Тот, кто отдает заранее, отдает вдвойне. - Сервантес
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 224, 29 November 1994


STAKES RAISED IN CHECHNYA. On 29 November President Boris Yeltsin
gave the warring parties in Chechnya 48 hours to lay down their
arms, vowing otherwise to introduce a state of emergency and "use
all the forces at the disposal of the state" to restore order in
the republic, ITAR-TASS reported. On 27 November Chechen President
Dzhokhar Dudaev had threatened to execute Russian soldiers
captured during fighting on 25-26 November between Dudaev's forces
and those loyal to the opposition Provisional Council. He later
toned down the threat, but gave Moscow until 6:00 p.m. Moscow time
on 29 November to admit that its troops were involved in the
opposition's failed assault on Grozny, saying that otherwise they
would be treated according to "international law" as "mercenaries
and criminals." According to Sergei Yushenkov, chairman of the
State Duma's defense committee, who spoke with Dudaev by
telephone, Chechnya claims that the prisoners include 20 Russian
Army servicemen. Yushenkov added that three prisoners shown on NTV
on 27 November had been identified by Russian Ground Troops
command as Russian army captains. "It is not clear whether they
appeared in Chechnya under orders from the Defense Ministry or did
it on their own," Reuters quoted him as saying. Defense Minister
Pavel Grachev has denied that regular Russian troops were involved
in the fighting. The Chechen opposition acknowledges that it has
received financial and logistical support from Russia. -- Penny
Morvant, RFE/RL, Inc.

INGUSH REPATRIATION IN JEOPARDY. In view of the expiry on 2
December of the state of emergency in the North Ossetian-Ingush
conflict area, the Ingush are concerned that the handful of
repatriated Ingush in Prigorodnyi Raion will be left unprotected
and that the repatriation process will stop before it has really
begun. Of up to 60,000 Ingush "ethnically cleansed" from
Prigorodnyi Raion in 1992 by the Russian-backed North Ossetians,
only a few hundred have been repatriated. In a statement issued
via ITAR-TASS on 28 November, the Ingush republic's government
accused North Ossetia and the Russian-instituted Temporary
Administration in the region of impeding the repatriation,
"failing to take measures to stop unlawful Ossetian actions
against returning Ingush and to secure their possessions," and
withholding essential services from the few returning refugees.
The Ingush government expressed concern that "the tension may lead
to a new large-scale conflict in North Caucasus." -- Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

minister told journalists on 28 November that he was satisfied
with the results of the 24 November parliamentary hearings on
corruption in the Western Group of Forces (WGF) that had served in
Germany. According to Interfax, he expressed doubt that a second
round of hearings would take place. Grachev was ill and did not
attend the 24 November hearings, sending former WGF Commander
Colonel General Matvei Burlakov in his stead. The defense minister
said that nothing sensational had taken place and that Burlakov
had been able to show that his decisions had been legal or that
those who committed illegal acts had been punished. -- Doug
Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

talks in Tokyo between Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg
Soskovets and Japanese Foreign Minister Yohei Kono, Russia and
Japan signed agreements on rescheduling Russia's debt, Japanese
assistance for Russia's entry into the World Trade Organization,
the creation of a joint trade committee, and the establishment of
a ferry service from Korsakov on Sakhalin to Wakkanai on Hokkaido,
RIA reported on 28 November. Despite his pretrip statement that
the disputed Kuril Islands would not be on the agenda, Soskovets
reportedly informed Kono that Russia stood by the 1993 Tokyo
Declaration, under which the two countries agreed to settle the
islands' future according to the principles of "law and justice."
He also agreed to Kono's suggestion that there should be
full-scale negotiations on fishing rights in the area; Kono had
voiced concern about the recent detention and shootings of
Japanese fishing boats by Russian border patrol vessels. -- Penny
Morvant and Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

MOSCOW'S KURDISH CARD. At a press conference in Moscow, a leader
of the National Liberation Front of Kurdistan, Akhmed Dere, urged
Russia to act as a "mediator and peacekeeper" in the conflict
between Kurds and the Turkish state. Russia, he said, must play a
major role in the Kurdish problem because it is allegedly "linked
with the Kurds by traditional and historical bonds" and because
the conflict area is "near" Russia. The more than 1 million Kurds
in CIS states "have friends in Russia's parliament and government
bodies who are deeply concerned about Turkey's activity in parts
of the former Soviet Union's territory," Dere said. He denounced
the oil contract concluded recently by Azerbaijan and
international companies (also rejected by Russia's Foreign
Ministry) as an example of "pan-Turkic plans" and warned that "the
front is strong enough to prevent any work" on a proposed pipeline
from Azerbaijan to Turkey, Interfax reported. The front, grouping
Kurds in CIS states, emerged earlier this year in Moscow. In
October, Dere addressed the founding conference in Moscow of a
Confederation of CIS Kurds which proclaimed its support for the
guerrilla movement of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in Turkey
(see Daily Report of 4 November ).-- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

All-Russian Economic Conference at the Kremlin on 26 November,
intended to rally support for the government's tough 1995 budget
proposals, Yeltsin and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin outlined
the government's economic plan for the next three years to a
gathering of regional governors, moderate Duma deputies,
industrialists, and bankers, agencies reported. Yeltsin urged
cutting inflation, stabilizing production, and stimulating
investment, and reducing the social costs of the economic
transformation. Both Yeltsin and Chernomyrdin ruled out
uncontrolled borrowing from the Central Bank to cover
expenditures, saying the government would instead issue bonds and
attract foreign loans. The gathering took place one day after the
Duma rejected the cabinet's budget proposals as "unrealistic" and
voted to set up a joint conciliation commission with the
government to present a new draft by 10 December. The meeting also
coincided with the arrival in Moscow of IMF officials, who are
likely to require hard evidence of the government's commitment to
reform before agreeing to some $13 billion in loans. -- Penny
Morvant, RFE/RL, Inc.

DUMA RAISES MINIMUM WAGE. Deputies on 24 November approved at the
first reading a bill more than doubling the minimum wage from
20,500 to 54,100 rubles as of 1 January 1995, Interfax reported.
In an interview with the agency on 28 November, Labor Minister
Gennadii Melikyan called the bill a "purely populist decision" and
said it marked the opening of election campaigning. The bill has
also been attacked by Chernomyrdin, who told the economic
conference on Saturday that it would aggravate inflation and
unemployment. -- Penny Morvant, RFE/RL, Inc.


Minister Vitalii Masol accompanied by senior officials discussed
with Chernomyrdin in Moscow Yeltsin's delayed visit to Ukraine and
other bilateral problems, including Ukraine's difficulties in
paying for Russian energy supplies, ITAR-TASS reported. On 27
November Gazprom reduced gas supplies to Ukraine yet again because
of the failure of Ukrainian officials to sign an agreement on the
continuation of deliveries. Masol is scheduled to finalize a
contract for gas supplies in December. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL,

to Interfax on 28 November that some CIS member states had failed
to realize that a CIS customs union would entail not only the
lifting of trade barriers but also closer economic integration,
weighted voting in coordinating bodies in proportion to the member
states' economic power (rather than one country-one vote), and
decisions binding for all. The officials were speaking in the wake
of the 23 November meeting in Moscow of the Council of Heads of
Customs Services of CIS states that had discussed a draft
agreement on a customs union, uniform customs codes and customs
service regulations for member states, and a common tariff regime
regarding imports from outside the CIS. The documents will be
presented to higher CIS forums for approval. According to Interfax
on 24 November, Russian officials expect intra-CIS customs
barriers to be lifted "over the next few years." That delay would
frustrate the overriding goal of most member states, which is to
regain unimpeded access to the Russian market, and would in the
meantime increase Russia's leverage over them. Russian officials
want the customs union's member states to pursue a coordinated
foreign trade policy in relations with third countries and to
introduce a common tariff system and common trade controls--ideas
that may presage the establishment of a protected eastern market
to which non-CIS goods would have limited access. -- Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

"ONE BORDER FOR ALL." The customs chiefs' gathering coincided with
a meeting, also in Moscow, of the Council of Border Troops
Commanders of CIS member states, chaired by the Russian commander,
Colonel General Andrei Nikolaev. He told Russian TV on 27 November
that a CIS Customs Union "would simply be impossible without
reliable protection of the outer border of the CIS," something "we
once had." Following recent Russian agreements on "joint border
defense" with a number of CIS states, Nikolaev said, "there remain
only two windows in the common border of the CIS. These are the
outer borders of Moldova and Azerbaijan." Both states have
recently been asked by Russia to join a common border defense
system. Interviewed in Pravda of 24 November, on the subject of
"One Border for All," Nikolaev insisted on distinguishing--as
Russian civilian officials also often do--between "internal
borders" in the CIS, which he wanted to be "transparent," and
"external borders of the CIS," which he argued should be defended
"jointly." Nikolaev has recently been high in Yeltsin's esteem. --
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

toward instituting dual citizenship with CIS member countries (see
Daily Report of 28 November) are becoming a source of concern to
countries directly affected. Kazakh Foreign Minister Kasymzhumart
Tokayev told Interfax on 25 November that dual citizenship would
make for divided loyalties and "may become a serious cause of
instability and entail heavy consequences." (Kazakhstan has
recently faced vocal demands from Russian Cossacks settled there
for recognition of dual citizenship with Russia and other
integration measures). Multiethnic states in the former USSR
should foster loyalty based on common citizenship of the common
homeland, Tokayev said. Ukraine has also resisted proposals for
dual citizenship with Russia. In the Crimea, however, the local
Supreme Soviet's deputy chairman, Viktor Mezhak, told Interfax on
27 November that body intended to appeal to Yeltsin shortly to
grant Russian citizenship to willing residents of the Crimea. Some
200,000 of them have already sent applications, Mezhak said,
predicting that some 1.5 million of Crimea's 2.6 million people
would want Russian citizenship. The prospect of granting Russian
citizenship to residents of such areas as northern Kazakhstan,
Ukraine's Crimea, or eastern Moldova (where Russia has already
begun the practice) adds to Moscow's leverage over those
countries. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BIHAC SAGA CONTINUES. International media on 29 November report
that Serbian forces from Bosnia and Croatia continue to press
their attack on the besieged, mainly Muslim town of Bihac, which
is a UN-declared "safe area." A UN military spokesman said the
Serbs could "enter the town any time they wish," since they had
already penetrated into the suburbs over the weekend. Doctors
reported on miserable conditions at the hospital, and a UN refugee
spokesman said the population was being "terrorized" by the Serbs.
Vjesnik compares the fate of Bihac to that of Vukovar, which the
Serbs destroyed with artillery in 1991 and then "ethnically
cleansed" of its Croatian and other non-Serbian inhabitants.
Elsewhere, the Los Angeles Times reports that Serbs in Banja Luka
last week "took three UN officers captive, bound their hands and
feet, and laid them out on a rebel air strip as human shields
against NATO bombing." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

quoted Croatian President Franjo Tudjman as saying "we have
reached a point in this war . . . in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in which
. . . the international community should at last take a decision."
International media report that a new initiative is indeed in the
offing but is unlikely to please either Tudjman or his Bosnian
government allies. According to Reuters and the BBC, the US has
accepted a proposal by Britain, France, and Russia to offer the
Bosnian Serbs a confederation with Serbia as well as other
constitutional carrots and to lift additional sanctions against
Serbia-Montenegro. In return, Belgrade would have to recognize the
territorial integrity of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serbs
would be obliged to accept the current peace plan, although they
would not have to withdraw from lands assigned to others until the
final arrangements were worked out. The BBC quoted unnamed
European officials as praising US Secretary of Defense William
Perry in particular, saying he had come to embrace "realism with a
capital 'R'" by echoing British and French views that air power is
useless in the conflict, that lifting the arms embargo would only
promote more killing, and that a military reversal of Serbian
conquests is not possible. Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic,
however, said there is "no way" his side would accept a
Pale-Belgrade confederation, calling it rewarding genocide. --
Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

Kiev on 28 November, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma said
Ukraine may consider withdrawing its troops from the UN
peacekeeping forces in Bosnia. Although he did not openly
criticize NATO's strategy, his remarks were obviously prompted by
NATO's recent airstrikes against Serbian positions in Bosnia. Some
1,220 Ukrainian servicemen are currently serving around Sarajevo:
nine have been killed since 1992 and several taken hostage by
Bosnian Serbs to prevent NATO airstrikes. Kuchma's national
security advisor, Volodymyr Hrabulyn, said the UN would have to
choose between peacekeepers and bombing. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL,

for Radio and Television has granted broadcasting licenses to two
new private television channels: Canal Plus, the pay-as-you watch
cable channel partly financed by the French company of the same
name, and TV Wisla, a regional channel owned by Polish
entrepreneurs that intends to broadcast to southern Poland.
According to Rzeczpospolita on 29 November, the decision has put
an end to a protracted dispute within the council that effectively
delayed the issuing of licenses to any applicants and created the
impression that such decisions were politically motivated. Canal
Plus is to start broadcasting on 2 December, while TV Wisla is
planning to begin operations in March 1995. -- Jan de Weydenthal,
RFE/RL, Inc.

counterpart, William Perry, signed in Washington on 28 November a
memorandum on cooperation between the two countries' armies .
Holan is also scheduled to meet with other US military officials
and visit several military bases. CTK quotes Perry as saying the
memorandum is part of the US government's efforts to expand
relations in helping Central European countries. He praised the
Czech Republic's efforts toward helping improve European security,
particularly its contribution to peacekeeping troops in the former
Yugoslavia. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

ITALIAN PRESIDENT IN SLOVAKIA. Italian President Oscar Luigi
Scalfaro on 28 November began a two-day visit to Slovakia at the
invitation of his Slovak counterpart, Michal Kovac, TASR reports.
During a meeting with Slovak parliament officials, Scalfaro said
the main goal of his trip is to intensify relations at the
government and parliament levels. Talks with outgoing Slovak
Premier Jozef Moravcik focused on Slovakia's integration into
European structures, minorities, and the strengthening of
bilateral economic relations. During talks with Kovac, Scalfaro
promised Italy's help in Slovakia's efforts to integrate into
European organizations. Scalfaro also met with Premier-designate
Vladimir Meciar, who expressed interest in meeting with Italian
Premier Silvio Berlusconi early next year. -- Sharon Fisher,
RFE/RL, Inc.

SLOVAK POLITICAL UPDATE. Movement for a Democratic Slovakia
Chairman Vladimir Meciar on 28 November said he has offered to
hold talks with the Party of the Democratic Left on the current
political situation but the PDL has not yet responded, TASR
reports. Meciar also said his party may hold talks with individual
members of the Democratic Union but that those interested will
have to come forward. Replying to Meciar's statements, PDL
Chairman Peter Weiss stressed that the decision of his party's
Republican Council not to form a cabinet with the MDS still holds,
while DU Deputy Chairman Roman Kovac said his party has not
received an official offer to hold talks with the MDS and that he
is convinced that no DU deputy has offered his support for the
MDS. In an interview with TASR on 28 November, Association of
Slovak Workers Chairman Jan Luptak said if coalition talks between
the MDS, the PDL, and individual members of the DU are
unsuccessful, his party will have to join the government, since
"we cannot afford to abandon society." Luptak said his party would
be interested in reestablishing the post of construction minister
but would also take other portfolios. He added that the ASW will
support the 1995 draft budget only if all sectors of society are
equally affected by the "restrictions," not just the workers. --
Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

coalition partners on 27 November, serious tension arose when
Prime Minister Gyula Horn decided to set up a council to
coordinate the cabinet's youth policy, Hungarian media reported
the next day. The council is to coordinate the activities of
several ministries, including the Culture and Education Ministry,
which is headed by Alliance of Free Democrats member Gabor Fodor
and which until now was responsible for youth issues. The Free
Democrats were against delegating responsibility for youth issues
to another institution. AFD Chairman Ivan Peto asked the prime
minister to coordinate his actions with the AFD in the future. --
Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIAN PRESIDENT IN PARIS. Ion Iliescu on 28 November began a
three-day visit to France. The Romanian president is scheduled to
address the 40th ordinary session of the Parliamentary Assembly of
the Western European Union. Romania is an associate member of the
WEU. In an interview with Radio Bucharest, Iliescu said he was the
first head of state "from Central Europe" to be invited to that
forum. Senator Vasile Vacaru, a member of the Romanian delegation
accompanying Iliescu, said in another interview that he hoped
Romania would be soon accepted as a full member of the
organization. Iliescu is to meet with several high-ranking French
officials, including President Francois Mitterrand. -- Dan
Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

Magureanu, head of the Romanian Intelligence Service, on 23
November delivered his agency's annual report to a joint session
of the parliament. Magureanu, who stressed that Romania's ailing
economy posed a major risk for national security, warned against
illegal business and organized crime. He also cautioned against
extremism among Romania's large Hungarian minority and against
both left- and right-wing extremism in general. The intelligence
chief singled out the legionnaire movement, a prewar fascist
organization, which, he said, was being revived with help from
abroad and was targeting Romanian youth. Both opposition deputies
and independent media criticized Magureanu's report for its
"generalized" remarks. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

Intelligence Service chief Virgil Magureanu told a 24 November
parliamentary hearing, broadcast by Radio Bucharest, that
Romanian-Moldovan relations "have hit a very low point, are very
cold." He added that "my staff tells me to blame this on the
Moldovans, and I do indeed have reasons to do so." He also
deplored Moldova's rejection of cooperation offers by the Romanian
Intelligence Service. Romania's ambassador to Moldova, Marian
Enache told a hearing of the Romanian Senate's Foreign Policy
Commission that Romanian-Moldovan political relations are
"catastrophic," Romania Libera reported on 17 November. He noted
that economic and cultural cooperation is stagnating, the Romanian
embassy in Chisinau has been "marginalized," and the Moldovan
authorities "respond vehemently to our reactions to their
gestures." Enache was evidently referring to Chisinau's statements
on the recent series of irredentist pronouncements by official
Bucharest in response to the political defeats of pro-Romanian
forces in Moldova. In Chisinau on 27 November, Moldovan Prime
Minister Andrei Sangheli asked the General Secretary of the French
Foreign Ministry, Bernard Dufourcq, for Western help in impressing
on Bucharest that Moldova "wants to live independently, without
the interference of an 'elder brother,' whoever he is," Interfax
reported. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

that Bulgaria and NATO have reached an agreement paving the way
for "a bilateral military cooperation program." The agreement
provides for joint exercises and training exchanges. According to
the report, Sofia's decision to join NATO's Partnership for Peace
plan, taken in February, made the agreement with NATO possible. --
Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

reported on 28 November that Greece will no longer block payment
of the first $18.5 million installment of a total package worth
$43 million in EU economic assistance for Albania, Europe's
poorest country. President Constantine Karamanlis wrote his
Albanian counterpart, Sali Berisha, that bilateral relations must
improve in order to boost regional stability. Karamanlis for
decades has championed cooperation in the Balkans, and the latest
developments are seen as part of long-awaited moves by Andreas
Papandreou's government to ease tensions with Albania and possibly
with Macedonia as well. Albania is celebrating its national
holiday, which marks both its declaration of independence from the
Ottoman Empire in 1912 as well as the 50th anniversary of the end
of German occupation. A parade was held in Tirana, virtually
destroyed in the 1944 fighting, but horses replaced tanks as the
highlight. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

NEW EBRD LOAN FOR ALBANIA. Albania has received another credit
from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Lajmi i
Dites reported on 24 November. The 12.7 million ECU ($16 million)
loan is to be used to improve the country's electric grid system
so as to increase electricity exports and thereby reduce Albania's
huge foreign trade deficit. EBRD Vice President Ron Freeman was in
Tirana to attend the signing of the new credit agreement and the
opening of the bank's branch in the Albanian capital. He also met
with President Sali Berisha and government officials. -- Louis
Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc.

November reported that the Belarusian Security Council has decided
to join NATO's Partnership for Peace Program. Foreign Minister
Uladzimir Syanko is to go to Brussels on 4 December to sign the
documents enrolling Belarus into the program. Belarus would be the
program's 24th member. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

European Union Council of Foreign Ministers, meeting on 28
November in Brussels, agreed to open talks with the Baltic States
on an association agreement, BNS reports. The decision follows a
similar step taken by the European Commission on 25 October.
Estonian Ambassador to Brussels Clyde Kull said the timing of the
talks will depend on the completion of technical preparations, but
he hoped that the agreements will be signed in March or April
1995. He noted that the council set similar conditions for talks
with the Baltic States as it had with the six East European
countries that are already EU associate members. A transition
period of up to six years--necessary to make legislative changes
and gradually pull down tariff barriers--is envisaged before the
Baltic States become full members. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL,

PARTY CONGRESSES IN ESTONIA. The Estonian National Independence
Party Congress on 26 November reelected Tunne Kelam as party
chairman and approved the agreement he had signed on 18 November
with Pro Patria Chairman Mart Laar on establishing a pre-election
coalition for the 5 March parliamentary elections, BNS reported on
28 November. The Coalition Party Congress on 27 November reelected
Tiit Vahi as party chairman and elected Tallinn Mayor Jaak Taam,
Ambassador to Britain Riivo Sinijarv, and Academician Endel
Lippmaa as deputy chairmen. The congress approved plans to join
forces with the Rural People's Party for the elections and gave
the party leadership the right to negotiate with the Rural Union,
the Farmers' League, and the Union of Pensioners and Families to
set up a pre-election coalition. At the fifth Congress of the
Estonian Social Democratic Party the same day, Chairperson Marju
Lauristin said the party would field joint candidates with the
Trade Union Association. She said the party was also holding talks
with the Rural Centrist Party and the League of Ethnic Groups in
Estonia on a possible coalition but would not join forces with the
Democratic Labor Party, the renamed Communist Party. A decision on
the coalitions will be made at the second session of the congress
on 11 December. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

chairman of the Saeima's Defense and Internal Affairs Committee,
told BNS that the new law on state defense, approved by the
parliament on 24 November, coordinates the work of Latvia's armed
forces. The Home Guard and the Defense Forces are to be brought
under the oversight of the National Armed Forces commander, who is
subordinated to the defense minister. The Saeima also made
amendments to laws on the Defense Forces and the Home Guard. --
Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

Latvia's Citizenship and Immigration Department has said Russia's
list of military retirees who are entitled to stay in Latvia is
inaccurate. The list indicates that 22,300 retirees are allowed to
stay in Latvia. But CID information shows that at least 904 of
these retirees are not eligible to remain in Latvia because they
retired after 28 January 1992. According to the Latvian-Russian
accords on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia,
servicemen demobilized after 28 January 1992 have to leave that
country by 31 August 1994. There may be other errors in the list,
since so far information on only 16,000 retirees has been checked.
Russia's list of 1,115 servicemen who failed to leave Latvia by 31
August and are staying on illegally is also imprecise. The CID
says there are at least 1,475 such personnel. The CID archives
contain information on 14,588 troops who were serving in the
Russian armed forces in Latvia on 28 January 1992 and later. Of
these, 621 never had Latvian residence permits and 113 were issued
with Soviet passports. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Penny Morvant)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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