|If a man be gracious and courteous to strangers, it shows he is a citizen of the world, and that his heart is no island cut off from other lands, but a continent that joins to them. - Francis Bacon|
No. 223, 28 November 1994
RUSSIA CHECHEN OPPOSITION ATTACK ON GROZNY FAILS. On 24 November Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev proclaimed martial law throughout the republic and announced the mobilization of all men aged 17 and over, Radio Rossii reported. On 25 November some 40 helicopters bearing Russian markings launched an attack on Grozny's airport, killing three people, according to Western agencies. Forces loyal to the opposition Provisional Council claimed to control all roads into Grozny and issued an appeal for international support, according to ITAR-TASS. Opposition forces backed by artillery and tanks then launched a major assault on Grozny in the late evening of 25 November and on 26 November issued a statement, carried by ITAR-TASS, claiming to have taken control of the presidential palace. Chechen Information Minister Movladi Udugov told Western journalists, however, that the government had not fallen; he said that opposition forces were retreating after sustaining heavy casualties. Dudaev again accused Russia of instigating the attack. Western journalists reported on 27 November that Grozny was quiet, opposition forces having been forced by government troops to retreat; a renewed attack by opposition forces announced by former Russian parliament chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov failed to materialize. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. ETHNIC CLEANSING OF INGUSH PROTESTED. On 26 November, Ingush President Ruslan Aushev's spokesman continued the recent series of protests against the obstruction by the North Ossetian leadership and the Russian Provisional Administration of the return of Ingush refugees to North Ossetia's Prigorodnyi Raion. The refugees remained stranded in appalling conditions in Ingushetia facing the onset of winter, the statement said. President Boris Yeltsin's former ethnic affairs adviser Galina Starovoitova, currently a leader of Democratic Russia, told Interfax on 26 November that Russia's policy on ethnic issues in the North Caucasus "has lost both its moral and legal foundations." Besides the "intensification of military operations against Chechnya," the Russian military has been "hampering the return of [Ingush] refugees to North Ossetia and [Georgian refugees] to Abkhazia. The military are virtually forced to secure the outcome of ethnic cleansing in those regions," Starovoitova noted. Russia's Ministry of Internal Affairs said in a statement on 27 November that the situation in the North Ossetian-Ingush state of emergency area was "tense" but that Russian army and internal troops basically "have it under control." -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN WARNS BALTIC STATES ABOUT TERRITORIAL CLAIMS AGAINST RUSSIA.While visiting the Estonian-Russian border in Pskov Oblast on 23 November, Yeltsin categorically ruled out any border changes with Estonia, Latvia, or any other country. He noted that the Russian border with the Baltic States, especially with Estonia, was poorly equipped in comparison with the former USSR's Baltic border and recommended that the frontier be made more secure. He added, however, that Russia would "not build an impassable border here." Despite Yeltsin's stern warning, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev asked journalists not to view the visit as "confrontational, " adding that it should be viewed "as an outstretched hand" toward Russia's neighbors, Interfax reported. The Estonian Foreign Ministry said that Yeltsin's visit was a manifestation of "Russia's policy of unilateral steps with regard to the border issue" and that it highlighted the need for the issue to be resolved on the basis of international law, BNS reported on 23 November. According to the commander of Russia's Baltic Sea Fleet, Admiral Vladimir Egorov, Russia is planning to finish unilateral demarcation of its border with Estonia on Lake Peipsi by 15 December, BNS reported on 24 November. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT ADOPTED BY DUMA. The State Duma approved at the third reading a bill on information and data protection, Rossiiskie vesti reported on 23 November. The bill, the Russian equivalent of the US Freedom of Information Act, gives all citizens, not only the mass media, the right to access state information resources. The bill also defines the status of information proprietors and the rights and obligations of customers. Although some provisions concerning the rights of individuals are controversial, the bill provides the legal basis for reform of the press, television, and computer legislation. Rossiiskie vesti and some other newspapers have criticized the bill on the grounds that it restricts the access of the mass media to social data. In doing so, however, the newspaper is ignoring the fact that the legislation is intended not only to provide free access to information but also to protect citizens' right to privacy. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. SEGODNYA SAYS PRO-WESTERN STAGE OF REFORM OVER. Mikhail Leontev, an economist and chief editor of Segodnya, believes that reforms aimed at westernizing Russia have ended in defeat. Writing in the liberal newspaper on 24 November, he contended that "forces through which the West has acquired a stake in Russia have become political outsiders" and Russia is beginning a new, "patriotic" stage of reform. That meant, he continued, that Russia could no longer rely on Western aid, but only on loans and investments from international organizations. The "patriotic" stage of reform, he said, implied a strong authoritarian element and state regulation of the economy but it would allow Russia to follow its own path. Russia needs partners, not mentors, Leontev concluded. The Segodnya article is the second anti-Western publication to appear recently in prodemocratic mass media. Last week Moskovsky komsomolets accused the architect of privatization, Anatolii Chubais, of helping Western corporations to take over Russian industry. The State Duma has appointed a special commission to investigate the latter charges, agencies reported on 25 November. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. MILITARY TO BE SHORT-CHANGED IN BUDGET. On 24 November Interfax, quoting First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets, disclosed that the Defense Ministry would only get about 70% of the 40.6 trillion rubles allotted to it in the 1994 budget. The next day Finance Minister Vladimir Panskov told Interfax that there was not enough money to pay the 3 billion rubles owed the country's defense industries--a debt the Defense Ministry puts at 5 trillion. The best Panskov could offer was 1 trillion, to be paid in 1995. He also thought that state employees' back wages would be paid by the end of the year. As for the 1995 budget, the chairman of the Duma's defense committee, Sergei Yushenkov, said that the military would probably get 55 trillion rubles rather than the 111 trillion it wanted. He himself thought 44 trillion would be enough and called for the number of units in the army to be cut and for the transition from a division-army structure to a brigade-corps organization to be speeded up. The Duma will hold a closed session on the military budget on 8 December, according to Interfax of 25 November. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. CIVILIAN APPOINTED TO HEAD ARMS AGENCY. Interfax on reported 25 November that it had been informed by "reliable sources" that Yeltsin had appointed Aleksandr Kotelkin to head the Rosvooruzhenye state-owned weapons import-export company. Previously, Kotelkin managed the Board on Foreign Cooperation in Military Technology at the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and supervised arms sales to Hungary, Angola, and Kuwait totaling nearly $2 billion. Kotelkin would replace General Viktor Samoilov. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. MILITARY WANTS TO BUY RUSSIAN COMPUTERS. Major General Viktor Bazhenov, head of the Defense Ministry's department of informatics, said in Moscow on 24 November that Russian computer producers could and should meet the military's needs. According to Interfax, he said the Defense Ministry needed 10,000-15,000 state-of-the-art desktop computers each year. The general owned that domestic manufacturers would have to spend considerable sums to develop this technology, and he regretted that government agencies were buying foreign computers rather than investing in Russian computer research and development. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ABKHAZIA ADOPTS NEW CONSTITUTION. On 26 November the Abkhaz parliament adopted a new constitution proclaiming the Republic of Abkhazia a sovereign law-based state historically established on the basis of the right to self-determination; it then elected as the republic's first president parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. Although the Abkhaz information minister told ITAR-TASS that the adoption of a new constitution would not affect the ongoing negotiations with Georgia on Abkhazia's future status, on 27 November Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze rejected the move as an act of defiance that sabotaged hopes for a peaceful solution to the conflict. Whether the meeting between Shevardnadze and Ardzinba organized by UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros Ghali and scheduled for 2 December in Geneva will now take place is unclear. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. SHEVARDNADZE ENDORSES FREE ECONOMIC ZONE IN ADZHARIA. The Georgian parliament chairman has agreed to the creation of a free economic zone in Adzharia, Adzhar parliament chairman Aslan Abashidze told Interfax on 25 November, predicting that this would pave the way for more than $1 billion foreign investments in Adzharia in 1995. The annual volume of trade within the Trabzon free economic zone, just across the frontier between Adzharia and Turkey, was over $13 million in 1993, according to the Turkish Daily News of 2 September. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. TURKMEN DISSIDENTS DETAINED IN MOSCOW. A spokesman for Russia's Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK) told Interfax on 26 November that the service had detained two Turkmen citizens at the request of Turkmenistan's state prosecutor. The two, Halmurad Soyunov and Murat Esenov, are associated with the Turkmenistan Fund, which promotes human rights in Turkmenistan. The previous day the fund's director, former Foreign Minister Abdy Kuliev, had appealed to the FSK for help in finding the pair, who had disappeared from Moscow streets. Turkmen officials had earlier announced their intent to ask Russian authorities for help in apprehending Turkmen dissidents in Moscow, who are accused by the Turkmen government of trying to destabilize their homeland. Esenov, a correspondent for Radio Liberty's Turkmen Service, was beaten on a Moscow street in September by persons he and his associates believed to be acting on instructions of the Turkmen government. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS RUSSIAN CITIZENSHIP FOR RUSSIANS IN NEAR ABROAD. Abdullakh Mikitaev, head of the Directorate for Citizenship Affairs of Russia's presidential administration and chairman of the special Commission on Citizenship Issues set up by Yeltsin, commented in Trud of 23 November on the recent presidential decree on implementing Russia's citizenship law enacted in 1992 and amended in 1993. The decree enables Russians in the "near abroad," their descendants, and, more generally, "people who consider themselves Russian," to acquire Russian citizenship even if they already have the citizenship of their country of residence, Mikitaev said. He confirmed that under Yeltsin's decree, meant to "explain to officials how to interpret the law," Russia was "unilaterally recognizing dual citizenship" for those people even though most of the newly independent states do not. The deadline for applying, originally 6 February 1995, will be extended by two to three years. Citizenship legislation will "become the basis for the gradual unification of countries and peoples" of the former USSR, Mikitaev said. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BIHAC ABOUT TO FALL. International media on 28 November report that Bosnian and Croatian Serb forces, together with troops loyal to local kingpin Fikret Abdic, are pressing their attack on Bihac. The mayor of the mainly Muslim town said it could fall at any time. Serbian troops are well within the suburbs and hold about one-third of the entire UN-declared "safe area." CNN on 25 November quoted Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic as saying that the 60,000 Muslim civilians would not be truly "safe" until the Serbs had taken the town. He vowed to press the attack after the 400 remaining soldiers of the Bosnian government's Fifth Corps let a Serb-declared surrender deadline pass on 26 November. Government officials the next day accepted a UN call for a cease-fire and demilitarization of the area, while the Serbs are expected to reply on 28 November. Bihac is completely surrounded by Serbian-held territory and has strategic value because it is situated on the rail line connecting the Serbian strongholds of Knin and Banja Luka. It is not clear where the Serbs acquired the fuel for their latest offensive. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CONTROVERSY OVER UN ROLE IN BOSNIA. The UN Security Council on 26 November passed a resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire in the Bihac area and a Serbian withdrawal but did not include any threat of force for failure to comply. Bosnia's ambassador to the UN said the measure "lacks the commitment of the Security Council," international news agencies reported. Reuters the next day quoted an unnamed diplomat in Sarajevo as saying that "the UN, by its own admission, has failed to fulfill its mandate to deter attacks on the safe area. The Serbs have called the international community's bluff." According to the Los Angeles Times, a senior UN official in Sarajevo added "it's quite clear that we have failed to deter an attack on the safe area. We were supposed to deter attacks on civilians and to protect the civilian population." The BBC, however, quoted UN commander General Sir Michael Rose as saying it is not the UN's job to defend one side against the attacks of another. The New York Times reported that Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic "blasted the British army general to his face in [a] meeting and threw him out." Silajdzic added that if a lot of people die in Bihac, it will be because of Rose and UN chief civilian official Yasushi Akashi. International media quoted US Senator Robert Dole as calling the UN's role "a classic failure." The next day, he urged that UNPROFOR forces be withdrawn and the arms embargo against the government lifted. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. DIPLOMATIC FALLOUT OVER BOSNIAN CRISIS. International media on 26 November reported that more than 3,000 US troops are on their way to the Adriatic in what the BBC called a move with more diplomatic than military importance. The forces signal America's readiness to back its NATO allies and will be present to assist any UNPROFOR withdrawal, but they reportedly have no immediate orders to deploy. The Serbs on 28 November continued to hold hostage some 400 UNPROFOR troops, including British, Dutch, Ukrainian, and Russian soldiers. US Secretary of Defense William Perry said there is nothing the UN or NATO can now do to prevent the fall of Bihac. Meanwhile, media commentators speculated over the future of NATO in view of the strains between Washington, on the one hand, and London and Paris, on the other. Some suggested that the international "contact group" may already be dead, given those tensions as well as Russian objections to NATO policies. But former British Defense Secretary Sir John Nott on 26 November warned against any departure from the Anglo-American alliance, Reuters said. Meanwhile, at a major ceremony in the Vatican to inaugurate 30 new cardinals, Pope John Paul II on 27 November again condemned the "absurd fratricidal fighting [in Bosnia] that stains Europe and the world with blood." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. MILOSEVIC MEETS KOZYREV. Rump Yugoslav State Television on 26 November reported that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic met the same day in Belgrade with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev to discuss the Bosnian war. Reuters reports that prior to arriving in Belgrade, Kozyrev held meetings in Bonn on 26 November with German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel, with whom he also discussed, among other things, the situation in Bosnia. At a press conference, Kozyrev said he believed the Serbian president's influence over the Bosnian Serbs was the most effective means of persuading the Bosnian Serbs to accept an international peace plan for Bosnia. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. CEFTA PREMIERS MEET IN POLAND. The prime ministers of the four Central European Free Trade Agreement countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, and Poland) on 25 November agreed to speed up trade liberalization in the region and to admit new members. They also approved a declaration calling for "consultations" on joining the European Union. Pleas for close coordination of those efforts, made repeatedly by Hungarian Premier Gyula Horn, went unheeded by Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, who is in favor of each country entering the union separately. The prime ministers also agreed to abolish all barriers between their countries by 1 January 2000. The meeting was attended by Slovenian Premier Janez Drnovsek, who said his country expected to join CEFTA in 1995. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA VETOES TAX BILL. President Lech Walesa on 25 November vetoed a bill on income tax, arguing that the rates of 21, 33, and 45 percent (depending on income levels) were excessive. In a statement published by Gazeta Wyborcza on 28 November, the president said the government should come up with another tax law rather than impose such high rates on the public. The Sejm can overturn the presidential veto through a two-thirds majority, which is unlikely unless major amendments are made to the bill. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH PRIME MINISTER ON KOHL'S REMARKS. In an interview with Denni Telegraf on 25 November, Vaclav Klaus said he did not know what German Chancellor Helmut Kohl had meant when he said Poland should be "first in expanding the European Union." Kohl had told the German parliament on 23 November that it was in Europe's and Germany's interest that Poland be in first place during the expansion of the EU because Poland's western border must not become the union's permanent western border. Klaus said the news of Kohl's remarks was unpleasant and noted that Poland's position within the European security framework is little different from that of the Czech Republic. The Czech premier has repeatedly argued that his country is in the vanguard of economic and political change in Eastern Europe and should be admitted into Western organizations as soon as possible, ahead of other East European countries. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK COALITION TALKS AGAIN FALTER. Negotiations between the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Christian Democratic Movement were cut short on 23 November after party leaders failed to reach agreement. CDM requirements for supporting an MDS government include reversing certain steps taken during the first two parliament sessions, ceasing attacks on President Michal Kovac, and continuing with privatization. MDS Chairman Vladimir Meciar was unable to confirm whether his party would accept such demands. Following the talks, Meciar continued to insist that his party will not form a minority cabinet. The next day he told CTK on 24 November that he had ruled out a coalition with the CDM and the Hungarians, while cooperation with the Democratic Union was not feasible because he expects the party to split. But on 26 November, MDS member Katerina Tothova said the MDS is willing to work with any party expect the Hungarian coalition. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. EU ISSUES DEMARCHE TO SLOVAKIA. During meetings with top Slovak officials on 23 and 24 November, the German and French ambassadors to Slovakia delivered a diplomatic note on behalf of the EU's political committee expressing concern about political developments since the fall elections and noting that the strengthening of relations between Slovakia and the EU depends on the new cabinet's policies. Parliament Chairman Ivan Gasparovic told TASR that during his meeting with the two ambassadors, he justified recent steps taken in the parliament to replace a number of state officials, emphasizing that "all decisions made by the parliamentary majority were aimed at stability and . . . were meant to secure democracy." -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN NEGOTIATIONS ON 1995 BUDGET. Following three days of talks, the Interest Coordinating Council (a group composed of government, employer, and worker representatives) on 27 November came closer to reaching an agreement on the draft 1995 budget's provisions on wages, social benefits, and taxes, MTI reports. The spokesman for the workers' delegation said an agreement might avert strikes by trade unions. Several teachers' unions on 24 November announced they would stage a strike on 17 December to protest cuts in subsidies to the education sector. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT IN ROMANIA. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak held talks in Bucharest on 23 and 24 November with his Romanian counterpart, Ion Iliescu, and other senior Romanian officials, Radio Bucharest reported. Mubarak's visit aimed at boosting bilateral political and economic relations. The Egyptian delegation praised Romania's role in the Mideast peace process. (In April, Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres had met in Bucharest during an international gathering of political and business leaders.) Romania and Egypt on 24 November signed a general economic agreement and two separate accords on economic projects, technological cooperation, and the protection of investments. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIAN UPDATE. International news agencies reported on 25 November that in an amnesty marking the 28 November national holiday, 250 of Albania's 1,210 prisoners will be released and another 450 will have their sentences shortened. Among the 450 are the five ethnic Greeks recently sentenced for espionage, but AFP quoted Greek officials as saying Athens still insists that the five be released. Reuters said the amnesty would not affect former leading Communists such as Ramiz Alia and Nexhmije Hoxha or jailed Socialist leader Fatos Nano, but AFP disagrees. Reuters also reported that Albanian police arrested 10 people at one site along the Montenegrin border and nine at another in conjunction with the rampant fuel smuggling taking place there. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. REPUBLICAN PARTY OF CRIMEA CALLS FOR INDEPENDENCE. The Crimean Republican Party held its fifth convention in Simferopol on 27 November, Interfax reports. Party leaders called on Crimeans to withstand pressure from Ukraine and uphold the Crimean Constitution as well as other Crimean laws, saying these should form the basis of Ukrainian-Crimean relations. The 1992 constitution, adopted by the Crimean parliament in May 1994, stipulated that the peninsula's relations with Ukraine are contingent on bilateral agreements. The Ukrainian parliament says this stipulation is tantamount to giving the peninsula the status of an independent state. The convention also criticized Crimean President Yurii Meshkov for failing to "consolidate the executive and legislative branches of power." -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. JUST ONE BLACK SEA FLEET? Ukrainian parliament speaker Oleksandr Moroz was quoted by Interfax on 24 November as saying it would be expedient to transfer all Black Sea Fleet ships to Russia with Ukraine retaining the shore-based infrastructure. He did not rule out bases in Ukraine for the Russian fleet. "The Black Sea is an area of specific interest for both Russia and Ukraine," he said," and we need to coordinate our activities." The following day, Interfax quoted an open letter to Presidents Leonid Kuchma and Boris Yeltsin from officers of the Black Sea Fleet and the Ukrainian Navy calling for "putting an end to the destructive division of the earlier powerful potential of our armed forces, the navy, and the Black Sea Fleet in particular." The letter reportedly urged the two countries to act in accordance with the principle of unification and joint utilization of the armed forces. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUS ACCUSES TURKEY OF SPYING. The Belarusian authorities have asked two Turkish diplomats to leave the country, Interfax reported on 25 November. The previous day, a Belarusian citizen from Hrodna was detained for passing economic information to Turkish diplomats. Another report alleges that the Turkish special services have enlisted the help of Belarusians in procuring confidential materials. Turkey has denied the charges of spying as "absolutely groundless," according to Interfax. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUS TO SELL SOVIET ANTI-MISSILE SYSTEM TO WEST. According to a statement by the President's Office on 25 November, the state arms export firm Beltekhexport signed a $6 million contract in July to sell a modern Soviet-designed anti-missile system to a US-Canadian company. ITAR-TASS quotes the office as denying there was anything illegal or unethical in selling the S-300PMU missile system, which Russian authorities claim to be superior to the American Patriot system. The 25 November statement pointed out that Belarus did not buy the system from Russia but rather inherited it following the breakup of the Soviet Union. The system was built in the former USSR with the participation of Belarusian institutes and enterprises. Russia has offered the same system to foreign customers and has revealed tactical and technical details of the weapon, the statement noted. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC FOREIGN MINISTERS IN RIGA. Meeting in the Latvian capital on 23 November, the foreign ministers of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a cooperation accord on guarding state borders and a statement on the Baltic States' relations with the Council of Europe. They also agreed to form a working group that would draw up a trilateral agreement on joint and coordinated control over air space, BNS reported. After the meeting, the foreign ministers told the press that the recent Baltic Assembly's resolution on Kaliningrad Oblast reflected the views of the assembly but not of the Baltic governments. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN PARLIAMENT ENDORSES ACCORDS WITH RUSSIA. The Saeima on 24 November approved the Latvian-Russian accords on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia, signed on 30 April 1994. Its approval means that the ratification formalities can now begin, Baltic media reported. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH PREMIER IN LITHUANIA. Waldemar Pawlak was greeted at the Kalvarija border checkpoint on 26 November by his Lithuanian counterpart, Adolfas Slezevicius, Radio Lithuania reports. The premiers inspected the ongoing construction at the customs post, which should speed up trade when finished next year. They then traveled to Marijampole for talks on bilateral relations, problems of security in the Baltic region, and a possible free trade agreement between the Baltic States and the four Visegrad nations. The premiers also exchanged the formal ratification documents on the bilateral friendship and cooperation agreement, ratified by the Polish and Lithuanian parliaments on 14 October. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN AIRPLANE HIJACKING ENDS IN ESTONIA. Vladimir Bozhko, a 36-year-old miner from Vorkuta, hijacked a Russian Aeroflot plane en route from Syktyvkar to St. Petersburg on 24 November and forced it to land in Tallinn, BNS reports. Bozhko released the passengers and crew and surrendered peacefully to Estonian authorities after several hours. Estonia has not yet agreed to the Russian request on 25 November to extradite Bozhko, who has requested political asylum, according to Rahva Haal on 26 November. ITAR-TASS on 27 November, however, said that Estonian police and the Interior Ministry deny that Bozhko has made such a request. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Penny Morvant) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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