Нет ничего драгоценнее друзей; не теряйте поэтому случая приобретать их, когда только можете. - Гвиччардини
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 230, 7 December 1994


talks in the North Ossetian village of Orzhonikedzevskaya on 6
December, Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev and Russian Defense
Minister Pavel Grachev both pledged to desist from the further use
of force in the ongoing standoff, Russian and Western media
reported; Dudaev further agreed to release the Russian troops
taken captive during the abortive attempt by the opposition
Provisional Council to storm the Chechen capital on November
26-27. Grachev declined to predict what further steps the Russian
leadership might take to resolve the conflict, which will be
discussed by the Russian Security Council on 8 December. Dudaev
affirmed that he would be prepared to meet with President Boris
Yeltsin if necessary, according to AFP. Meanwhile, Interfax quoted
Provisional Council chairman Umar Avturkhanov as stating on 6
December that the opposition would be prepared to comply with
Yeltsin's demand to end military operations and surrender their
arms provided that the Chechen government forces do the same. --
Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

session on 6 December, Russia's Federation Council narrowly voted
against approving Yeltsin's 2 December decree extending until 31
January 1995 the state of emergency in parts of North Ossetia and
Ingushetia. Deputies argued that the state of emergency in force
from November 1992 until 2 December 1994 had been ineffective and
had failed to contribute to solving the region's problems. Its
invalidation will, however, seal that failure by removing minimum
security guarantees for the repatriation of 60,000 Ingush forcibly
evicted from North Ossetia in November 1992 with Russian military
support. Ingushetia accuses the Moscow-instituted Provisional
Administration in the state of emergency area and North Ossetia's
pro-Moscow authorities of foiling the pilot program, mandated by
another presidential decree, to return 600 Ingush families to four
villages in Prigorodnyi Raion. Only 114 families have returned as
of 5 December, ITAR-TASS reported; and they are experiencing
harassment, apparently intended to deter the mass of Ingush
refugees from returning. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

MORE ANTI-NATO POLEMICS. Following his 5 December anti-NATO speech
to the CSCE summit in Budapest, Yeltsin told Russian journalists
that "Russia cannot reconcile itself to NATO's border moving right
up to the Russian Federation's border" and that "Russian citizens'
natural concern explains Russia's sharp response" to NATO's
planned enlargement, ITAR-TASS reported on 6 December. Yeltsin
called for consultations with NATO and, particularly, with the US
to jointly "work out a concept of admitting new members to NATO"
and "seek mutually acceptable compromises" on NATO's enlargement.
The remarks seemed to mistake Ukraine's western border for
Russia's, to claim a voice for Russia in NATO decision-making, and
to invoke popular nationalism as an alibi for government policy
(although opinion surveys do not show any significant public
concern over NATO). Meanwhile, State Duma Chairman Ivan Rybkin and
Duma Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Vladimir Lukin, quoted in
The Times and The Guardian of 6 December, warned Western
interlocutors that Russia would turn the CIS into a military
alliance and take security measures in the Baltic area in response
to NATO enlargement. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

expectations (see Daily Report of 6 December), the Russian
Constitutional Court will not resume work as a result of
yesterday's session of the Council of the Federation. According to
the law, all 19 vacancies for judges must be filled before the
Constitutional Court may start to hear cases. Yet only one of two
candidates nominated by Yeltsin--namely, the deputy director of
the Military Academy of Economics, Finance, and Law, Vladimir
Strekozov--was approved by the higher chamber of the Russian
parliament. The other, MVD Major General Sergei Vitsin, was voted
down, thus leaving one position vacant. The Russian Constitutional
Court has been paralyzed since October 1993, when Yeltsin
suspended its activities by decree. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL,

signed by the Russian Union of Journalists, the Committee for the
Defense of Free Speech and the Rights of Journalists, and the
public Committee for the Defense of Glasnost was distributed on 6
December among Russian news agencies and other media. The
journalists condemned officials who had provided the media with
inaccurate information, noting in particular the initial denials
by Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev and some other military
commanders of any involvement by the Russian Army in the Chechen
war. "Blatant lies have become the hallmark of the authorities'
attitude to the press," ITAR-TASS quoted the journalists as
saying. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

Committee Chairman Yurii Yurkov said on 6 December that his job
was being complicated by the country's growing "shadow economy,"
composed of individuals and companies who do not declare their
incomes and pay no tax, Reuters reported. He estimated that the
undeclared economy accounted for some 20 percent of Russian GDP.
According to Yurkov, statisticians add 40 percent to legitimate
figures they receive for goods and services in an attempt to take
into account hidden sales, companies working without licenses, and
private individuals involved in unlicensed imports. The
committee's deputy chairman, Vladimir Sokolin, said that in the
first ten months of 1994 GDP was 85 percent of what it had been in
the same period the previous year and that services, where the
gray economy is particularly important, accounted for 55 percent
of GDP. A new draft law on statistics, prepared with the help of
experts from the IMF, the World Bank, Germany, France, and the UK,
has been submitted to the government. -- Penny Morvant, RFE/RL,

the military newspaper Krasnaya zvezda of 6 December, the Russian
Defense Ministry reported that 518 servicemen had died during
noncombat duty in the first six months of 1994. The ministry
claimed that the figure was 18 percent lower than in the previous
year. It said that 57 percent of the deaths were as a result of
accidents, 27 percent due to suicide, 3.4 percent because of
hazing, and 8.5 percent the results of premeditated murders. The
Defense Ministry claimed that its noncombat death rate
"corresponded to world standards" and was linked to the increasing
violence in Russian society. Others have claimed that the death
rate is far higher. In June a Russian civil rights organization
charged that as many as 25-30 soldiers and officers died daily--a
yearly rate of more than 9,000. On 6 December a representative of
Mother's Rights told western agencies that the annual death toll
was more than 4,000 and that the situation was not improving. --
Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

Environmental activist Lev Fedorov told a Greenpeace conference in
Moscow on 5 December that some 4.5 million shells filled with
chemical agents had been dumped off Russia's coasts by Soviet
authorities following the end of World War II. As reported by AFP,
Fedorov charged that no one had officially admitted what had
happened to the shells--which contain mustard gas, lewisite,
hydrocyanic acid, and phosgene. He said that they had been dumped
in the White, Barents, Kara, Black, and Okhotsk Seas as well as in
the Sea of Japan. Russia has only admitted dumping some shells in
the Baltic. He warned that they had become dangerous after twenty
years, because of chemical corrosion of the metal shells. -- Doug
Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.


PEACEKEEPING DEVELOPMENTS. The CSCE summit in Budapest ended on 6
December capping two months of intensive negotiations on
peacekeeping operations in CIS states. Unwilling to accept CSCE
supervision or internationalization of those operations, Russia
failed to obtain the long-sought-after mandate or some other form
of political endorsement as peacekeeper in the CIS. On the main
test issue, Karabakh, there was no agreement on the composition of
a CSCE peacekeeping force. The conference condemned Abkhazia's
expulsion of ethnic Georgians and secession from Georgia and
reaffirmed Georgia's territorial integrity; but it was unable to
make a decision regarding international peacekeeping, conceding
the primary roles there and in South Ossetia to Russia and the UN.
Addressing the conference, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard
Shevardnadze complained that the Russian disengagement forces had
actually cemented the secessionists' gains and he deplored the
ineffectiveness of successive international missions and
resolutions, unable to prevent forcible seizures of territory and
ethnic cleansing. Moldova fared distinctly better. The conference
called for the early entry into force of the bilateral agreement
on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Moldova, CSCE monitoring
of its implementation, observance of Moldova's territorial
integrity in settling the Dniester conflict, and CSCE and Russian
mediation of that negotiation. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

delegates to the CSCE Budapest summit approved a document that
effectively strengthens Russia's hand in mediating a settlement of
the Karabakh conflict on its own terms. The document specifies the
merging of the parallel CSCE and Russian mediation efforts within
the framework of the CSCE and the appointment of two cochairmen of
the combined mediation effort. (These will presumably be Anders
Bjurner, the current acting chairman of the CSCE Minsk Group, and
Vladimir Kazimirov, the aggressively hard-line coordinator of the
Russian mediation effort.) Crucially, the document pledges support
for the UN Security Council resolutions on Nagorno-Karabakh that
call for the liberation of occupied Azerbaijani territory, and
pledges speedy negotiations on a political settlement of the
conflict. Only after such a political settlement is reached will a
decision be made on the actual deployment, with a mandate from the
UN Security Council, of a CSCE peacekeeping force, the composition
of which has still to be determined. The Karabakh Armenians have
consistently stated that they will not withdraw from occupied
Azerbaijani territory until a CSCE peacekeeping force has been
deployed on the ground. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIA WARNS MOLDOVA. At the CSCE summit in Budapest and in
several international forums in recent weeks, Moldova called for
international monitoring of the eventual withdrawal of Russia's
14th Army and for consideration of the possibility of sending an
international peacekeeping contingent to replace the Russian
disengagement units being withdrawn from Moldova. In response,
Russian diplomats told ITAR-TASS on 3 December that "these
unilateral initiatives by the Moldovan leadership will complicate
its relations with Moscow and can adversely affect Moldova's
economy, which largely depends on Russian energy, raw materials,
and markets." The Russian diplomats were identified as being
"involved in the settlement of the Dniester problem." Moldovan
officials told the RFE/RL Research Institute that they had already
been given these warnings privately, before the Russian diplomats
went public. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

reported on 6 December that the CSCE summit ended in Budapest
without any reference to Bosnia in its final declarations. Russia
blocked the adoption of two documents, one on Bihac and the other
on the situation in the former Yugoslavia, Vjesnik reports on 7
December. The Los Angeles Times notes that both texts would have
condemned the Serbs and their policies of "continuing warfare and
ethnic cleansing." It also refers to the Russian success as "the
latest in a series of humiliating setbacks for the United States
and its allies over Bosnia." The VOA quoted German Chancellor
Helmut Kohl as having demanded at least a tough declaration on
Bihac. Bosnia's delegate said he was "forced to conclude that the
international community is capitulating to the aggressors and
accepting the breakup of my country." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL,

reports that the UN failed "to appease gunmen who bargain with
human lives [and] the humiliating capitulation backfired, bringing
more humiliation." The UN had offered to send a Spanish captain as
a substitute hostage for a seriously ill Jordanian officer held by
the Serbs at Banja Luka. The Serbs agreed, but then grabbed the
Spaniard without surrendering the Jordanian. A UN spokesman said
"it's absolutely outrageous." The Independent, meanwhile, reports
that the Serbs intend to use the military airfield where the
hostages are held as human shields. Finally, The Philadelphia
Inquirer quotes a top aide to US Senator Jesse Helms, the incoming
Foreign Relations Committee chairman, as saying "if the Serbs want
to keep this stuff up, then make them bleed." -- Patrick Moore,
RFE/RL, Inc.

Bosnian Serb legislators to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic
on 5 December has largely been greeted with silence by those
directly involved, Borba reports on 7 December. AFP the previous
day quotes Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, however, as
saying that the delegation had no mandate in Belgrade and was
trying to split the Bosnian Serb legislature. Borba, by contrast,
cites the delegation leader as saying their mission was
"official." Meanwhile in Geneva, Bosnian President Alija
Izetbegovic obtained a promise from leaders of Islamic countries
to replace UNPROFOR troops if any are withdrawn. Finally, Reuters
on 6 December quotes UN sources as saying that Croatian forces and
those of the Krajina Serbs are both engaged in fighting in Bosnia,
while The Independent reports that a recent helicopter explosion
in Zagreb was connected with arms smuggling. -- Patrick Moore,
RFE/RL, Inc.

Albanian-language university in Macedonia is to open on 17
December, Flaka e Vellazerimit reports. To be located in the
western Macedonian city of Tetovo, which is regarded as a center
of ethnic Albanian nationalism, the new university is already
controversial and may face an official ban from Skopje. The
Education Ministry has said the Albanian university is
unconstitutional because national minorities must satisfy their
needs within the existing education system. The Albanians,
however, charge that the government has ignored their
long-standing demands for higher education in the Albanian
language. Fadil Sulejmani, president of the university's board, is
quoted by Illyria on 1-3 December as saying that after waiting one
month for an answer from Skopje, the board has decided to proceed
with the opening of the university. The university will have six
departments, 15 classrooms for an initial total of 3,000 students,
and a 100-strong faculty earning an average of DM 400-500 a month.
-- Louis Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc.

December reported that President Milosevic may be trying to
refloat the idea of a Balkan confederation--one of the hardy
perennials of the region's politics for over a century--that would
include Serbia-Montenegro, Macedonia, and Greece, with Romania and
Bulgaria to join later. Nova Makedonija on 6 December, for its
part, quoted Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov as telling
journalists at the CSCE summit that he welcomes recent Greek moves
to lift Athens' veto on EU ties to Skopje and Greece's partial
easing of its embargo as a sign of "good will." Finally, Reuters
said in Tirana that Albania plans to free the five ethnic Greeks
sentenced on espionage charges. The story is based on a reported
interview with President Sali Berisha by the Athens daily Ta Nea.
-- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

Tribunal on 6 December refused to take a position on the Sejm's
decision to postpone ratifying the concordat between Poland and
the Vatican until a new constitution is approved. The tribunal
said the decision was basically procedural (that is, dealing with
the daily operations of the parliament) rather than legislative
and as such was beyond the purview of the tribunal mandate. The
concordat was signed in 1993, but the leftist-dominated Sejm
postponed its ratification in July 1994 to ensure that its
provisions comply with the country's new basic law. The decision
was appealed by President Lech Walesa and several parliamentary
groups. It is now almost certain that the concordat will not be
ratified in the foreseeable future. According to Gazeta Wyborcza
on 7 December, an episcopate spokesman commented that while the
tribunal's position will have to be "respected," it will not help
improve Church-state relations. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.

Lay Catholics, established by Poland's episcopate, held its
inaugural meeting in Warsaw on 5 December. The 20-30 strong
council is to serve as a "forum for discussion through which new
methods of the Church's pastoral activity can be developed,"
Rzeczpospolita reported on 6 December. It is the second lay
Catholic organization to be set up within recent weeks. Catholic
Action, a large body uniting lay Catholics involved in various
public activities, was formed last month. -- Jan de Weydenthal,
RFE/RL, Inc.

HAVEL'S SPEECH AT THE CSCE SUMMIT. Czech President Vaclav Havel
told the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe on 6
December that "nobody should stop anyone from aspiring to join or
affiliate with a group with which he feels linked geographically,
historically, culturally, and in terms of civilization and
security." International press agencies reported Havel as saying
that some European states, notably those still belonging to the
Soviet zone of influence, maintain good relations with NATO and
the European Union and are aiming for rapid integration into those
organizations. In Havel's opinion, "any attempt to stop the
process would compromise the peaceful organization of Europe."
Havel criticized "the community of democratic states" for acting
too slowly to incorporate the former Soviet bloc countries. --
Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

CZECH PREMIER ADDRESSES PARLIAMENT. In a lengthy evaluation of the
country's economic and political reforms, Vaclav Klaus told the
parliament on 6 December that his government's policies have been
the cause of "our state's exceptional political stability." With
regard to foreign policy, Klaus identified membership in the
European Union as "our top priority," praised the Partnership for
Peace program as a step toward full membership in NATO, and
stressed the need for good relations with Germany and other
Western countries. He argued that cooperation with Poland,
Hungary, and Slovakia should focus on such practical matters as
trade, rather than on attempts to build regional alternatives to
NATO and EU membership. Klaus highly praised the country's
economic results, citing low inflation and the success of the
privatization process. He also warned against the growth of
bureaucracy and against various lobbies pressuring the government
and parliament. Most opposition parties criticized Klaus's speech
as government propaganda. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

SLOVAK PRESIDENT ON CSCE. In a speech to the CSCE summit in
Budapest on 6 December, Slovak President Michal Kovac supported
the strengthening of the organization but warned that such a
process should not weaken existing European security structures.
Kovac argued that the CSCE and existing organizations should work
together more closely to achieve common goals. The Slovak
president said admission to NATO is one of the top priorities of
his country. He suggested that the CSCE adopt "a code of behavior
of its member states in the area of security." Noting that
Slovakia "views ethnic minorities as an important enrichment of
our society," the Slovak president recommended that the CSCE
member states observe the principles of the general agreement on
protecting ethnic minorities that was approved by the Council of
Europe. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

in Trencianske Teplice, Pavol Kanis recommended that Slovakia
reduce its army personnel to a level below that stipulated by the
Vienna disarmament agreements. According to those agreements, the
Slovak Army should have no more than 46,667 soldiers by November
1995. Slovak media quote Kanis as saying that Slovakia must
consider what kind of army it needs and how much money it can
afford to spend on it. He said some experts have recommended
reducing the number of army personnel to 35,000. Kanis noted that
while the army requested 19 billion koruny from the state budget
in 1995, the budget proposal approved by the government provides
for only 12.9 billion koruny. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

MECIAR ON PRIVATIZATION LAWS. Prime Minister-designate Vladimir
Meciar told Slovak Radio on 6 December that he expected the Slovak
parliament to pass two laws recently vetoed by Slovak President
Michal Kovac. The laws, passed at an extraordinary parliament
session on 3 and 4 November, abolished all privatization laws
approved by the government of Jozef Moravcik after 6 September and
transferred the power to make privatization decisions to the
National Property Fund. Saying the president is entitled to his
opinions, Meciar noted he would recommend that the president's
veto and the outgoing government's proposals be rejected as
"irrelevant." -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

ILIESCU MEETS GONCZ. After attending the CSCE conference in
Budapest, Romanian President Ion Iliescu was received by his
Hungarian counterpart, Arpad Goncz, Radio Bucharest reported on 6
December. Presidential spokesman Traian Chebeleu said the two
politicians discussed, among other things, the views espoused by
representatives of the Hungarian minority in Romania, including
their demand for territorial autonomy. Also discussed was the
belief that the situation of the Magyar minority in Central Europe
is a "key problem of European stability." Iliescu said such
stances "are feeding mistrust and encourage some extremist
positions." He also invited Goncz to visit Romania. -- Michael
Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

December reported that in a letter to Hungarian Premier Gyula
Horn, published the same day in Magyar Nemzet, Reformed Bishop
Laszlo Tokes said that despite the improvement in official
Romanian-Hungarian relations, the situation of the Hungarian
minority in Romania continues to deteriorate. Tokes, who is also
honorary president of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of
Romania, also noted there is no indication that the Romanian side
intends to solve the problem of the Hungarian minority before
concluding the bilateral basic treaty. He concluded that the
Hungarian government would be mistaken to show a "conciliatory
attitude" because of "CSCE or other pressures." -- Michael Shafir,
RFE/RL, Inc.

protested in the western industrial town of Resita against the
government's failure to pay wages since October and against Prime
Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu's failure to visit Resita, despite
having been urged to do so by workers' representatives. Radio
Bucharest reported on 6 December that the workers gathered outside
the prefect's office, shouting slogans against the government.
According to Rompres, they tried to storm the office but were
calmed down by trade union leaders. Prefect Train Zamfir told them
wages would be paid on 7 December and the premier would "surely
come to Resita in January." -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

which currently holds the rotating chairmanship of the EU, played
a key role in lifting the Greek veto on granting the first $18.5
million installment of a EU loan package to Albania, Demokracia
reported on 2 December. The package is worth a total of $43
million. Greek Secretary of State for European Affairs Yannos
Kranidiotis said the lifting of the veto was a result of his
meeting with German Foreign Affairs Minister Klaus Kinkel, adding
that "everything is done through the approval of the German
chairmanship." Kranidiotis also said that Greece would start a
dialogue with Albania to solve "existing disagreements"--a step
that can be seen as a friendly gesture toward Albania. -- Louis
Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc.

SOARING PRICES IN BELARUS. The Belarusian government has
introduced steep increases in the prices of milk, meat, and bread,
Interfax reports. As of 7 December, the cost of milk and dairy
products is to double and meat and bread prices will increase by
30 percent. Announcing the decision on 5 December, Belarusian
Prime Minister Mikhail Chyhir said the price hikes are aimed at
winning a $308 million loan from the International Monetary Fund.
He said the government has sent the IMF a memorandum vowing to
pursue a strict reform program and is "rushing to free prices to
show our position as to price-setting." Later this month, rents
are to increase by 600 percent, the cost of heating by 500
percent, and electricity and gas prices by 50 percent. -- Jan
Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc.

address to the CSCE conference in Budapest on 5 December, Russian
President Boris Yeltsin again claimed that the human rights of
"millions of Russians in some CIS countries and the Baltic states"
were being violated. He also said that Estonia, in particular, was
oppressing the Russian Orthodox Church. These charges were
rejected by the presidents of the Baltic States when they
addressed the conference later on 5 and 6 December. The Baltic
leaders also objected to the inclusion of a statement in the
summit's final document expressing concern about the observance of
human rights in their countries. Latvian Foreign Minister Valdis
Birkavs told BNS on 6 December that "the Baltic issue" will
apparently not be included in the final document. -- Dzintra
Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

prosecutor Silvia Vospert told the Tallinn City Court on 6
December that she was withdrawing from the bribery case against
former Estonian Prime Minister Indrek Toome because she had
received a murder threat the previous day, BNS reports. Vospert
said she had also been offered a bribe in exchange for Toome's
release. A hearing scheduled that day to consider Toome's release
from custody was postponed until 7 December so that a new
prosecutor could be appointed. Toome was arrested on 28 November
in a sting operation after giving a police official 30,000 kroons
($2,400) for three fraudulent Estonian passports. -- Saulius
Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

Lithuanian Prosecutor's Office has completed its investigation of
the failed Soviet coup attempt in January 1991, BNS reported on 6
December. Although more than 50 persons are charged with
participating in the coup, only seven are likely to be tried
because the others are currently living in Russia and Belarus.
Russia has refused to extradite suspects to Lithuania, saying it
cannot hand over Russian citizens. Belarus, for its part, claims
not to know the whereabouts of people wanted by Lithuania. The
principle suspects, currently held in a Vilnius prison, are former
chairman of the pro-Moscow Lithuanian Communist Party Mykolas
Burokevicius and its ideological head, Juozas Jermalavicius. Both
were extradited by Belarus in January. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL,

thousands of Latvian teachers staged a protest march in Riga on 6
December, Latvian media reported. Further negotiations between
teachers' representatives and members of the government are
scheduled for 7 December. Teachers began a five-day warning strike
on 5 December to demand a 16 percent wage increase as of 1 January
1995, which the government rejected. Since then, the teachers'
trade union has called for educators' salaries to be raised to the
level of average salaries of state employees. The teachers also
want the government to allow elderly teachers to receive both
wages and retirement pensions. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Penny Morvant)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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