|One must learn by doing the thing; though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. - Sophocles|
No. 224, 29 November 1994
RUSSIA STAKES RAISED IN CHECHNYA. On 29 November President Boris Yeltsin gave the warring parties in Chechnya 48 hours to lay down their arms, vowing otherwise to introduce a state of emergency and "use all the forces at the disposal of the state" to restore order in the republic, ITAR-TASS reported. On 27 November Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev had threatened to execute Russian soldiers captured during fighting on 25-26 November between Dudaev's forces and those loyal to the opposition Provisional Council. He later toned down the threat, but gave Moscow until 6:00 p.m. Moscow time on 29 November to admit that its troops were involved in the opposition's failed assault on Grozny, saying that otherwise they would be treated according to "international law" as "mercenaries and criminals." According to Sergei Yushenkov, chairman of the State Duma's defense committee, who spoke with Dudaev by telephone, Chechnya claims that the prisoners include 20 Russian Army servicemen. Yushenkov added that three prisoners shown on NTV on 27 November had been identified by Russian Ground Troops command as Russian army captains. "It is not clear whether they appeared in Chechnya under orders from the Defense Ministry or did it on their own," Reuters quoted him as saying. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev has denied that regular Russian troops were involved in the fighting. The Chechen opposition acknowledges that it has received financial and logistical support from Russia. -- Penny Morvant, RFE/RL, Inc. INGUSH REPATRIATION IN JEOPARDY. In view of the expiry on 2 December of the state of emergency in the North Ossetian-Ingush conflict area, the Ingush are concerned that the handful of repatriated Ingush in Prigorodnyi Raion will be left unprotected and that the repatriation process will stop before it has really begun. Of up to 60,000 Ingush "ethnically cleansed" from Prigorodnyi Raion in 1992 by the Russian-backed North Ossetians, only a few hundred have been repatriated. In a statement issued via ITAR-TASS on 28 November, the Ingush republic's government accused North Ossetia and the Russian-instituted Temporary Administration in the region of impeding the repatriation, "failing to take measures to stop unlawful Ossetian actions against returning Ingush and to secure their possessions," and withholding essential services from the few returning refugees. The Ingush government expressed concern that "the tension may lead to a new large-scale conflict in North Caucasus." -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV SATISFIED WITH CORRUPTION HEARINGS. The Russian defense minister told journalists on 28 November that he was satisfied with the results of the 24 November parliamentary hearings on corruption in the Western Group of Forces (WGF) that had served in Germany. According to Interfax, he expressed doubt that a second round of hearings would take place. Grachev was ill and did not attend the 24 November hearings, sending former WGF Commander Colonel General Matvei Burlakov in his stead. The defense minister said that nothing sensational had taken place and that Burlakov had been able to show that his decisions had been legal or that those who committed illegal acts had been punished. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA AND JAPAN SIGN ECONOMIC AGREEMENTS, DISCUSS KURILS. After talks in Tokyo between Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets and Japanese Foreign Minister Yohei Kono, Russia and Japan signed agreements on rescheduling Russia's debt, Japanese assistance for Russia's entry into the World Trade Organization, the creation of a joint trade committee, and the establishment of a ferry service from Korsakov on Sakhalin to Wakkanai on Hokkaido, RIA reported on 28 November. Despite his pretrip statement that the disputed Kuril Islands would not be on the agenda, Soskovets reportedly informed Kono that Russia stood by the 1993 Tokyo Declaration, under which the two countries agreed to settle the islands' future according to the principles of "law and justice." He also agreed to Kono's suggestion that there should be full-scale negotiations on fishing rights in the area; Kono had voiced concern about the recent detention and shootings of Japanese fishing boats by Russian border patrol vessels. -- Penny Morvant and Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. MOSCOW'S KURDISH CARD. At a press conference in Moscow, a leader of the National Liberation Front of Kurdistan, Akhmed Dere, urged Russia to act as a "mediator and peacekeeper" in the conflict between Kurds and the Turkish state. Russia, he said, must play a major role in the Kurdish problem because it is allegedly "linked with the Kurds by traditional and historical bonds" and because the conflict area is "near" Russia. The more than 1 million Kurds in CIS states "have friends in Russia's parliament and government bodies who are deeply concerned about Turkey's activity in parts of the former Soviet Union's territory," Dere said. He denounced the oil contract concluded recently by Azerbaijan and international companies (also rejected by Russia's Foreign Ministry) as an example of "pan-Turkic plans" and warned that "the front is strong enough to prevent any work" on a proposed pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey, Interfax reported. The front, grouping Kurds in CIS states, emerged earlier this year in Moscow. In October, Dere addressed the founding conference in Moscow of a Confederation of CIS Kurds which proclaimed its support for the guerrilla movement of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in Turkey (see Daily Report of 4 November ).-- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN, CHERNOMYRDIN ADDRESS ECONOMIC CONFERENCE. At the All-Russian Economic Conference at the Kremlin on 26 November, intended to rally support for the government's tough 1995 budget proposals, Yeltsin and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin outlined the government's economic plan for the next three years to a gathering of regional governors, moderate Duma deputies, industrialists, and bankers, agencies reported. Yeltsin urged cutting inflation, stabilizing production, and stimulating investment, and reducing the social costs of the economic transformation. Both Yeltsin and Chernomyrdin ruled out uncontrolled borrowing from the Central Bank to cover expenditures, saying the government would instead issue bonds and attract foreign loans. The gathering took place one day after the Duma rejected the cabinet's budget proposals as "unrealistic" and voted to set up a joint conciliation commission with the government to present a new draft by 10 December. The meeting also coincided with the arrival in Moscow of IMF officials, who are likely to require hard evidence of the government's commitment to reform before agreeing to some $13 billion in loans. -- Penny Morvant, RFE/RL, Inc. DUMA RAISES MINIMUM WAGE. Deputies on 24 November approved at the first reading a bill more than doubling the minimum wage from 20,500 to 54,100 rubles as of 1 January 1995, Interfax reported. In an interview with the agency on 28 November, Labor Minister Gennadii Melikyan called the bill a "purely populist decision" and said it marked the opening of election campaigning. The bill has also been attacked by Chernomyrdin, who told the economic conference on Saturday that it would aggravate inflation and unemployment. -- Penny Morvant, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS UKRAINIAN PRIME MINISTER IN MOSCOW. On 28 November Ukrainian Prime Minister Vitalii Masol accompanied by senior officials discussed with Chernomyrdin in Moscow Yeltsin's delayed visit to Ukraine and other bilateral problems, including Ukraine's difficulties in paying for Russian energy supplies, ITAR-TASS reported. On 27 November Gazprom reduced gas supplies to Ukraine yet again because of the failure of Ukrainian officials to sign an agreement on the continuation of deliveries. Masol is scheduled to finalize a contract for gas supplies in December. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. CONTROVERSIAL CUSTOMS UNION CONCEPT. Russian officials complained to Interfax on 28 November that some CIS member states had failed to realize that a CIS customs union would entail not only the lifting of trade barriers but also closer economic integration, weighted voting in coordinating bodies in proportion to the member states' economic power (rather than one country-one vote), and decisions binding for all. The officials were speaking in the wake of the 23 November meeting in Moscow of the Council of Heads of Customs Services of CIS states that had discussed a draft agreement on a customs union, uniform customs codes and customs service regulations for member states, and a common tariff regime regarding imports from outside the CIS. The documents will be presented to higher CIS forums for approval. According to Interfax on 24 November, Russian officials expect intra-CIS customs barriers to be lifted "over the next few years." That delay would frustrate the overriding goal of most member states, which is to regain unimpeded access to the Russian market, and would in the meantime increase Russia's leverage over them. Russian officials want the customs union's member states to pursue a coordinated foreign trade policy in relations with third countries and to introduce a common tariff system and common trade controls--ideas that may presage the establishment of a protected eastern market to which non-CIS goods would have limited access. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. "ONE BORDER FOR ALL." The customs chiefs' gathering coincided with a meeting, also in Moscow, of the Council of Border Troops Commanders of CIS member states, chaired by the Russian commander, Colonel General Andrei Nikolaev. He told Russian TV on 27 November that a CIS Customs Union "would simply be impossible without reliable protection of the outer border of the CIS," something "we once had." Following recent Russian agreements on "joint border defense" with a number of CIS states, Nikolaev said, "there remain only two windows in the common border of the CIS. These are the outer borders of Moldova and Azerbaijan." Both states have recently been asked by Russia to join a common border defense system. Interviewed in Pravda of 24 November, on the subject of "One Border for All," Nikolaev insisted on distinguishing--as Russian civilian officials also often do--between "internal borders" in the CIS, which he wanted to be "transparent," and "external borders of the CIS," which he argued should be defended "jointly." Nikolaev has recently been high in Yeltsin's esteem. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. DISPUTES LOOMING OVER CITIZENSHIP. Russia's unilateral steps toward instituting dual citizenship with CIS member countries (see Daily Report of 28 November) are becoming a source of concern to countries directly affected. Kazakh Foreign Minister Kasymzhumart Tokayev told Interfax on 25 November that dual citizenship would make for divided loyalties and "may become a serious cause of instability and entail heavy consequences." (Kazakhstan has recently faced vocal demands from Russian Cossacks settled there for recognition of dual citizenship with Russia and other integration measures). Multiethnic states in the former USSR should foster loyalty based on common citizenship of the common homeland, Tokayev said. Ukraine has also resisted proposals for dual citizenship with Russia. In the Crimea, however, the local Supreme Soviet's deputy chairman, Viktor Mezhak, told Interfax on 27 November that body intended to appeal to Yeltsin shortly to grant Russian citizenship to willing residents of the Crimea. Some 200,000 of them have already sent applications, Mezhak said, predicting that some 1.5 million of Crimea's 2.6 million people would want Russian citizenship. The prospect of granting Russian citizenship to residents of such areas as northern Kazakhstan, Ukraine's Crimea, or eastern Moldova (where Russia has already begun the practice) adds to Moscow's leverage over those countries. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BIHAC SAGA CONTINUES. International media on 29 November report that Serbian forces from Bosnia and Croatia continue to press their attack on the besieged, mainly Muslim town of Bihac, which is a UN-declared "safe area." A UN military spokesman said the Serbs could "enter the town any time they wish," since they had already penetrated into the suburbs over the weekend. Doctors reported on miserable conditions at the hospital, and a UN refugee spokesman said the population was being "terrorized" by the Serbs. Vjesnik compares the fate of Bihac to that of Vukovar, which the Serbs destroyed with artillery in 1991 and then "ethnically cleansed" of its Croatian and other non-Serbian inhabitants. Elsewhere, the Los Angeles Times reports that Serbs in Banja Luka last week "took three UN officers captive, bound their hands and feet, and laid them out on a rebel air strip as human shields against NATO bombing." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW INCENTIVES FOR SERBS IN THE OFFING? Reuters on 28 November quoted Croatian President Franjo Tudjman as saying "we have reached a point in this war . . . in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in which . . . the international community should at last take a decision." International media report that a new initiative is indeed in the offing but is unlikely to please either Tudjman or his Bosnian government allies. According to Reuters and the BBC, the US has accepted a proposal by Britain, France, and Russia to offer the Bosnian Serbs a confederation with Serbia as well as other constitutional carrots and to lift additional sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro. In return, Belgrade would have to recognize the territorial integrity of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serbs would be obliged to accept the current peace plan, although they would not have to withdraw from lands assigned to others until the final arrangements were worked out. The BBC quoted unnamed European officials as praising US Secretary of Defense William Perry in particular, saying he had come to embrace "realism with a capital 'R'" by echoing British and French views that air power is useless in the conflict, that lifting the arms embargo would only promote more killing, and that a military reversal of Serbian conquests is not possible. Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic, however, said there is "no way" his side would accept a Pale-Belgrade confederation, calling it rewarding genocide. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE MAY PULL TROOPS OUT OF BOSNIA. At a press conference in Kiev on 28 November, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma said Ukraine may consider withdrawing its troops from the UN peacekeeping forces in Bosnia. Although he did not openly criticize NATO's strategy, his remarks were obviously prompted by NATO's recent airstrikes against Serbian positions in Bosnia. Some 1,220 Ukrainian servicemen are currently serving around Sarajevo: nine have been killed since 1992 and several taken hostage by Bosnian Serbs to prevent NATO airstrikes. Kuchma's national security advisor, Volodymyr Hrabulyn, said the UN would have to choose between peacekeepers and bombing. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. TWO PRIVATE TV CHANNELS APPROVED IN POLAND. The National Council for Radio and Television has granted broadcasting licenses to two new private television channels: Canal Plus, the pay-as-you watch cable channel partly financed by the French company of the same name, and TV Wisla, a regional channel owned by Polish entrepreneurs that intends to broadcast to southern Poland. According to Rzeczpospolita on 29 November, the decision has put an end to a protracted dispute within the council that effectively delayed the issuing of licenses to any applicants and created the impression that such decisions were politically motivated. Canal Plus is to start broadcasting on 2 December, while TV Wisla is planning to begin operations in March 1995. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH DEFENSE MINISTER IN THE US. Vilem Holan and his US counterpart, William Perry, signed in Washington on 28 November a memorandum on cooperation between the two countries' armies . Holan is also scheduled to meet with other US military officials and visit several military bases. CTK quotes Perry as saying the memorandum is part of the US government's efforts to expand relations in helping Central European countries. He praised the Czech Republic's efforts toward helping improve European security, particularly its contribution to peacekeeping troops in the former Yugoslavia. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. ITALIAN PRESIDENT IN SLOVAKIA. Italian President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro on 28 November began a two-day visit to Slovakia at the invitation of his Slovak counterpart, Michal Kovac, TASR reports. During a meeting with Slovak parliament officials, Scalfaro said the main goal of his trip is to intensify relations at the government and parliament levels. Talks with outgoing Slovak Premier Jozef Moravcik focused on Slovakia's integration into European structures, minorities, and the strengthening of bilateral economic relations. During talks with Kovac, Scalfaro promised Italy's help in Slovakia's efforts to integrate into European organizations. Scalfaro also met with Premier-designate Vladimir Meciar, who expressed interest in meeting with Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi early next year. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK POLITICAL UPDATE. Movement for a Democratic Slovakia Chairman Vladimir Meciar on 28 November said he has offered to hold talks with the Party of the Democratic Left on the current political situation but the PDL has not yet responded, TASR reports. Meciar also said his party may hold talks with individual members of the Democratic Union but that those interested will have to come forward. Replying to Meciar's statements, PDL Chairman Peter Weiss stressed that the decision of his party's Republican Council not to form a cabinet with the MDS still holds, while DU Deputy Chairman Roman Kovac said his party has not received an official offer to hold talks with the MDS and that he is convinced that no DU deputy has offered his support for the MDS. In an interview with TASR on 28 November, Association of Slovak Workers Chairman Jan Luptak said if coalition talks between the MDS, the PDL, and individual members of the DU are unsuccessful, his party will have to join the government, since "we cannot afford to abandon society." Luptak said his party would be interested in reestablishing the post of construction minister but would also take other portfolios. He added that the ASW will support the 1995 draft budget only if all sectors of society are equally affected by the "restrictions," not just the workers. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. FURTHER TENSION IN HUNGARIAN COALITION GOVERNMENT. At a meeting of coalition partners on 27 November, serious tension arose when Prime Minister Gyula Horn decided to set up a council to coordinate the cabinet's youth policy, Hungarian media reported the next day. The council is to coordinate the activities of several ministries, including the Culture and Education Ministry, which is headed by Alliance of Free Democrats member Gabor Fodor and which until now was responsible for youth issues. The Free Democrats were against delegating responsibility for youth issues to another institution. AFD Chairman Ivan Peto asked the prime minister to coordinate his actions with the AFD in the future. -- Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN PRESIDENT IN PARIS. Ion Iliescu on 28 November began a three-day visit to France. The Romanian president is scheduled to address the 40th ordinary session of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Western European Union. Romania is an associate member of the WEU. In an interview with Radio Bucharest, Iliescu said he was the first head of state "from Central Europe" to be invited to that forum. Senator Vasile Vacaru, a member of the Romanian delegation accompanying Iliescu, said in another interview that he hoped Romania would be soon accepted as a full member of the organization. Iliescu is to meet with several high-ranking French officials, including President Francois Mitterrand. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. SECRET SERVICE CHIEF REPORTS TO ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT. Virgil Magureanu, head of the Romanian Intelligence Service, on 23 November delivered his agency's annual report to a joint session of the parliament. Magureanu, who stressed that Romania's ailing economy posed a major risk for national security, warned against illegal business and organized crime. He also cautioned against extremism among Romania's large Hungarian minority and against both left- and right-wing extremism in general. The intelligence chief singled out the legionnaire movement, a prewar fascist organization, which, he said, was being revived with help from abroad and was targeting Romanian youth. Both opposition deputies and independent media criticized Magureanu's report for its "generalized" remarks. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN-MOLDOVAN RELATIONS TERMED "CATASTROPHIC." Romanian Intelligence Service chief Virgil Magureanu told a 24 November parliamentary hearing, broadcast by Radio Bucharest, that Romanian-Moldovan relations "have hit a very low point, are very cold." He added that "my staff tells me to blame this on the Moldovans, and I do indeed have reasons to do so." He also deplored Moldova's rejection of cooperation offers by the Romanian Intelligence Service. Romania's ambassador to Moldova, Marian Enache told a hearing of the Romanian Senate's Foreign Policy Commission that Romanian-Moldovan political relations are "catastrophic," Romania Libera reported on 17 November. He noted that economic and cultural cooperation is stagnating, the Romanian embassy in Chisinau has been "marginalized," and the Moldovan authorities "respond vehemently to our reactions to their gestures." Enache was evidently referring to Chisinau's statements on the recent series of irredentist pronouncements by official Bucharest in response to the political defeats of pro-Romanian forces in Moldova. In Chisinau on 27 November, Moldovan Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli asked the General Secretary of the French Foreign Ministry, Bernard Dufourcq, for Western help in impressing on Bucharest that Moldova "wants to live independently, without the interference of an 'elder brother,' whoever he is," Interfax reported. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA REACHES AGREEMENT WITH NATO. AFP on 28 November reported that Bulgaria and NATO have reached an agreement paving the way for "a bilateral military cooperation program." The agreement provides for joint exercises and training exchanges. According to the report, Sofia's decision to join NATO's Partnership for Peace plan, taken in February, made the agreement with NATO possible. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. GREECE LIFTS VETO ON EU AID TO ALBANIA. International media reported on 28 November that Greece will no longer block payment of the first $18.5 million installment of a total package worth $43 million in EU economic assistance for Albania, Europe's poorest country. President Constantine Karamanlis wrote his Albanian counterpart, Sali Berisha, that bilateral relations must improve in order to boost regional stability. Karamanlis for decades has championed cooperation in the Balkans, and the latest developments are seen as part of long-awaited moves by Andreas Papandreou's government to ease tensions with Albania and possibly with Macedonia as well. Albania is celebrating its national holiday, which marks both its declaration of independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912 as well as the 50th anniversary of the end of German occupation. A parade was held in Tirana, virtually destroyed in the 1944 fighting, but horses replaced tanks as the highlight. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW EBRD LOAN FOR ALBANIA. Albania has received another credit from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Lajmi i Dites reported on 24 November. The 12.7 million ECU ($16 million) loan is to be used to improve the country's electric grid system so as to increase electricity exports and thereby reduce Albania's huge foreign trade deficit. EBRD Vice President Ron Freeman was in Tirana to attend the signing of the new credit agreement and the opening of the bank's branch in the Albanian capital. He also met with President Sali Berisha and government officials. -- Louis Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUS MAY JOIN NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. Interfax on 29 November reported that the Belarusian Security Council has decided to join NATO's Partnership for Peace Program. Foreign Minister Uladzimir Syanko is to go to Brussels on 4 December to sign the documents enrolling Belarus into the program. Belarus would be the program's 24th member. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. EU COUNCIL APPROVES ASSOCIATION TALKS WITH BALTIC STATES. The European Union Council of Foreign Ministers, meeting on 28 November in Brussels, agreed to open talks with the Baltic States on an association agreement, BNS reports. The decision follows a similar step taken by the European Commission on 25 October. Estonian Ambassador to Brussels Clyde Kull said the timing of the talks will depend on the completion of technical preparations, but he hoped that the agreements will be signed in March or April 1995. He noted that the council set similar conditions for talks with the Baltic States as it had with the six East European countries that are already EU associate members. A transition period of up to six years--necessary to make legislative changes and gradually pull down tariff barriers--is envisaged before the Baltic States become full members. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. PARTY CONGRESSES IN ESTONIA. The Estonian National Independence Party Congress on 26 November reelected Tunne Kelam as party chairman and approved the agreement he had signed on 18 November with Pro Patria Chairman Mart Laar on establishing a pre-election coalition for the 5 March parliamentary elections, BNS reported on 28 November. The Coalition Party Congress on 27 November reelected Tiit Vahi as party chairman and elected Tallinn Mayor Jaak Taam, Ambassador to Britain Riivo Sinijarv, and Academician Endel Lippmaa as deputy chairmen. The congress approved plans to join forces with the Rural People's Party for the elections and gave the party leadership the right to negotiate with the Rural Union, the Farmers' League, and the Union of Pensioners and Families to set up a pre-election coalition. At the fifth Congress of the Estonian Social Democratic Party the same day, Chairperson Marju Lauristin said the party would field joint candidates with the Trade Union Association. She said the party was also holding talks with the Rural Centrist Party and the League of Ethnic Groups in Estonia on a possible coalition but would not join forces with the Democratic Labor Party, the renamed Communist Party. A decision on the coalitions will be made at the second session of the congress on 11 December. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN PARLIAMENT PASSES LAW ON STATE DEFENSE. Ivars Silars, chairman of the Saeima's Defense and Internal Affairs Committee, told BNS that the new law on state defense, approved by the parliament on 24 November, coordinates the work of Latvia's armed forces. The Home Guard and the Defense Forces are to be brought under the oversight of the National Armed Forces commander, who is subordinated to the defense minister. The Saeima also made amendments to laws on the Defense Forces and the Home Guard. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA'S INEXACT FIGURES ON ITS MILITARY PERSONNEL IN LATVIA. Latvia's Citizenship and Immigration Department has said Russia's list of military retirees who are entitled to stay in Latvia is inaccurate. The list indicates that 22,300 retirees are allowed to stay in Latvia. But CID information shows that at least 904 of these retirees are not eligible to remain in Latvia because they retired after 28 January 1992. According to the Latvian-Russian accords on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia, servicemen demobilized after 28 January 1992 have to leave that country by 31 August 1994. There may be other errors in the list, since so far information on only 16,000 retirees has been checked. Russia's list of 1,115 servicemen who failed to leave Latvia by 31 August and are staying on illegally is also imprecise. The CID says there are at least 1,475 such personnel. The CID archives contain information on 14,588 troops who were serving in the Russian armed forces in Latvia on 28 January 1992 and later. Of these, 621 never had Latvian residence permits and 113 were issued with Soviet passports. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Penny Morvant) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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