Для преданного друга нельзя никогда сделать слишком много. - Ибсен
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 231, 8 December 1994


Addressing the Russian Security Council on 7 December, President
Boris Yeltsin demanded the unconditional observation by the
Chechen leadership of constitutional requirements and the laws of
the Russian Federation. In a statement carried by ITAR-TASS and
subsequently denounced by Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev as
"the imposition of war," the Security Council denied any conflict
between Russia and Chechnya, describing events there as "a
struggle for power between illegal armed groups"--a formulation
that effectively denies the legitimacy of the Dudaev leadership.
Liberals within the Federation Council criticized the Security
Council statement as "lacking any legislative base,"
counterproductive, and likely to lead to a further escalation of
the conflict, Western agencies reported. The Federal
Counterintelligence Service issued a statement on 7 December
claiming that the situation in Chechnya "endangered Russia's vital
interests and national security" and accusing Dudaev of recruiting
Afghan mujahedin and adherents of the extremist Turkish Grey
Wolves, according to Interfax. Also on 7 December, Yeltsin
promoted Minister for Nationalities Nikolai Egorov to the post of
deputy prime minister and charged him with coordination of
measures to restore constitutional order in Chechnya. -- Liz
Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

GROMOV REINCARNATED AS DOVE. Deputy Defense Minster Colonel
General Boris Gromov told a news conference reported by Russian
media on 6 and 7 December that he categorically opposed military
action against Chechnya. Citing his experience in Afghanistan
(where he was the last commander of Soviet forces before their
withdrawal), Gromov warned Russia's civilian and military
leadership against creating "another Afghanistan or another
Tajikistan," this time on Russian Federation territory. Warning
against the unconstitutional use of the army in internal conflicts
and against further bombings and spilling of blood in Chechnya,
Gromov called for a peaceful solution to the conflict by political
means. On 3 December Gromov had sent a conciliatory cable to the
Chechen president regretting the covert participation of
"misinformed and bought off" Russian soldiers in military
operations against Chechnya and pleading for their release on
humanitarian grounds. Gromov, who last week was stripped of some
major duties by Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, has recently been
linked to liberal circles in Moscow and has been cited as a
possible presidential contender, as is Lieutenant General
Aleksandr Lebed, another hard-liner who is taking a dovish
position on Chechnya. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

JUSTICE MINISTER REMOVED. On 7 December, according to ITAR-TASS,
Yeltsin signed a decree dismissing Justice Minister Yurii
Kalmykov. Yeltsin appointed Kalmykov in 1993 during the
confrontation between the Yeltsin team and the former parliament,
in which both sides repeatedly accused the other of corruption. In
early 1993, the then justice minister was one of four officials
who organized the highly publicized news conferences aimed at
incriminating Yeltsin's opponents, particularly former Vice
President Aleksandr Rutskoi. Kalmykov submitted his resignation
shortly after the publication in the liberal weekly Obshchaya
gazeta on 21 October 1994 of an editorial attacking him for his
involvement in the falsification of evidence in that case. In the
meantime, Yeltsin nominated Kalmykov as a judge for the
Constitutional Court, but the Council of Federation rejected his
candidacy. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

MARI-EL TO ADOPT NEW CONSTITUTION. The Russian republic of Mari-el
is expected to adopt a new constitution in May 1995, according to
a decision made by the republic's Constitutional Commission. At a
meeting held on 6 December in Yoshkar-Ola, the commission decided
to amend the draft constitution in February 1995 and disseminate
it for public discussion in March. The draft is expected to be
passed by the republic's parliament in April. It will then be
approved by a constitutional assembly to be formed from members of
the parliament and government, representatives of the president of
Mari-el, and members of various political parties and movements.
-- Charles Carlson, RFE/RL, Inc.

December, academics and scientists in St. Petersburg voted to hold
a strike to protest the crisis in Russian science caused by
inadequate financing, Ostankino TV news and an RFE/RL
correspondent reported. According to the latter report, the
academics are not demanding improvements in their own situation,
such as the payment of back wages, but only action on the problems
facing scientific institutions and related issues, such as the
threat to the city's historical buildings and statues because of
the lack of money to repair them. According to Ostankino, the
proposed strike would be the first industrial action by St.
Petersburg academics since the city was founded in 1725. -- Julia
Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

December that Russia's two largest builders of space launch
vehicles hoped to become more active in launching commercial
satellites following recent launch failures by the European Ariane
space consortium. The company most likely to benefit, the report
said, is the Central Specialized Design Bureau in Samara, maker of
the "Soyuz" and "Progress" medium-sized boosters. The "Soyuz" is
now competing with the European agency's Ariane-4 for the right to
launch 26 low-orbit satellites under the Globalstar program.
Moscow's Khrunichev Research and Production Center produces the
large "Proton" booster. However, a 1993 agreement with the United
States authorizes Russia to launch no more than 12 Western
commercial telecommunications satellites into geostationary orbit
by the end of the year 2000. Anatolii Kiselev, Khrunichev's
general director, said that the Proton was fully booked until 1997
and that the international company marketing the Proton had used
all the quotas of the 1993 agreement. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.


Askar Akaev has told a Constitutional Conference called to draft a
law on amending the country's constitution that the Western
parliamentary system is taking root in CIS states only with great
difficulty and that it is unlikely to be fully adopted by any of
them, including Kyrgyzstan, Interfax reported on 7 December. Akaev
has sought to bring as much of a Western orientation as possible
to his country, with less than full support from much of the
political community. Defending his decision to seek amendments to
Kyrgyzstan's constitution only 18 months after its adoption, Akaev
asserted that a constitution must reflect ongoing changes in
society and not be used as a canonical text like the Koran or the
Bible. The necessity of altering the constitution became pressing
after 22 October, when voters in Kyrgyzstan approved in a
referendum changes to the structure of the country's legislature.
According to the report, various political parties and other
public organizations are represented at the conference, which also
includes leading entrepreneurs and heads of local governments. --
Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

the UN mission to Tajikistan told Interfax on 7 December that the
next round of talks between the government of Tajikistan and the
Tajik opposition, scheduled to start in Moscow in mid-December,
had been postponed to mid-January. The postponement was reported
to be at the request of UN special envoy Ramiro Piriz-Ballon. The
same day Interfax reported that nominations of candidates for
Tajikistan's new parliament were to begin on 25 December. The
election is scheduled for 26 February. A source in the Tajik
government told Interfax that the Communist Party, Tajikistan's
largest legal political group, could take all the seats in the new
legislature if it chose to do so. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.


Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma at the CSCE summit in Budapest,
Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze said that Georgia
hoped for the implementation of understandings with Ukraine
concerning the deployment of Ukrainian military observers in the
Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone. Shevardnadze also hoped that it
would become possible to deploy an international peacekeeping
contingent under CSCE auspices in the conflict zone, and he
regretted that only a few countries had shown an interest,
Interfax reported on 6 December. Ukraine agreed in principle last
week to send military observers to Georgia. The move departs from
Ukraine's previous policy of not participating in peacekeeping
operations in CIS states; however, sending troops beyond Ukraine's
borders is subject to parliamentary approval. In his speech at the
CSCE, Shevardnadze obliquely complained that Russia's
"peacekeeping" operation was facilitating Abkhaz secession. On 2
December Russia's Deputy Defense Minister responsible for
"peacekeeping" troops, Colonel General Georgii Kondratev, told
Interfax that Abkhazia could only survive "either as part of
Georgia or, eventually, as part of some other country." Abkhaz
leaders have at times called for accession to the Russian
Federation. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

tripartite Russian-Moldovan-"Dniester" armistice commission
discussed mounting tension in the security zone in the wake of the
latest reduction of the Russian disengagement contingent,
Basapress reported. The commission noted the continuing deployment
of "Dniester" troops in positions vacated by Russian units in the
disengagement zone, openly violating the 1992 armistice
convention. The commission reported that submachine-gun fire was
heard on 6 December from "Dniester" positions in the zone and that
"Dniester" units displayed "armed disobedience" in response to an
attempt to inspect their positions near Dubasari. On 6 December
President Mircea Snegur, at a meeting with Marrack Goulding,
Deputy Secretary General of the UN for Political Affairs, renewed
Moldova's request for international peacekeepers under CSCE
authority to be sent to replace the units withdrawn by Russia. --
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

Eduard Baltin, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, has suggested
to Ukrainian Defense Minister Valerii Shmarov that Ukraine pay
Ukrainian shipyards directly for the fleet's ship construction and
repair bills. As reported by Interfax on 6 December, Ukraine
stopped payments to the fleet one year ago despite a bilateral
agreement for joint Ukrainian/Russian funding of the fleet. Baltin
was said to believe that such a procedure would allow the
shipyards to save jobs and to pay their workers' wages. -- Doug
Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

ARDZINBA TO MOSCOW. Newly designated Abkhaz President Vladislav
Ardzinba traveled to Moscow on 7 December for talks with Russian
Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and with Defense Minister Grachev
on the implications of the adoption of a new constitution
designating Abkhazia an independent sovereign republic, Interfax
reported citing the Abkhaz presidential administration. Interfax
predicted that the meeting between Ardzinba, Georgian parliament
chairman Eduard Shevardnadze, and UN Secretary-General Boutros
Boutros Ghali to discuss a political settlement of the Abkhaz
conflict that was postponed following the adoption of the new
Abkhaz Constitution may now take place next week in Geneva. -- Liz
Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

International media report on 8 December that France the previous
day asked the UN and NATO to prepare concrete arrangements for
removing the 23,000 peacekeepers from Bosnia. The French
contingent of 4,500 is the largest one, followed by the British
with 3,300. French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe said that all
other options have been exhausted and that France has no other
choice than to begin seriously considering what must be "a
high-risk operation," the Washington Post reports. The New York
Times also quotes him as warning that "the obstinacy of some and
the demagogy of others risks setting the Balkans ablaze tomorrow."
-- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

the BBC that Juppe had no other choice because the troops are no
longer fulfilling any useful role. A US State Department
spokesperson, however, told the VOA that UNPROFOR still performs a
"useful function," although she added that Washington understands
that its allies might want to "take a good, hard look" at
UNPROFOR's status. She also noted the "objectionable behavior" of
the Serbs. News agencies on 7 December quoted US Secretary of
Defense William Perry as saying that Washington has not lost
credibility by refusing to contribute to UNPROFOR because the US
has no vital interests in Bosnia. Others, however, feel
differently, and Turkey, Pakistan, and Malaysia have offered to
increase their UNPROFOR contributions if the others withdraw.
Together with Iran, whose previous offers of troops have not been
accepted by the UN, the four Islamic countries could provide
20,000 men. Meanwhile, in Bosnia itself, the UN has announced
plans to pull out "temporarily" some 400 of the 1,200 Bangladeshi
peacekeepers in the besieged Bihac pocket. Finally, a Russian
volunteer has been accepted by the Bosnian Serbs as an exchange
hostage for the seriously ill Jordanian officer. The Spanish
captain who had previously arrived to take the Jordanian's place
is still held by the Serbs. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

Controversy continues to surround the visit by Bosnian Serb
legislators to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic on 4 December,
Politika and Borba reported on 8 December. Parliamentary Vice
President Biljana Plavsic lambasted Milosevic's policies as
"sterile," but delegation leader Aleksa Buha held a news
conference with Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic in Pale.
Karadzic said that "new interpretations" set forth in Belgrade
involving "further work on the [Contact Group's peace proposal's]
map and defining constitutional arrangements" led him to believe
that peace talks could be reopened with the Contact Group. The
Muslims, however, have made it clear that any major revision of
the proposal is unacceptable to them. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL,

quotes UNPROFOR sources as saying that the famed "autoput" could
be reopened as early as today. This would be the first practical
outcome of the agreement signed on 2 December by the Croatian
government and Serb rebels. Politika adds that an understanding on
reopening rail links between the two capitals is also possible.
Borba, however, reports that Krajina Serb "Foreign Minister" Milan
Babic warns that his side may not clear the highway in response to
Croatian military involvement in Bosnia against Krajina and
Bosnian Serb forces. The question of the railway may, in any
event, prove moot for the moment, since Vjesnik reports that
Croatian railway workers are slated to begin a strike on 8
December. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

BALTIC PRESIDENTS IN PRAGUE. Guntis Ulmanis of Latvia, Algirdas
Brazauskas of Lithuania, and Lennart Meri of Estonia are in Prague
for talks with Czech President Vaclav Havel from 7-8 December, CTK
reported. The three presidents were invited to Prague by Havel to
mainly discuss security issues. Following his meeting with Havel,
Ulmanis told journalists that Latvia wants to become a member of
the European Union and NATO. He admitted that expanding NATO to
the Russian border "would represent a problem for Moscow;" at the
same time, he dismissed remarks by Russian President Boris Yeltsin
at the recent Budapest summit of the Conference on Security and
Cooperation in Europe in which he said Russia could not tolerate
an eastward expansion of NATO. Ulmanis argued that "these are the
ideas of President Yeltsin, not of other European statesmen."
Brazauskas praised the transformation of the Czech economy, noting
that Lithuania wants to draw on the Czech Republic's experience in
preparing for entry to West European institutions. Havel and Meri
are to meet on 8 December. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

MEDIA CONFERENCE IN PRAGUE. A Council of Europe ministerial
meeting on the role of media freedom opened in Prague on 7
December. An RFE/RL correspondent reports that Czech President
Vaclav Havel launched the conference with a declaration calling
press freedom "an essential condition of democratic society."
Havel said that the media have the role of facilitating dialogue
between governments and people. Czech Culture Minister Pavel
Tigrid noted that the conference was the first of its kind to be
held by the Council of Europe in any post-totalitarian country.
Daniel Tarschys, Secretary-general of the Council of Europe, told
the participants that "governments have no right to limit the
freedom of the media to provide information and the rights of
individuals to receive such information." Representatives of the
thirty-three member states of the CE and seven countries with
associate or observer status are attending the two-day meeting. --
Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

press conference after his talks with the chairman of the Party of
the Democratic Left, Peter Weiss, on 7 December, Vladimir Meciar,
the designated prime minister and the leader of the Movement for a
Democratic Slovakia, said that he will submit the lineup of the
new government to the president early next week. Meciar said that
negotiations on the new cabinet will end on 11 December. Slovak
media report that the MDS-PDL talks did not result in a major
surprise. Both parties agreed on several specific issues, such as
the need to adopt a law on the conflict of interests, but remained
deadlocked over principle issues such as the PDL's possible
participation in the new government. Both Weiss and Meciar
confirmed that the two parties held different views on economic
policies. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

Lech Walesa has failed during his Tokyo visit to persuade Japanese
leaders to extend economic credits to Poland in the near future.
According to Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita of 8 December,
Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama told Walesa that Japan
could study resuming government credits only if Poland continues
to perform well economically, maintains good ties with the
International Monetary Fund, and begins paying back the principal
on outstanding debt to Japan of $1.7 billion. Walesa's visit ended
with the signing of an agreement to open a direct air link between
Warsaw and Osaka to facilitate tourism and a Japanese promise to
provide a cultural grant of about $300,000 to open a Japanese
language laboratory at a Polish university. After leaving Japan on
8 December, Walesa will visit South Korea for talks on economic
and cultural ties. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.

HUNGARIAN RAIL WORKERS STRIKE. Hungarian rail workers held a
two-hour warning strike in the early morning hours of 8 December
to protest the size of proposed pay increases and threats of
lay-offs, Radio Budapest reports. They plan to stage a 36-hour
general strike next week if the government fails to meet their
demands for a 16 percent pay increase. The government says that
budgetary constraints do not allow for a pay increase of more than
6 percent. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.

HUNGARIAN-KAZAKH TREATIES SIGNED. While on an official visit to
Hungary on 7 December Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev and
Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Horn signed three agreements, MTI
reports. One is a bilateral treaty, one excludes double taxation,
and the other provides for mutual protection of investments.
Nazarbaev also met with President Arpad Goncz and with Hungarian
businessmen. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.

several rounds of inconclusive elections in many parts of Ukraine
over the past eight months, officials have decided to suspend the
holding of parliamentary elections in the country for one year,
Western agencies reported on 7 December. All of the elections
failed because the required 50 percent of the electorate failed to
take part in the elections. In the most recent round of voting,
only 12 of 56 contests were decided. Central Election Commission
official Valentyn Kirnyenko said on 7 December that the cost of
staging repeat elections was "crippling," and called the current
election system wasteful. The decision to suspend further
elections leaves the 450-seat parliament with 46 vacancies,
leaving some constituencies without representation. -- Pete
Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc.

December, the Ukrainian parliament first lifted a moratorium on
privatization than suspended that decision, leaving the moratorium
intact, the Associated Press reported. Legislators had voted more
than two to one to lift a four-month-old temporary ban on
privatization with the condition that the government exclude more
than 6,000 enterprises from the program. Following a short break,
deputies returned to the chamber and voted to suspend their
decision. They then demanded that the government provide them with
the names of the exempt enterprises. Ukrainian President Leonid
Kuchma criticized parliament's actions as "absurd." He said the
exclusion of defense-related industries from privatization was
incompatible with his reform program, saying that his reform
program envisaged "the military-industrial complex to be among the
very first companies to be privatized." -- Pete Baumgartner,
RFE/RL, Inc.

UKRAINIAN MINERS END STRIKE. Nearly 3,000 Ukrainian iron ore
miners ended a 50-day strike on 7 December, Reuters reported. The
strike ended when the government promised to look into wage
increase demands and investigate corruption charges against mine
bosses. The strike affected 15 pits in the Krivy Rih iron basin.
Mykola Girogiev, the deputy general director of one of one of the
mines, the Kryvbasruda concern, said the strike cost his mine
almost $1.5 million. -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc.

PROTESTS CONTINUE IN RESITA. About 7,000 workers continue to
protest and strike in the western Romanian town of Resita, an
RFE/RL corespondent, Radio Bucharest and Western agencies reported
on 7 December. The organizers say the protest will continue until
Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu comes to Resita. The government
announced on 7 December that it has set up a team of experts to
analyze the 1995 prospects of the Resita steel plant and in an
interview with Radio Bucharest, Vacaroiu said it would make no
sense to visit the town before the team had worked out its
recommendations. Therefore, he said, he expected to go to Resita
around 15 January. The statement was met with discontent by the
striking workers. The government also announced that it would
provide funds for back pay, as demanded by the workers, but the
organizers of the protest said the money promised would solve only
some of their problems. The major trade unions in Romania, the
National Trade Union Bloc and the Cartel Alfa Federation, released
statements in support of the protest, and a third important trade
union, confederation Fratia, said its members would join the
protest on 8 December. Workers in several industrial towns in
western Romania announced they intended to come to Resita on 8
December to join the protesters. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

6 December that environment ministers from the eleven states in
the Danubian basin had adopted a plan to protect the Danube by
reducing pollution. The program was adopted at a conference that
ended in Bucharest on the same day. The meeting was also attended
by representatives from the US, the European Union, the World Bank
and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. --
Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

diplomatic relations with Belarus on 7 December to protest the
expulsion in late November of two Turkish diplomats accused by the
Belarus government of espionage following the arrest in Minsk of
two Belarusians who had allegedly attempted to pass classified
information to them, Western agencies reported. A spokesman for
the Turkish Foreign Ministry, which has repeatedly denied the
Belarusian charges, said that Turkey had cancelled all pending
high-level negotiations and visits between the two countries as
well as a $100 million loan from Turkey's EximBank. -- Liz Fuller,
RFE/RL, Inc.

address to the UN General Assembly on 7 December, Latvian Prime
Minister Maris Gailis thanked the United Nations, other
international organizations, and the countries that actively
promoted the withdrawal of foreign military forces from Estonia,
Latvia, and Lithuania, and called the international effort "a
shining example of preventive diplomacy," BNS reported on 7
December. Speaking on behalf of all three Baltic States, Gailis
described the withdrawal as a positive contribution to the
maintenance of international peace and security. For the Baltic
States the pullout opens "a new era of fruitful and constructive
cooperation with all our neighbors," Gailis said. He pointed out
that there remain agreements that require monitoring and continued
involvement of the international community for many years to come,
noting in particular the Latvian-Russian accord on the temporary
functioning of an anti-ballistic missile early-warning radar
station at Skrunda by 31 August 1998, its dismantling by 29
February 2000, and the Estonian-Russian agreement on Russia's
dismantling of two nuclear reactors in Paldiski by 10 September
1995. Estonia and Latvia are also concerned about Russian
servicemen who were demobilized or retired in their countries
before 31 August 1994. For Lithuania, the main problem is that of
Russian military transits through its territory. In addition, the
governments of all three countries are worried about the
environmental damage caused by more than 50 years of unchecked
foreign military activity, BNS reported. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL,

ESTONIA HAS NATURALIZED 45,000 PEOPLE. According to Estonian
Citizenship and Migration Department Director General Mart
Piiskop, Estonia has granted citizenship to some 45,000 people
since it regained its independence in August 1991. For the most
part, the new citizens are members of ethnic minorities residing
in Estonia. The department is processing an additional 13,000
applications from people living in Estonia, as well as about 7,000
applications from those holding identification cards issued by the
Committee of Estonia, which acted as an unofficial alternative to
Estonia's Soviet-era legislature. Complicating matters is the fact
that an enormous number of these cards, which entitle the holder
to citizenship under a simplified procedure, are forgeries.
Piiskop estimated that about 300,000 Estonian residents are still
undecided about their citizenship status and that about 50,000
people have opted for Russian citizenship, BNS reported on 7
December. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe approved a
final document at its Budapest summit on December 7 that welcomed
the withdrawal of foreign troops from the Baltic states as an
important contribution toward stabilizing the region's security.
The statement on Baltic issues expressed the readiness of the CSCE
member states to make the best possible use of the CSCE in order
to consolidate and enhance security, stability, respect for human
rights, and continued democratic evolution in all Baltic member
states. The document also acknowledges the valuable contribution
of the Council of the Baltic Sea States to regional cooperation,
BNS reported on 7 December. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Pete Baumgartner and Penny Morvant)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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