reported on 6 December. Ukraine agreed in principle last week to send military observers to Georgia. The move departs from Ukraine's previous policy of not participating in peacekeeping operations in CIS states; however, sending troops beyond Ukraine's borders is subject to parliamentary approval. In his speech at the CSCE, Shevardnadze obliquely complained that Russia's "peacekeeping" operation was facilitating Abkhaz secession. On 2 December Russia's Deputy Defense Minister responsible for "peacekeeping" troops, Colonel General Georgii Kondratev, told Interfax that Abkhazia could only survive "either as part of Georgia or, eventually, as part of some other country." Abkhaz leaders have at times called for accession to the Russian Federation. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. PEACEKEEPING DEVELOPMENTS: MOLDOVA. In Bendery on 7 December, the tripartite Russian-Moldovan-"Dniester" armistice commission discussed mounting tension in the security zone in the wake of the latest reduction of the Russian disengagement contingent, Basapress reported. The commission noted the continuing deployment of "Dniester" troops in positions vacated by Russian units in the disengagement zone, openly violating the 1992 armistice convention. The commission reported that submachine-gun fire was heard on 6 December from "Dniester" positions in the zone and that "Dniester" units displayed "armed disobedience" in response to an attempt to inspect their positions near Dubasari. On 6 December President Mircea Snegur, at a meeting with Marrack Goulding, Deputy Secretary General of the UN for Political Affairs, renewed Moldova's request for international peacekeepers under CSCE authority to be sent to replace the units withdrawn by Russia. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. BLACK SEA COMMANDER HAS PROPOSAL ON UKRAINE'S DEBTS. Admiral Eduard Baltin, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, has suggested to Ukrainian Defense Minister Valerii Shmarov that Ukraine pay Ukrainian shipyards directly for the fleet's ship construction and repair bills. As reported by Interfax on 6 December, Ukraine stopped payments to the fleet one year ago despite a bilateral agreement for joint Ukrainian/Russian funding of the fleet. Baltin was said to believe that such a procedure would allow the shipyards to save jobs and to pay their workers' wages. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. ARDZINBA TO MOSCOW. Newly designated Abkhaz President Vladislav Ardzinba traveled to Moscow on 7 December for talks with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and with Defense Minister Grachev on the implications of the adoption of a new constitution designating Abkhazia an independent sovereign republic, Interfax reported citing the Abkhaz presidential administration. Interfax predicted that the meeting between Ardzinba, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze, and UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros Ghali to discuss a political settlement of the Abkhaz conflict that was postponed following the adoption of the new Abkhaz Constitution may now take place next week in Geneva. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE FRANCE WANTS "DETAILED PLANS" FOR UNPROFOR WITHDRAWAL FROM BOSNIA. International media report on 8 December that France the previous day asked the UN and NATO to prepare concrete arrangements for removing the 23,000 peacekeepers from Bosnia. The French contingent of 4,500 is the largest one, followed by the British with 3,300. French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe said that all other options have been exhausted and that France has no other choice than to begin seriously considering what must be "a high-risk operation," the Washington Post reports. The New York Times also quotes him as warning that "the obstinacy of some and the demagogy of others risks setting the Balkans ablaze tomorrow." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. UNPROFOR AT CENTER OF MEDIA ATTENTION. A French commentator told the BBC that Juppe had no other choice because the troops are no longer fulfilling any useful role. A US State Department spokesperson, however, told the VOA that UNPROFOR still performs a "useful function," although she added that Washington understands that its allies might want to "take a good, hard look" at UNPROFOR's status. She also noted the "objectionable behavior" of the Serbs. News agencies on 7 December quoted US Secretary of Defense William Perry as saying that Washington has not lost credibility by refusing to contribute to UNPROFOR because the US has no vital interests in Bosnia. Others, however, feel differently, and Turkey, Pakistan, and Malaysia have offered to increase their UNPROFOR contributions if the others withdraw. Together with Iran, whose previous offers of troops have not been accepted by the UN, the four Islamic countries could provide 20,000 men. Meanwhile, in Bosnia itself, the UN has announced plans to pull out "temporarily" some 400 of the 1,200 Bangladeshi peacekeepers in the besieged Bihac pocket. Finally, a Russian volunteer has been accepted by the Bosnian Serbs as an exchange hostage for the seriously ill Jordanian officer. The Spanish captain who had previously arrived to take the Jordanian's place is still held by the Serbs. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. KARADZIC INDICATES CAUTIOUS WILLINGNESS TO REOPEN TALKS. Controversy continues to surround the visit by Bosnian Serb legislators to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic on 4 December, Politika and Borba reported on 8 December. Parliamentary Vice President Biljana Plavsic lambasted Milosevic's policies as "sterile," but delegation leader Aleksa Buha held a news conference with Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic in Pale. Karadzic said that "new interpretations" set forth in Belgrade involving "further work on the [Contact Group's peace proposal's] map and defining constitutional arrangements" led him to believe that peace talks could be reopened with the Contact Group. The Muslims, however, have made it clear that any major revision of the proposal is unacceptable to them. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BELGRADE-ZAGREB HIGHWAY TO REOPEN SOON? Politika on 8 December quotes UNPROFOR sources as saying that the famed "autoput" could be reopened as early as today. This would be the first practical outcome of the agreement signed on 2 December by the Croatian government and Serb rebels. Politika adds that an understanding on reopening rail links between the two capitals is also possible. Borba, however, reports that Krajina Serb "Foreign Minister" Milan Babic warns that his side may not clear the highway in response to Croatian military involvement in Bosnia against Krajina and Bosnian Serb forces. The question of the railway may, in any event, prove moot for the moment, since Vjesnik reports that Croatian railway workers are slated to begin a strike on 8 December. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC PRESIDENTS IN PRAGUE. Guntis Ulmanis of Latvia, Algirdas Brazauskas of Lithuania, and Lennart Meri of Estonia are in Prague for talks with Czech President Vaclav Havel from 7-8 December, CTK reported. The three presidents were invited to Prague by Havel to mainly discuss security issues. Following his meeting with Havel, Ulmanis told journalists that Latvia wants to become a member of the European Union and NATO. He admitted that expanding NATO to the Russian border "would represent a problem for Moscow;" at the same time, he dismissed remarks by Russian President Boris Yeltsin at the recent Budapest summit of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in which he said Russia could not tolerate an eastward expansion of NATO. Ulmanis argued that "these are the ideas of President Yeltsin, not of other European statesmen." Brazauskas praised the transformation of the Czech economy, noting that Lithuania wants to draw on the Czech Republic's experience in preparing for entry to West European institutions. Havel and Meri are to meet on 8 December. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. MEDIA CONFERENCE IN PRAGUE. A Council of Europe ministerial meeting on the role of media freedom opened in Prague on 7 December. An RFE/RL correspondent reports that Czech President Vaclav Havel launched the conference with a declaration calling press freedom "an essential condition of democratic society." Havel said that the media have the role of facilitating dialogue between governments and people. Czech Culture Minister Pavel Tigrid noted that the conference was the first of its kind to be held by the Council of Europe in any post-totalitarian country. Daniel Tarschys, Secretary-general of the Council of Europe, told the participants that "governments have no right to limit the freedom of the media to provide information and the rights of individuals to receive such information." Representatives of the thirty-three member states of the CE and seven countries with associate or observer status are attending the two-day meeting. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. TALKS BETWEEN SLOVAK PARTIES BRING NO SURPRISES. Speaking at a press conference after his talks with the chairman of the Party of the Democratic Left, Peter Weiss, on 7 December, Vladimir Meciar, the designated prime minister and the leader of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, said that he will submit the lineup of the new government to the president early next week. Meciar said that negotiations on the new cabinet will end on 11 December. Slovak media report that the MDS-PDL talks did not result in a major surprise. Both parties agreed on several specific issues, such as the need to adopt a law on the conflict of interests, but remained deadlocked over principle issues such as the PDL's possible participation in the new government. Both Weiss and Meciar confirmed that the two parties held different views on economic policies. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. JAPAN STILL HESITANT TO EXTEND CREDITS TO POLAND. Polish President Lech Walesa has failed during his Tokyo visit to persuade Japanese leaders to extend economic credits to Poland in the near future. According to Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita of 8 December, Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama told Walesa that Japan could study resuming government credits only if Poland continues to perform well economically, maintains good ties with the International Monetary Fund, and begins paying back the principal on outstanding debt to Japan of $1.7 billion. Walesa's visit ended with the signing of an agreement to open a direct air link between Warsaw and Osaka to facilitate tourism and a Japanese promise to provide a cultural grant of about $300,000 to open a Japanese language laboratory at a Polish university. After leaving Japan on 8 December, Walesa will visit South Korea for talks on economic and cultural ties. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN RAIL WORKERS STRIKE. Hungarian rail workers held a two-hour warning strike in the early morning hours of 8 December to protest the size of proposed pay increases and threats of lay-offs, Radio Budapest reports. They plan to stage a 36-hour general strike next week if the government fails to meet their demands for a 16 percent pay increase. The government says that budgetary constraints do not allow for a pay increase of more than 6 percent. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN-KAZAKH TREATIES SIGNED. While on an official visit to Hungary on 7 December Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev and Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Horn signed three agreements, MTI reports. One is a bilateral treaty, one excludes double taxation, and the other provides for mutual protection of investments. Nazarbaev also met with President Arpad Goncz and with Hungarian businessmen. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE SUSPENDS ELECTIONS FOR A YEAR. With voter apathy causing several rounds of inconclusive elections in many parts of Ukraine over the past eight months, officials have decided to suspend the holding of parliamentary elections in the country for one year, Western agencies reported on 7 December. All of the elections failed because the required 50 percent of the electorate failed to take part in the elections. In the most recent round of voting, only 12 of 56 contests were decided. Central Election Commission official Valentyn Kirnyenko said on 7 December that the cost of staging repeat elections was "crippling," and called the current election system wasteful. The decision to suspend further elections leaves the 450-seat parliament with 46 vacancies, leaving some constituencies without representation. -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE LIFTS BAN, THEN SUSPENDS DECISION ON PRIVATIZATION. On 7 December, the Ukrainian parliament first lifted a moratorium on privatization than suspended that decision, leaving the moratorium intact, the Associated Press reported. Legislators had voted more than two to one to lift a four-month-old temporary ban on privatization with the condition that the government exclude more than 6,000 enterprises from the program. Following a short break, deputies returned to the chamber and voted to suspend their decision. They then demanded that the government provide them with the names of the exempt enterprises. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma criticized parliament's actions as "absurd." He said the exclusion of defense-related industries from privatization was incompatible with his reform program, saying that his reform program envisaged "the military-industrial complex to be among the very first companies to be privatized." -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN MINERS END STRIKE. Nearly 3,000 Ukrainian iron ore miners ended a 50-day strike on 7 December, Reuters reported. The strike ended when the government promised to look into wage increase demands and investigate corruption charges against mine bosses. The strike affected 15 pits in the Krivy Rih iron basin. Mykola Girogiev, the deputy general director of one of one of the mines, the Kryvbasruda concern, said the strike cost his mine almost $1.5 million. -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc. PROTESTS CONTINUE IN RESITA. About 7,000 workers continue to protest and strike in the western Romanian town of Resita, an RFE/RL corespondent, Radio Bucharest and Western agencies reported on 7 December. The organizers say the protest will continue until Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu comes to Resita. The government announced on 7 December that it has set up a team of experts to analyze the 1995 prospects of the Resita steel plant and in an interview with Radio Bucharest, Vacaroiu said it would make no sense to visit the town before the team had worked out its recommendations. Therefore, he said, he expected to go to Resita around 15 January. The statement was met with discontent by the striking workers. The government also announced that it would provide funds for back pay, as demanded by the workers, but the organizers of the protest said the money promised would solve only some of their problems. The major trade unions in Romania, the National Trade Union Bloc and the Cartel Alfa Federation, released statements in support of the protest, and a third important trade union, confederation Fratia, said its members would join the protest on 8 December. Workers in several industrial towns in western Romania announced they intended to come to Resita on 8 December to join the protesters. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFERENCE IN BUCHAREST. Radio Bucharest reported on 6 December that environment ministers from the eleven states in the Danubian basin had adopted a plan to protect the Danube by reducing pollution. The program was adopted at a conference that ended in Bucharest on the same day. The meeting was also attended by representatives from the US, the European Union, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. TURKEY FREEZES DIPLOMATIC TIES WITH BELARUS. Turkey froze diplomatic relations with Belarus on 7 December to protest the expulsion in late November of two Turkish diplomats accused by the Belarus government of espionage following the arrest in Minsk of two Belarusians who had allegedly attempted to pass classified information to them, Western agencies reported. A spokesman for the Turkish Foreign Ministry, which has repeatedly denied the Belarusian charges, said that Turkey had cancelled all pending high-level negotiations and visits between the two countries as well as a $100 million loan from Turkey's EximBank. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN PM THANKS ALL WHO WORKED FOR MILITARY WITHDRAWAL. In his address to the UN General Assembly on 7 December, Latvian Prime Minister Maris Gailis thanked the United Nations, other international organizations, and the countries that actively promoted the withdrawal of foreign military forces from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and called the international effort "a shining example of preventive diplomacy," BNS reported on 7 December. Speaking on behalf of all three Baltic States, Gailis described the withdrawal as a positive contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security. For the Baltic States the pullout opens "a new era of fruitful and constructive cooperation with all our neighbors," Gailis said. He pointed out that there remain agreements that require monitoring and continued involvement of the international community for many years to come, noting in particular the Latvian-Russian accord on the temporary functioning of an anti-ballistic missile early-warning radar station at Skrunda by 31 August 1998, its dismantling by 29 February 2000, and the Estonian-Russian agreement on Russia's dismantling of two nuclear reactors in Paldiski by 10 September 1995. Estonia and Latvia are also concerned about Russian servicemen who were demobilized or retired in their countries before 31 August 1994. For Lithuania, the main problem is that of Russian military transits through its territory. In addition, the governments of all three countries are worried about the environmental damage caused by more than 50 years of unchecked foreign military activity, BNS reported. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA HAS NATURALIZED 45,000 PEOPLE. According to Estonian Citizenship and Migration Department Director General Mart Piiskop, Estonia has granted citizenship to some 45,000 people since it regained its independence in August 1991. For the most part, the new citizens are members of ethnic minorities residing in Estonia. The department is processing an additional 13,000 applications from people living in Estonia, as well as about 7,000 applications from those holding identification cards issued by the Committee of Estonia, which acted as an unofficial alternative to Estonia's Soviet-era legislature. Complicating matters is the fact that an enormous number of these cards, which entitle the holder to citizenship under a simplified procedure, are forgeries. Piiskop estimated that about 300,000 Estonian residents are still undecided about their citizenship status and that about 50,000 people have opted for Russian citizenship, BNS reported on 7 December. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. CSCE SUMMIT APPROVES OF RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM THE BALTICS. The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe approved a final document at its Budapest summit on December 7 that welcomed the withdrawal of foreign troops from the Baltic states as an important contribution toward stabilizing the region's security. The statement on Baltic issues expressed the readiness of the CSCE member states to make the best possible use of the CSCE in order to consolidate and enhance security, stability, respect for human rights, and continued democratic evolution in all Baltic member states. The document also acknowledges the valuable contribution of the Council of the Baltic Sea States to regional cooperation, BNS reported on 7 December. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Pete Baumgartner and Penny Morvant) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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