I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome while trying to succeed. - Booker T. Washington
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 227, 2 December 1994

                              RUSSIA

RUSSIA BALKS AT PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. Russian Foreign Minister
Andrei Kozyrev stunned NATO foreign ministers in Brussels on 1
December and made good on his warning (see Daily Report, 1
December) when he announced that Moscow is deferring its
participation in the Partnership for Peace program (PfP) because
of the decisions on NATO's enlargement announced in the allied
Foreign Ministers' communique on the same day, Western agencies
reported. Russia was scheduled to officially join NATO's PfP
program on 1 December. Saying that he had just consulted with
President Boris Yeltsin, who shares his position, Kozyrev charged
that NATO was unduly hastening the admission of new members and
was putting enlargement ahead of PfP instead of "first exhausting
the potentialities of partnership." He said he reserved the right
to ask for clarifications on many aspects of NATO's decison.
Although couched largely in procedural terms, Kozyrev's objections
reflect Moscow's fundamental objections to inclusion of its former
Warsaw Pact allies in NATO and preference for PfP as a benign
substitute for their membership in NATO unless Russia is also
admitted. In their communique, the NATO foreign ministers had gone
out of their way to placate Russia, noting that any cooperative
European security architecture required the active participation
of Russia, a country which had "a unique or particularly important
contribution to make." U.S. officials hinted they thought the
Russians were playing to a domestic audience as the Russians had
been briefed on the NATO plans by American leaders from President
Bill Clinton on down. In an address on the same day to a Paris
session of the West European Union's Parliamentary Assembly,
Kozyrev claimed that the prospect of NATO's enlargement in
Russia's direction alarmed Russian public opinion. -- Vladimir
Socor and Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

MORE SIGNS OF DISPLEASURE. "Russia has been resisting NATO's
enlargement with East European states and former Warsaw Pact
allies . . . and will take additional security measures if NATO
admits new members," Defense Minister Pavel Grachev warned in a
statement to the media on 30 November. Echoing Kozyrev's objection
(see preceding item) and Grachev's warning, Belarusian First
Deputy Foreign Minister Valerii Tsepkalo told Interfax on 1
December that Belarusian public opinion would strongly object to
the emergence of NATO on Belarus' western border, that Belarus may
in that case refuse cooperation with NATO, and that "integration
within the CIS would then assume a confrontational character
toward the West." In fact, the dynamics of Russian-led integration
in the CIS have taken a life of their own unrelated to
developments in Western security organizations. -- Vladimir Socor,
RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIAN-WEU COOPERATION? ITAR-TASS reported that Kozyrev proposed
a broad program of cooperation between Russia and the Western
European Union--the military arm of the European Union--at the WEU
Parliamentary Assembly in Paris on 1 December. Joint naval
maneuvers and direct contacts between the Russian governments arms
import/export company Rosvooruzheniye and appropriate WEU bodies
were proposed. Kozyrev also suggested that Russia could provide
the WEU with data from Russian satellites and provide Russian
aircraft for the WEU pool of planes to be used as part of the Open
Sky treaty. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

CHECHNYA "GRADUALLY GETTING OUT OF CONTROL." Following the expiry
on 1 December of Russian President Boris Yeltsin's ultimatum to
the various factions in Chechnya to lay down their arms, leading
Russian officials modifed their stance. The Presidential Press
service reissued Yeltsin's appeal of 29 November without the
original mention of imposition of a state of emergency, but
affirming that Russia will take "the necessary steps to restore
order," Interfax reported. While Ekho Moskvy quoted Yeltsin aide
Leonid Smirnyagin as stating that Yeltsin "is ready to negotiate .
. . to avoid a bloodbath," AFP quoted Chechen President Dzhokhar
Dudaev as rejecting talks with Russia as "impossible." Opposition
Provisional Council chairman Umar Avturkhanov similarly rejected
the idea of talks between Moscow and Dudaev and argued in favor of
the immediate dispatch of Russian troops to Chechnya, according to
ITAR-TASS. Grozny's airport and several buildings including the
presidential palace were damaged in an air raid during the
afternoon of 1 December. A delegation of the Russian State Duma
headed by defense committee chairman Sergei Yushenkov travelled to
Grozny in the hope of negotiating the release of some 70 Russians
captured during the unsuccessful attempt by opposition forces on
26-27 November to seize power in Grozny. Speaking with journalists
on 1 December, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev announced
that an investigation would be held to establish who recruited the
soldiers and sent them to Chechnya. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

CONCEPT OF NATIONAL SECURITY AIMED AT UNITING THE COUNTRY. The
Russian Security Council has finished a draft concept of national
security outlining the strategic interests of Russia and defining
its attitude towards NATO and regional security problems, agencies
reported 1 December. The goal of the concept is to fill the vacuum
left by communist ideology and to provide confronting political
parties a basis for consensus based on common national interests,
said Valerii Manilov, who was in charge of the Inter-branch
committee that drafted the concept. As far as NATO is concerned,
the concept is to advance the idea of an all-European collective
security, and, in a broader sense, a "Euro-Atlantic bloc-free
security" principle. In regional trouble spots like Caucausia and
in particular Chechnya, the concept formulates the primacy of
Russian national interests over the region and desires to solve
the crises through a "legitimate means within the framework of the
Constitution." Some provisions of the concept, like the
incorporation of Russia into "Euro-Atlantic collective security,"
looks no less utopian than former communist ideology. -- Victor
Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.

ANOTHER DEFENSE PLANT FURLOUGHS WORKERS. The Komsomolsk Aircraft
Factory, which builds the Su-27 jet fighter, ceased all military
production in late November ITAR-TASS reported on 1 December. The
agency said that the factory had put most of its workers on leave
until January. Viktor Merkulov, the factory's general director,
said that military production had dropped to 5.5 percent of the
1991 level. The plant had suspended military production briefly in
September also. It is continuing to produce consumer goods and
civilian aircraft. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

GORBACHEV TO BECOME RUSSIA'S FIRST POST-COMMUNIST POLITICAL
PRISONER? Citing "unofficial sources," the liberal Novaya
ezhednevnaya gazeta carried on its 25 November cover page an
article claiming that the Russian prosecutors are "cooking up" a
political case against former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.
According to the daily, the inquiry underway in Moscow has been
based on Gorbachev's address to the founding congress of the
Russian Social-Democratic Union on November 1, in which Gorbachev
had criticized the Yeltsin leadership and called for the early
elections of all branches of the Russian government. Gorbachev's
address allegedly has prompted the "Gorbophobic" Russian
authorities to start an inquiry, aimed at charging Gorbachev under
the infamous Article 70 of the Russian Criminal Code. This law
gained the world-wide notoriety under its former title
"Anti-Soviet Agitation and Propaganda" in the 1960s to early
1980s, until the Gorbachev leadership stopped arrests of political
dissidents in that country. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

                  TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

GEORGIA CALLS FOR UN SECURITY COUNCIL MEETING ON ABKHAZIA.
Georgian Head of state Eduard Shevardnadze has called for the
convening of an emergency session of the UN Security Council to
discuss the adoption on 26 November by the Abkhaz parliament of a
new constitution characterizing Abkhazia as an independent
republic, a move which "could have unpredictable consequences and
lead to an escalation of the conflict," ITAR-TASS reported on 1
December. Also on 1 December, the Georgian parliament began
debating a draft document denying the legitimacy of either the
Abkhaz parliament or the new constitution and affirming Georgia's
"moral, political and juridicial right" to use all means to
restore its state sovereignty, according to Interfax, which
further quoted Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev as
affirming Russian support for Georgia's territorial integrity and
expressing the hope that the two sides would continue
negotiations. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

                               CIS

UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS. On 30 November the Ukrainian presidential
administration held a briefing focusing mainly on the progress of
the Russian-Ukrainian friendship treaty, Ukrainian radio reported.
Ukrainian First Deputy Prime Minister Evhen Marchuk told reporters
that headway had been made on three of the most problematic
issues: the Black Sea Fleet, the former Soviet Union's debt, and
the framework of future economic relations between Russia and
Ukraine. The issue of the fleet had been the most complicated and
the terms of the lease for its bases has still not been worked
out. Marchuk said a short-term lease was impractical, yet because
Ukraine was a neutral state it could not allow foreign forces to
be based on its territory. Russia is demanding that Sevastopol be
the main base of the Russian portion of the Black Sea Fleet; that
the military commander of the city of Sevastopol be a Russian
citizen; and that Russia also has a claim to fleet assets in the
ports of Kerch and Feodosia. Ukraine refuses to entertain such
demands. As for Ukraine's portion of the Soviet debt, it is agreed
that Ukraine is responsible for 16.7 percent, or $3 billion.
Ukraine is willing to pay it off, but the interest on it is $900
million per year, a sum Ukraine would have great difficulty
covering. The most progress was made on on the two sides economic
relations. The most pressing issue in these relations is Ukraine's
over $1 billion debt to Gazprom. Since Gazprom is no longer a
state enterprise, but a joint-stock company, Russia urged Ukraine
to push forward with its economic reforms so that it can come out
of its crisis and pay its bills. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

MILITARY CONFERENCE, DEFENSE MINISTERS' MEETING. On 30 November in
Moscow, a conference of senior military officials and experts from
CIS member states discussed the creation of multilateral
mechanisms of military cooperation under the CIS collective
security treaty, repair and maintenance of military hardware at
plants in CIS states, joint military planning, creation of a
common air defense system, wartime mobilization, and the structure
and utilization of coalition forces. Some of those topics were
again discussed at a meeting of the Council of Defense Ministers
of CIS member states chaired by Russia's Pavel Grachev on 1
December. Russian Col.-Gen. Viktor Samsonov, head of the CIS
Headquarters for Military Cooperation and Coordination, told
Russian Radio and TV that this was the most meaningful step thus
far toward putting the 1992 treaty of collective security into
practice. Nine member states were represented by the ministers,
Ukraine and Turkmenistan by observers, and Moldova (which abstains
from all military undertakings) was the sole absentee. -- Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

CIS DEFENSE MINISTERS DEFEND GRACHEV. In a statement approved at
their 1 December council meeting in Moscow, the CIS defense
ministers condemned "the campaign in Russian and other mass media
to discredit the armed forces of the Russian Federation and the
Russian defense minister (Pavel Grachev), who is chairman of the
Council of Defense Ministers of the CIS Member States." Interfax
reported that the statement was signed by the defense ministers of
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Observers from Ukraine and
Turkmenistan were said to have expressed support for the statement
but did not sign it. For his part Grachev fired the head of the
press center of the Headquarters for Coordination of Military
Cooperation between CIS countries. Colonel Serafim Yushkov told
Interfax that he thought he had been dismissed because of an open
letter he wrote "assessing the personality of the defense
minister" in which he disagreed with Yeltsin's assessment that
Grachev was a strong defense minister respected by the army and
the government. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

KOZYREV: RUSSIA NEEDS MONEY, NOT MANDATES, FOR CIS "PEACEKEEPING."
Addressing a session of the West European Union Parliamentary
Assembly on 1 December in Paris, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei
Kozyrev claimed that Russian troops only carry out their
"peacekeeping operations on CIS territory" at the countries'
request. "That is why we don't need [international] permission.
However, we do not only need but we urge that the West should
financially support Russian peacekeeping," Interfax quoted him on
1 December. He attacked as "immoral" the (unattributed) view that
"instability in the former USSR is preferable to Russian
peacekeeping." Meanwhile the CIS Defense Ministers' Council (see
above) authorized Col.-General Valerii Patrikeev, commander of CIS
"peacekeeping" forces in Tajikistan, to take certain major
decisions without reference to the host country's government and
to take over the command of Russian border troops in Tajikistan in
the event of large-scale hostilities. The latter move represents a
partial gain for Grachev over his potential rival, Col.-General
Andrei Nikolaev, Russian Border Troops' commander in chief. The
Defense Ministers scheduled spring maneuvers by Russian infantry,
armor, and aviation in Tajikistan with some Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and
Kazakh units. Patrikeev predicted that modernization of Tajik
forces would take "a dozen years" and that Russian forces will act
as peacekeepers there for a long time to come. Grachev solicited
financial and troop contributions by CIS member states to the
"peacekeeping" operation in Abkhazia. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL,
Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

SERBIA APPEARS TO BE INVOLVED IN BIHAC ATTACK. News agencies on 1
December reported from Sarajevo that Bosnian, Serbian, and UN
reports seem to confirm suspicions that Serbia-Montenegro is
supplying men, ammunition, and especially fuel to the Bosnian and
Croatian Serb forces in northwestern Bosnia. Classified UN reports
noted that armed men were crossing the border between Croatian and
Bosnian Serb territory in vehicles with Belgrade license plates.
The US "Contact Group" representative told the press in Sarajevo
that the border between Serbia and Bosnian Serb territory was
"somewhat porous." The Novi Sad weekly Svet also reported on an
influx of armed men from Serbia into Bosnia. If true, the accounts
would support the view that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic
may have soured on the current Bosnian Serb leadership in Pale but
has not given up his goal of a greater Serbia. Meanwhile, RFE/RL's
South Slavic Service quoted the Bosnian Serb parliamentary speaker
as saying he was not impressed by the latest US proposal for a
confederation between Pale and Belgrade, arguing that his side's
main interest is securing considerably more than the 49 percent of
Bosnian territory allotted it by the Contact Group plan. --
Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

CROATS AND SERBS CLASH ALONG BIG FRONT. The Los Angeles Times on 2
December reports that Croatian and Serbian forces exchanged fire
along the lengthy divide separating them behind the Dalmatian
coast. The Washington Post noted a particularly intense exchange
near Limar, calling it the worst fighting on the Krajina front
since a cease-fire was signed in March. Meanwhile, Croatia's two
most important military officials warned that Zagreb may soon
intervene in the fighting around Bihac, since that town's fall
would enable the Bosnian and Croatian Serbs to control the rail
link between Banja Luka and Knin. Defense Minister Gojko Susak
said that Croatia would not wait for Bihac to fall before
intervening and regretted that Zagreb had not done so sooner. He
and Chief of Staff General Janko Bobetko added that Croatia had
hoped NATO would use air attacks to halt the Serbs, but this had
not happened. Croatia had now drawn the conclusion that it must
tend to its security itself, they added. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL,
Inc.

UNHCR REFUSES TO SUPPORT SERBIAN SETTLEMENT IN KOSOVO. Serbian
plans to use international organizations to settle Serbian
refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina in Kosovo have failed,
Rilindja reported on 26 November. Rump Yugoslav newspapers
recently announced that a settlement project involving at least
100,000 Serbian refugees would be financed by the United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees. However, the UNHCR turned down
these plans, arguing that the planned settlement would support
Serbian plans to change the ethnic structure of the region. --
Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc.

POLISH GOVERNMENT GIVES GREEN LIGHT TO PRIVATIZATION. Prime
Minister Waldemar Pawlak on 1 December approved the composition of
supervisory boards for 15 National Investment Funds, charged with
overseeing the privatization of large state-owned enterprises.
This decision makes it possible to register the NIFs as separate
public companies, each of which will serve as a leading investor
in 30-37 privatized enterprises. The public will be able to buy
shares in the enterprises of their choice through investing in
individual NIFs. According to Rzeczpospolita on 1 December, about
15 percent of shares will be set aside for pensioners and civil
servants to compensate them for benefits they were due to receive
but did not as a result of changes in economic policies. The NIFs
are to be managed by 19 Polish, foreign, and joint- venture
companies selected in recent years from among 33 candidates. --
Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.

KOUKAL REELECTED MAYOR OF PRAGUE. Prague City Parliament has
reelected Jan Koukal of Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus's Civic
Democratic Party as mayor of Prague. Of the 55 deputies in the
city parliament, 33 voted for Koukal. Former Foreign Minister Jiri
Dienstbier was Koukal's most formidable competitor for the post.
The CDP has 23 seats in the city parliament. Koukal, who has a
doctorate in theoretical physics, was first elected mayor on 13
May 1993. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

FINNISH PREMIER IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC. Esco Tapani Eho arrived in
Prague on 1 December for an official visit. On 2 December, the
Finnish prime minister is scheduled to meet with his Czech
counterpart, Vaclav Klaus, to discuss bilateral relations and sign
an agreement on preventing double taxation. The same day, Eho is
to meet with President Vaclav Havel. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

CRIME IN PRAGUE. Some 76,000 criminal acts were committed in
Prague during the first 11 months of 1994--3,036 fewer than during
the same period of 1993, Prague police spokesmen told journalists
on 1 December. A total of 47 murders or attempted murders took
place during the same period, four fewer than last year. In
addition, there were 966 robberies, 97 rapes, 7,438 cases of car
theft, and 5,488 instances of pickpocketing. The levels of all
these categories of crime declined in comparison with the first 11
months of 1993. The only category of crime to register a
significant increase was breaking into cars--a total of 21,654
cases were reported, 4,177 more than during the first 11 months of
1993. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

KELTOSOVA ON SLOVAK BUDGET. Olga Keltosova, the former Slovak
minister for labor and a high-ranking official in
Premier-designate Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic
Slovakia, told CTK on 1 December that her party was prepared to
submit its own budget, should the parliament reject the budget
proposal submitted by the outgoing government of Jozef Moravcik.
Keltosova was critical of what she described as the government's
efforts to discuss the budget with MDS officials after it had been
approved by the government. The budget proposal has almost no
chance of being approved without the support of at least some MDS
deputies. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

HUNGARIAN RAIL WORKERS TO STRIKE. The Rail Workers and Locomotive
Drivers Trade Unions on 30 November announced they would stage a
warning strike on 8 December and a 36-hour general strike
beginning 12 December, MTI reports. The trade unions are demanding
a minimum 10 percent wage increase for 1995, but the government is
not willing to grant more than 6 percent. Transportation and
Telecommunications Minister Karoly Lotz on 1 December warned that
a strike would not solve the railway's problems but would cause
serious damage to the country. Hungarian State Railways have been
operating at a loss for years. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIA CELEBRATES NATIONAL DAY. Romania on 1 December celebrated
its national day, marking the unification of Transylvania with the
Kingdom of Romania in 1918. The main ceremonies were held in Alba
Iulia, southern Transylvania, and Bucharest. Speaking in Alba
Iulia, Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu said Romania was recovering from
its postcommunist decline and now facing the prospect of growth.
In the capital, President Ion Iliescu praised the political and
economic reforms of the last five years and urged his co-nationals
to complete the transition to a democratic society and a market
economy. Iliescu reiterated his country's "vital interest" in a
speedy integration into Euro-Atlantic structures, including NATO,
the Western European Union, and the European Union. -- Dan
Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIAN POLICE REJECT BABY SMUGGLERS' ACCUSATIONS. The Romanian
General Police Inspectorate, in a communique broadcast by Radio
Bucharest on 1 December, dismissed the charges of ill-treatment
leveled by a British couple arrested in Romania in early July,
while trying to smuggle a five-month-old baby out of the country.
The statement accused Adrian and Bernadette Mooney, who were
pardoned and freed from jail in November, of waging a smear
campaign against Romanian police by alleging they had been
psychologically harassed and subject to unhygienic jail
conditions. Britain has lodged a formal request for the Romanian
authorities to provide information on the case. -- Dan Ionescu,
RFE/RL, Inc.

MOSCOW THROWS DOUBT ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM MOLDOVA. At the end
of an official visit to Moscow, Moldovan Parliament Chairman Petru
Lucinschi on 30 November told journalists that Russia will delay
the entry into force of the agreement to withdraw its 14th Army
from Moldova within three years. Moscow had initially assured
Chisinau that the agreement, signed on 21 October by the two prime
ministers, would not need the hard-line State Duma's ratification.
But the Russian side has now indicated that the agreement will be
submitted to the Duma after all. Lucinschi reported that Duma
leaders and Russian Foreign Ministry officials objected to
Moldova's recent appeals for Western monitoring of an eventual
withdrawal. They proposed dual Moldovan-Russian citizenship for
Moldova's "Russian speakers," dissolution of Moldova's small army,
demilitarization of the country, and a federal status for
Transdniester. Chisinau is concerned that the Duma may attach such
conditions to the withdrawal agreement or simply delay its entry
into force. Duma leaders again declined to consider ratification
of the 1990 Russian-Moldovan political treaty enshrining Moldova's
territorial integrity, Nezavisimaya gazeta, Interfax, and
Basapress reported. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

ALBANIAN MINISTER FOR CULTURE RESIGNS. In a letter addressed to
Prime Minister Aleksander Meksi, Dhimiter Anagnosti submitted his
resignation, citing President Sali Berisha's refusal to admit
responsibility for the defeat last month of the referendum on the
new constitution, Rilindja reported on 26 November. According to
the newspaper, the resignation also may be motivated by
difficulties confronting the culture minister. In the past three
years, more than 500 works of art have been stolen from important
archaeological sites and museums in Albania. -- Fabian Schmidt,
RFE/RL, Inc.

CHORNOYBL VICTIMS PRESS FOR INCREASED STATE AID. AFP on 1 December
reported that several hundred Chornobyl survivors demonstrated in
Kiev to demand increased state aid for victims of the 1986 nuclear
accident. Carrying large placards with photocopies of victims'
death certificates, the demonstrators demanded that Ukrainian
law-makers monitor more closely the distribution of Chornobyl
funds. Yuri Andreyev, president of the Chornobyl Union
Association, which organized the demonstration, said 20 percent of
the 1991 state budget was earmarked for the Chornobyl
Rehabilitation Program; in 1994, this figure had sunk to 4
percent. "We cannot allow Chornobyl victims to pay the price of
fiscal austerity measures," he said. -- Jan Cleave, RFE/RL, Inc.

BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT STOPS SALE OF MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM.
Alyaksandr Lukashenka has stopped work on a contract to sell the
S-300-PMU missile defense system to a US-Canadian firm, Belarusian
Radio reported on 1 December. According to Lukashenka, he did not
have the right to sell the system, which was developed by Russia
and Belarus. He said any such sale would have to be transacted
together with Russia. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

IMF DENIES IT WILL WITHHOLD CREDIT TO BELARUS. IMF representative
to Belarus Willem Middlekoop has dismissed reports that the IMF
has decided to withhold credits to Belarus because of backtracking
on economic reform, Belarusian Radio reported on 30 November (see
Daily Report, 22 November). Middlekoop said the Belarusian
government had made progress in economic reform. As soon as the
Belarusian government is ready, the IMF will consider releasing
credits to the country and a meeting will be held with the donor
countries, he added. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

REDUCTIONS IN BELARUSIAN MILITARY. A report on the state of the
armed forces was presented to the Belarusian parliament on 30
November, according to Belinform-TASS. The report said there was
not enough money to go ahead with the troop reductions planned for
1994. Funds were lacking for, among other things, the dismantling
of military equipment and the construction of homes for discharged
officers; none were available for research and development or the
maintenance of equipment. The Defense Ministry requested that its
budget be doubled, but the state apparently does not have
sufficient resources. Defense Minister Anatol Kastenka said the
armed forces must continue to be restructured in line with the
country's financial constraints and that a military strategy must
be developed. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

ESTONIAN-BELARUSIAN RELATIONS. Estonian Foreign Ministry Deputy
Chancellor Raul Malk told reporters on 1 December that his recent
visit to Minsk should boost Estonian-Belarusian relations, BNS
reports. Together with Belarusian Foreign Minister Uladzimir
Syanko, he signed a document regulating relations between the two
countries' Foreign Ministries and drew up plans for concluding
interstate agreements on ethnic minorities, visa-free travel for
diplomats, and most-favored-nation trade status. Malk noted that
while there were practically no duties on Belarusian exports to
Estonia, Estonian exports to Belarus faced a very high customs
barrier, since under a Russian-Belarusian agreement concluded in
April, Belarus applies to third countries the same tariffs as
Russia. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT MEETS WITH POPE. In the first official visit
to the Vatican by a Lithuanian head of state, Algirdas Brazauskas
on 2 December held talks with Pope John Paul II, Radio Lithuania
reports. Brazauskas will also meet with Secretary of State
Cardinal Angelo Sodano. The previous day, Brazauskas attended the
signing of an Italian-Lithuanian agreement on investment
protection and promotion as well as a protocol on cultural
cooperation by Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys and Italian Deputy
Foreign Minister Franco Roccherta. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL,
Inc.

LATVIAN SAEIMA REJECTS EMERGENCY SESSION ON CHECHNYA. The Latvian
parliament on 1 December turned down a proposal by deputies of the
"For the Fatherland Freedom" faction to hold an emergency hearing
on Chechnya. It also rejected the faction's call for protests
against what it called "the Russian show of disrespect for the
Chechen right of self-determination," Interfax reported. The
Saeima, however, did ask its Foreign Affairs Commission to
consider the faction's initiative and investigate the matter
further. It also agreed to reconsider the issue next week. Calls
for a show of sympathy for the Chechens have also been voiced by
right-wing Estonian and Lithuanian politicians. -- Dzintra Bungs,
RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Pete Baumgartner)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to
RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU
Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as
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Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.


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