|He who receives an idea from me receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mind, receives light without darkening me. - Thomas Jefferson|
No. 228, 5 December 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIAN BUILDUP REPORTED TO CONTINUE ON CHECHEN BORDER. Western correspondents reported on 5 December that a Russian military buildup is continuing on the border of Chechnya. They saw heavy weaponry, including 50 tanks, in a neutral zone between North Ossetia and Ingushetia. Ingush President Ruslan Aushev opposes a Russian invasion of Chechnya and warned that if Russian tanks attempted to reach Chechnya through Ingushetia, the Ingush would stage an uprising. Russian President Boris Yeltsin has threatened to declare a state of emergency in Chechnya to stop fighting between Chechen government troops and the Chechen opposition. Russian media reported on 4 December that the Chechen opposition had agreed to talks with a special Russian commission, but according to Reuters on 5 December, the opposition denied the reports. In an appeal made public on 4 December, the opposition Chechen Provisional Council called on the government, styling it an "illegal regime," to lay down its arms; a congress of Muslim clergymen held on 3 December called on Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev to start talks to end the fighting. Russian media asserted on 4 December that the Chechen government was willing to talk with the Russian commission, but Chechen Vice President Zelimkhan Yandarbiev told Reuters that officials would be willing to discuss only Chechnya's independence. Also on 4 December, a Chechen official told foreign correspondents that the Chechen government expects a major air raid on Grozny within the week and is setting up partisan bases throughout the republic, supplied with weapons, ammunition, and food for a year. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. FSK DENIES WRONGDOING IN CHECHEN CRISIS. Speaking on Russian TV on 3 December, Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK) spokesman Aleksandr Mikhailov denied the evidence contained in media reports of 2 and 3 December that Russian army servicemen have been recruited to fight as mercenaries on the side of the Chechen opposition. Mikhailov said that Russian servicemen captured in Chechnya were not mercenaries, but volunteers. Chechnya is part of Russia and Russian officers can act on its territory both covertly and overtly to restore constitutional order, said Mikhailov. Yeltsin's military adviser Dmitrii Volkogonov said that no country in the world recognizes Chechnya's independence, so that the soldiers captured in Chechnya, which is part of the Russian Federation, are not POWs but hostages. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. COMMANDER OF ELITE UNIT RESIGNS OVER COVERT OPERATIONS. The commander of the elite Fourth "Kantemir" Tank Division has resigned in protest against the recruitment of men from his division without his knowledge for secret operations in Chechnya. In a 3 December interview excerpted by Interfax, Major-General Polyakov said that he had submitted his resignation to the commander of the Moscow Military District. The Kantemir division is based at Naro-Fominsk near Moscow. Several Russian servicemen from this division were captured by supporters of Chechen President Dzokhar Dudayev during an abortive attempt to capture Grozny on 26 November. Some among them said they had a contract with the Federal Counterintelligence Service to fight in Chechnya. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN, KARAGANOV OPPOSE NATO ENLARGEMENT. "Russia opposes the enlargement of NATO's area to the East because its border in that case would reach the border of the Russian Federation," President Boris Yeltsin told the media on 4 December. The remark would seem to imply either that a contry bordering on the Kaliningrad exclave may not join NATO or that candidates for membership which are bordering on Ukraine are being viewed as if they were bordering on Russia. Foreign policy analyst and member of Yeltsin's Presidential Council Sergei Karaganov told ITAR-TASS on 2 December that "such a shift of NATO's borders would be assessed as an anti-Russian and hostile step." In common with other Russian officials, Karaganov invoked the alleged anti-Western mood of Russian public opinion, although known surveys do not substantiate such a claim. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE FALLOUT FROM RUSSIAN SNUB TO PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev favors turning the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACCA, the consultative forum grouping NATO's member states and the non-member countries participating in NATO's Partnership for Peace program) into a European security body, and establishing a NACCA Executive Council, Interfax reported on 2 December. The proposal seems to be part of the recent series of Russian proposals designed to stop NATO's enlargement, to dilute its role in favor of unwieldy all-European bodies with little capacity for action, and to establish within those bodies a new hierarchy awarding Russia a major share of decision-making powers. On the other hand, Deputy Defense Minister Georgii Kondratev, a member of Russia's delegation to NACCA, appeared to regret that Kozyrev had thrown into question Russia's participation in PfP. Kondratev told Interfax that Russia could not live in isolation and that PfP could only benefit Russia, its armed forces, and European stability. Reacting to Kozyrev's attempt to delay NATO's enlargement by withholding Russia's participation in PfP, Estonian Foreign Minister Juri Luik said that "if we really have common values then we should not do something like this." Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zelenec said that "this is our affair and NATO's affair, not Russia's." Ukraine, whose national cohesion is directly affected by the question of NATO's enlargement, has taken a cautious middle position. Foreign Minister Gennadii Udovenko and his first deputy, Boris Tarasiuk, said that no one had a right to block NATO's enlargement, this being an issue for the alliance and the countries seeking membership; but that Kiev favors an evolutionary approach to enlargement and sees Russian participation in PfP as important to European stability. Ukraine will in any case participate in PfP but "needs not raise today" the issue of its possible membership in NATO, Interfax cited them on 3 and 4 December. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. SECURITY AGENTS RAID MOST CORPORATION. The special task force of the Main Administration for Protection of the Russian Federation (GUO) raided the premises of the financial group Most in the building of the Moscow mayoralty and disarmed several private guards belonging to Most's security service, Russian news agencies reported on 3 December. ITAR-TASS quoted security sources as saying that the action was taken strictly in accord with Yeltsin's decree on combatting organized crime; its objective was to obtain documents showing "links between the board of Most-Bank and corrupt functionaries in state and municipal organs." Most, which is closely connected with Moscow Mayor Yury Luzhkov, is one of Russia's largest financial and mass media groups. Relations between Most and the government deteriorated when the Russian Security Council described Most-Bank as a major players in the ruble's destabilization in October, and when Rossiiskaya gazeta disclosed in November that Most's mass media outlets had organized an election staff for Luzhkov and his economic adviser Grigorii Yavlinsky. Most president Vladimir Gusinskii charged that the raid stemmed from government annoyance that Most finances independent mass media. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. DISMISSAL OF MOSCOW FSK CHIEF CONNECTED WITH MOST AFFAIR. President Yeltsin dismissed the Chief of the Moscow Administration of the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK), Evgenii Savostyanov, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 December. Although Yeltsin's decree cites no reason for Savostyanov's ouster, there is little doubt that this step is linked with the Most raid the same day. Savostyanov is reputed to be the Moscow city government's man within the FSK. Before his appointment as Moscow FSK chief in 1991, Savostyanov worked as an assistant to former Moscow Mayor Gavriil Popov and his deputies, Luzhkov and Sergei Stankevich. In this capacity he was responsible for the organizational and financial infrastructure of the Moscow city government, including the Most-Bank. Most's Gusinskii reported that during the raid on the Most premises by GUO, he had phoned Savostyanov, who sent agents of the Moscow FSK to Gusinskii's office; but the FSK officers were turned back by agents of GUO whish is directly subordinate to Russia's president. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. GEN. GROMOV STRIPPED OF SOME DUTIES. On 2 December Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev took away some of the responsibilities of one of his deputies--Col. Gen. Boris Gromov, the last commander of Soviet forces in Afghanistan. Interfax reported that another deputy defense minister, General Konstantin Kobets, would take over the supervision of air defense while the directorate for military cooperation with CIS countries had been completely disbanded. Grachev has made no secret of his dislike for Gromov, and the once-popular general has been rumored recently to be on the way out. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS MORE ON DEFENSE MINISTERS' DECISIONS. Following the 30 November meeting of the Council of Defense Ministers of CIS member states (see Daily Report, 2 December), Russian Lt.-General Leonid Ivashov, Secretary of the Council of Ministers of CIS member states, told a briefing on 2 December that a CIS defense union could be established, along with CIS political and economic bodies, within two and a half to three years, Interfax, Russian TV, and Nezavisimaya gazeta reported. Among early steps to be taken, Ivashov listed integration in the area of military technology and formation of a joint air defense system; the latter will be the focus of the next Defense Ministers' meeting in late February or early March. These possibly overoptimistic claims lacked immediate corroboration from other participants. Regarding peacekeeping operations, Ivashov indirectly admitted that the participants had eschewed Russian requests for substantial material and token troop contributions to the operation in the Georgian-Abkhaz area: "Russia will continue to bear the brunt of contributions while the others will contribute according to their capacities," he announced. Ukraine did not rule out some participation, which would almost certainly be welcomed by Georgia. In Tajikistan on the other hand, the Russian commander of the CIS operation, Col.-General Valerii Patrikeev, was empowered to involve the contingents of member states other than Russia in battle without prior authorization from the respective political leaderships--a first departure from the coalition principle. In another precedent-setting move if carried out, Ivashov suggested that CIS member states send military observers--but not troops--to a possible Russian-led peacekeeping operation in Chechnya, i.e. for the first time on the Russian Federation's territory. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS HOLD 359 PEACEKEEPERS HOSTAGE. The Los Angeles Times on 5 December reports that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic did not follow up on his promise to UN special envoy Yasushi Akashi to release trapped UNPROFOR soldiers. Only 53 of the 412 men in question were freed; one Bangladeshi soldier has died owing to lack of medical treatment and a Jordanian's heart condition is in danger of worsening after Serbs used him as a human shield against possible air attacks. Meanwhile, The New York Times quotes incoming Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich as calling the UN "totally incompetent" and NATO "pathetic and helpless." Gingrich backs other Republican calls for a tougher policy and favors a UN withdrawal, the arming and training of the Bosnian government forces by the US, and a threat of air power against the Serbs--"like Desert Storm," if they launch an offensive. Finally, the Turkish daily Hurriyet on 4 December quoted former Defense Chief of Staff General Dogan Gures as saying that Turkey had tried to arm Bosnian government forces but that Croatia took "90%" of the material en route. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. KARADZIC THREATENS ZAGREB. International media on 3 December quoted the Bosnian Serb leader as saying again that his forces would target the Croatian capital if Croatia does not remove its troops from Bosnia. Croatian defense officials have said their forces may intervene in Bosnia in response to the Serbian offensive against Bihac and its strategic rail line. Borba on 5 December says that the Croatian Serbs' top military body has ordered a mobilization. The newspaper also reports on the signing of an economic agreement by Zagreb and Krajina officials to restore key infrastructure links. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. MILOSEVIC PROMISES SUPPORT FOR HURD AND JUPPE. The Serbian president told the British and French foreign ministers in Belgrade that he welcomes the new "clarification" they have offered to give the Bosnian Serbs confederal links to Serbia-Montenegro. He urged the international Contact Group also to consider changes in the "take-it-or-leave-it" map to the advantage of the Serbs and promised to use his influence with the Bosnian Serbs to bring them around to accepting the package. It is not clear how he intends to achieve that, given his bad relations with the Karadzic leadership. International media also reported on 4 December that Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic said his government accepts the plan in its present form and will agree to no further changes. Borba on 5 December quotes him as saying that "we have already offered up half of Bosnia on a silver platter to a fascist regime." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BERISHA SHAKES UP ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT. Following widespread public charges of incompetence and corruption against the Albanian government, President Sali Berisha has made major changes in the cabinet, Koha Jone reported on 1 and 2 December. Deputy Prime Minister Bashkim Kopliku, Defense Minister Safet Zhulali, Foreign Minister Alfred Serreqi, Finance Minister Pirro Dishnica, Culture and Youth Minister Dhimiter Anagnosti, and Housing and Construction Minister Ilir Manushi have all been dismissed. (Reuters on 4 December offered a slightly different list of the ministers affected.) The number of ministries will be reduced, but the new cabinet has not yet been announced. Meanwhile, the Socialist Party supported the Democrats in the parliament, where four law amendments were passed without any opposition, Rilindja Demokratike reported on 2 December. These changes seem to reflect a new policy on Berisha's part aimed at dialogue with the opposition, after he failed to muster public support for a new constitution in a recent referendum. The personnel changes may also indicate that Berisha is cleaning house within his own party. But Reuters on 4 December quoted a Socialist spokesman as saying the reshuffle is not enough and that new elections are the only alternative in the wake of the referendum. -- Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. CSCE SUMMIT OPENS IN BUDAPEST. The two-day summit of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe opens in Budapest on 5 December, MTI reports. Hungarian President Arpad Goncz met the previous day with leaders attending the summit, including Ukrainian and Russian Presidents Leonid Kuchma and Boris Yeltsin. Yeltsin repeated his concerns about NATO's eastward expansion, according to MTI. The Hungarian side said NATO expansion would enhance Central European stability and stressed it was the sovereign right of each country to decide whether to join the alliance. In separate talks with Hungarian Foreign Minister Laszlo Kovacs, Andrei Kozyrev talked at length about the consequences of NATO's expansion for Russian domestic politics. Kovacs said Kozyrev did not indicate that Russia was opposed to Hungary's plan to join NATO. The same day, Kovacs and Prime Minister Gyula Horn held talks with their Russian counterparts in a meeting that lasted well into the night. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT TO SIGN NPT ONLY WITH SECURITY GUARANTEES. Leonid Kuchma, arriving in Budapest on 4 December for the CSCE summit, was quoted by Reuters as saying he had come ready to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, provided he received assurances of Ukraine's security from the five declared nuclear powers. "We agreed that we bring the treaty and that they would provide the security guarantees," Kuchma said before leaving Kiev. China, in a statement issued on 4 December, formally pledged that it recognized the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. As reported by the Xinhua news agency, the statement welcomed Ukraine's accession to NPT as a non-nuclear-weapons state. The other four nuclear powers--the United States, France, Russia, and Britain--are expected to give similar assurances. The signing ceremony is scheduled to take place on 5 December and is to be presided over by US President Bill Clinton. -- Doug Clarke and Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc. SEJM OVERRIDES WALESA'S VETO. The Sejm on 2 December overrode President Lech Walesa's veto of a bill providing for high income tax rates (21, 33, and 45 percent, depending on income level) by a vote of 327 to 93. The president has seven days either to sign the bill, thereby ensuring its implementation in 1995, or to send it to the Constitutional Tribunal to determine whether it complies with the constitution. Gazeta Wyborcza on 3 December speculated that the president may sign the bill but will veto other economic legislation proposed by the government. Meanwhile, the Sejm on 2 December failed to approve proposed legislation on reprivatizing property illegally nationalized in the late 1940s. As in the case of the vote on the tax bill, the deciding ballots were cast by the government coalition parties and the leftist Union of Labor. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. GERMAN BANK INVESTS IN POLAND'S FINANCIAL SECTOR. The German Commerzbank on 1 December agreed to take a 21 percent stake in the Polish Export Development Bank. This is the first time that a German bank has invested directly in Poland's financial sector. The Commerzbank investment amounts to DM 80 million and provides the German bank with a local partner to deal with its clients in Poland. Another German bank, the Dresdner, as well as the French Banque Nationale de Paris, are currently setting up branches in Poland, but similar attempts by other Western banks have run into opposition from the Polish National Bank, which insists that investors buy into existing Polish banks to help strengthen the Polish banking system. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH-RUSSIAN DEBT TALKS. Czech and Russian media reported on 3 December that Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and Czech Finance Minister Ivan Kocarnik had met to discuss debt settlement and oil and gas supplies. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Yurii Yarov, who also took part in the talks, said the two sides continued to discuss ways of rescheduling Russia's $3.5 billion debt to the Czech Republic. He added that the two sides discussed plans for setting up a joint venture in which Czech Skoda Cars would be assembled in Russia. Russian and Czech officials also discussed proposals for cooperation in culture, science, and education. The two sides on 4 December signed agreements on long-term oil supplies to the Czech Republic and cooperation in nuclear power engineering. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH SKINHEADS SENTENCED. A court in the town of Pisek on 2 December sentenced two skinheads to one year each in jail for deliberately causing the death by drowning of a Gypsy. CTK reported that 14 other skinheads were acquitted for lack of evidence. The victim died in September 1993 in Pisek after the skinheads--armed with baseball bats, chains, and sticks--chased him into the freezing waters of the Otava river and prevented him from being rescued. Shortly after the court proceedings, one of the skinheads who had been on trial was stabbed several times by a young Gypsy on the town's main square. The assailant was taken into police custody. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. MECIAR'S PARTY CLOSE TO FORMING A COALITION. Former Slovak Labor Minister Olga Keltosova, who has been heading coalition talks between Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, the Slovak National Party, and the Association of Workers, said on 2 December that they were close to reaching an agreement on a government with Meciar as prime minister. "We expect a government [to be formed] within seven to ten days," Keltosova said. She declined to confirm a TASR report that the Association of Workers would get the justice and privatization portfolios and the SNP the education and defense posts, while the MDS would take all other ministries. The same day, Meciar refused to meet with outgoing Prime Minister Jozef Moravcik to discuss the government's proposal for the state budget. He indicated that his party would vote against the budget proposal in the parliament. The prime minister-designate suggested that Slovakia will have to adopt a provisional budget until his government can push through its version. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS REELECT CARNOGURSKY. The congress of the Christian Democratic Movement in Slovakia reelected Jan Carnogursky as party chairman on 3 December, TASR reported. Frantisek Miklosko, Ivan Simko, Mikulas Dzurinda, and Jan Sigel were elected deputy chairmen. In his speech to the congress, Carnogursky said he did not see any possibility for holding talks with Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, which won the recent parliamentary elections. He said that the MDS is causing conflicts on the domestic political scene and is leading Slovakia into international isolation. "We have established ourselves as a party of decent people, and our party represents a real alternative to the future government [of Meciar]," Carnogursky said. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN SECRET SERVICE PLOTTING TO KILL PRO-HUNGARIAN ACTIVIST? Radio Bucharest on 2 December quoted the chief of the Austrian Counterintelligence Service, Peter Blumauer, as saying in an interview with AFP that the Romanian Intelligence Service was plotting to kill Austrian lawyer Eva Maria Barki. Barki, who is of Hungarian origin, has long been regarded in Romania as an extremist and has actively promoted the rights of the Magyar minority in Romania, including territorial autonomy. Blumauer said the RIS planned to liquidate Barki by faking a road accident, using methods employed in the past by the Securitate, the former political police. He said Barki has been warned by the Austrian service to change her daily schedule and take other precautions. According to Blumauer, two other Hungarians were being targeted by the RIS, including Reformed Bishop Laszlo Tokes. RIS spokesman Nicolae Ulieru responded by telling Radio Bucharest the same day that the service has never employed "elimination methods" and was not permitted by law to act abroad. Eva Maria Barki, he added, had been declared persona non grata in Romania for "activities that infringe on the laws of the Romanian state." -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. NATIONALIST LEADER ACCUSES PSDR OF NOT KEEPING PROMISES ON COALITION. The leader of the extreme nationalist Greater Romania Party, Corneliu Vadim Tudor, has accused the Party of Social Democracy in Romania of reneging on its promise to sign a formal protocol of collaboration, which would include its joining the ruling coalition. At a press conference carried by Radio Bucharest on 2 December, Tudor said the protocol, which provided for collaboration between the present coalition members (the PSDR and the Party of Romanian National Unity) on the one hand, and the GRP and the Socialist Labor Party (both of which support the government in parliament) on the other, was drafted on 5 November, after the GRP threatened to withdraw its support unless it was allowed to formally join the coalition. The GRP National Council, which met on 5 and 6 November after issuing an ultimatum-like demand to the PSDR, postponed its decision to withdraw for three months. Tudor said at the press conference that once the danger had passed, the PSDR leadership ignored its promise and continued to display "an arrogant attitude" toward the GRP. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN SENTENCED FOR 1991 COUP ATTEMPT. The Lithuanian Supreme Court on 2 December sentenced General Ginutis Taurinskas, former head of the Lithuanian Voluntary Society for Cooperation with the Army, Air Force, and Navy, to two-and-a-half years in prison, a 200 litai ($50) fine, and confiscation of property, BNS reported on 3 December. Taurinkas had been accused of attempting to overthrow the Lithuanian government in January 1991 and of participation in the seizure of several buildings with the assistance of Soviet troops. As he was arrested in September 1993, he has already served almost half his term. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN PRESIDENT, RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR ON BILATERAL RELATIONS. Meeting with President Guntis Ulmanis in Riga on 2 December, Russian Ambassador to Latvia Aleksandr Rannikh endorsed the idea of future meetings between the Latvian and Russian foreign ministers. The first such meeting is to take place in Budapest within the framework of the CSCE conference. If it is successful, the next meeting may be held in early 1995 in Riga. Rannikh presented Ulmanis with a copy of the Russian State Duma's response to the Baltic Assembly's resolution on Kaliningrad Oblast. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIANS DO NOT TRUST STATE OFFICIALS. A recent public opinion poll indicates that about 60 percent of Latvians think that state officials are easy to bribe and dishonest, while only 3 percent believe they are fair and do not accept bribes. About 13 percent of the respondents said they have declined to bribe an official who hinted he would accept such payment, while 6.7 percent of respondents have paid officials for housing, medical, and commercial services. On the positive side, 78% percent of the respondents have not experienced corruptness among officials this year. State Reform Minister Vita Terauda says the situation could be improved by the adoption and implementation of appropriate laws, which are currently being drafted, BNS reported on 2 December. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIAN POLICE CHIEF RESIGNS. The Estonian government on 1 December accepted the resignation of Police Department Director-General Uuno Ellen and appointed Herman Simm, chief of the Harjumaa police and president of the Estonian branch of the International Police Association, as his replacement. It is unclear why Ellen, who held the position for only eight months and had started to reorganize the police force, decided to step down. Ellen was the successor of Igor Amann, whom the government dismissed in January, BNS reported on 2 December. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. DIVERS EXAMINE SUNKEN ESTONIAN FERRY. A spokesman for the Swedish maritime affairs directorate said that divers examining the interior of the sunken ferry "Estonia" have recovered two satellite navigation receivers but failed to find the bridge computer or "black box," Western agencies reported on 4 December. The divers, who began their scheduled four-day search on 2 December, described the ship's decks as "demolished." The ship rolled over before hitting bottom and is lying on its side about 80 meters underwater. The divers' mission is to find evidence to help officials decide whether to refloat the ferry, to retrieve the bodies, or to leave the bodies and fill the wreck with sand to "bury" the victims and protect the wreck from scavangers. The decision is expected to be made this month. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Bess Brown) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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