|Human life is but a series of footnotes to a vast obscure unfinished masterpiece. - Vladimir Nabokov|
RFE/RL DAILY REPORT
NO. 221, 22 NOVEMBER 1994
RUSSIA LIBERAL NEWSPAPER ACCUSES WEST OF TOTAL BUY-OUT OF RUSSIAN INDUSTRY. The radical democratic newspaper Moskovsky komsomolets on 19 November accused Western businessmen, and above all US investors, of trying to gain "total control" of the Russian industrial sector. The newspaper said that financial groups such as CS First Boston, Morgan Grenfell, and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation were buying stock in privatized Russian companies through third parties at a hundred times less than the market price. The newspaper sharply criticized the architect of Russian privatization, First Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, and asserted that the second stage of privatization had been designed by Western experts to undermine the competitiveness of the Russian economy. Remarkably, similar accusations were made by the ultranationalist newspaper Zavtra (nos. 37-41), which contended that "Chubais is surrounded by the agents of Western interests." Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA ENTERS "NEW PHASE" OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. According to Chubais, the next stage of reform will focus on reducing inflation, encouraging investment, and achieving financial stability, the Financial Times reported on 21 November. Chubais said both President Boris Yeltsin and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin were committed to the 1995 budget, which aims to bring inflation down to 1-2 percent a month. The monthly inflation rate accelerated in October to 15 percent following the collapse of the ruble. Chubais said the support of the IMF was essential and that he was willing to change some details of the budget to respond to its concerns. He foresaw a battle with the Duma and accepted the need to compromise--but not over the commitment to curb inflation. Chubais also said that Russia's domestic savings had increased from 5 trillion rubles in January to 15 trillion in July and that he hoped to encourage Russians to invest in industry rather than funds such as the notorious MMM; stimulating foreign investment was also a priority. Penny Morvant, RFE/RL, Inc. CHECHNYA CONSIDERS PLAYING THE ISLAMIC CARD. A joint session of the Chechen parliament, government, and Council of Elders on 20 November advised President Dzhokhar Dudaev to begin forming Islamic battalions "in order to rebuff the Russian aggression," Interfax reported on 21 November. Also on 21 November, Chechen Foreign Minister Shamseddin Yusef told Interfax that the leaders of several Muslim countries, including Pakistan, which he visited last week, were prepared to send volunteers to fight in Chechnya; he threatened that if Russia did not agree to talks with the Chechen leadership, it would be faced with a "second Afghanistan." A senior member of Yeltsin's administration told Interfax that Russia would not try to resolve the Chechen problem by sending in Russian troops, although he could see little hope for a peaceful solution. On 19 November the bodyguard of Chechen opposition fighter Ruslan Labazanov was killed by a parcel bomb in the village of Tolstoi-Yurt; Labazanov escaped unscathed, according to ITAR-TASS. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. AUSHEV CRITICIZES RUSSIAN POLICY. In Moscow for a closed session of the Federation Council on the situation in the North Ossetian and Ingush republics, Ingush President Ruslan Aushev complained at a news conference reported by Russian media on 18 November that "the Russian federal authorities follow a misconceived policy in the Caucasus" and that "the main reason for the [North Ossetians'] anti-Ingush actions is the Russian authorities' failure to understand that this is a conflict for political control, not an interethnic one." Aushev once again criticized the 6 November OMON raid on the village of Altievo in Ingushetia (in which five were killed and six Ingush arrested). The Russian-enforced state of emergency in the region expires on 2 December; Aushev urged that it be maintained in Prigorodnyi Raion to ensure the return of Ingush refugees to four localities, as mandated but not implemented by Moscow. While renouncing claims to Vladikavkaz, Aushev insisted that Prigorodnyi Raion must be returned to Ingushetia through negotiations. A former Russian paratroop general, Aushev has had to balance his loyalties to Russia and to his own people in the face of Moscow's pro-Ossetian policy. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. RESISTANCE TO NATO'S ENLARGEMENT. Yeltsin's foreign policy adviser Dmitrii Ryurikov (a moderate) asked rhetorically on Ostankino TV on 19 November "why NATO is moving the war machine toward our borders." That action is akin to "arriving on a visit with one's truncheon in hand," he charged. Duma Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Vladimir Lukin (a centrist) told Ostankino Radio on 20 November that "without wishing to return to the former situation in Eastern Europe, we must have countries there that are not involved in blocs and are friendly both to us and to the West"--a vision of a buffer zone situated between competing powers. Mityukov (Russia's Choice), who had just headed the Russian parliamentary delegation to the North Atlantic Assembly's annual session in Washington, told a briefing in Moscow on 21 November reported by ITAR-TASS that the delegation "opposed [NAA's] resolution to force NATO's enlargement" as "inconsistent with the declared wish for a partnership that would also reflect Russia's interests." The delegation warned that NATO's enlargement could in the near future "return us to the principle of coexistence based on blocs, dividing the world again into coalitions confronting each other." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN-IRANIAN NUCLEAR COOPERATION. Russian experts are to help Iran complete construction of a nuclear power station at Bushehr (begun in the 1970s and mothballed after the Iranian revolution), ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. An unidentified Russian Foreign Ministry official told Interfax on 21 November that Russia had pledged assistance in building the plant in a bilateral agreement signed in 1992; he argued that there were no obstacles to Russian-Iranian cooperation in this field given that Iran had signed the NPT treaty and that IAEA experts were satisfied that Iran did not have the potential to use its nuclear program for military purposes. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. HARD TIMES IN DEFENSE INDUSTRY. According to Interfax on 21 November, the Russian defense industry has had a bad year. During the first ten months of 1994, production fell by 40% compared with 1993--nearly twice the average decline for all Russian industrial production. The statistical department of the State Committee for the Defense Industry said that the greatest declines were in aircraft production--which was cut in half--and electronics and communications--down 46 percent. Workers continued to leave the sector, which had an average wage of 165,400 rubles compared with 253,200 in the civilian economy. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSDNIESTER IDENTIFIED AS MAIN SOURCE OF GUNRUNNING TO RUSSIA. Interviewed on Ekho Moskvy on 16 November, Russian Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Mikhail Egorov said that arms and explosives had reached Moscow and other large Russian cities unlawfully via "two main channels. . . . One is Transdniester. The second has been neutralized, it went through St. Petersburg and other towns. Those two channels, which we have exposed, have had a considerable impact on Russia." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. FRANCE TO BUILD STORAGE DEPOT FOR DISMANTLED NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and his French counterpart, Alain Juppe, signed an agreement in Paris on 17 November calling for France to build a storage facility near Novosibirsk for nuclear material from dismantled Russian atomic weapons. According to an ITAR-TASS report the next day, the project is expected to cost 132 million francs and be operational in mid-1997. The agency said that both Russian and French experts were convinced that the facility would be safe. It said that the authorities of Novosibirsk Oblast were satisfied on this score and had not objected to the project. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA COSSACKS CALL FOR END TO KAZAKH INDEPENDENCE. Speakers at an unsanctioned demonstration by Cossacks from the eastern oblasts of Kazakhstan called for the country to become part of the Russian Federation and demanded that a national referendum be held to decide the issue, Russian news sources reported on 19 and 21 November. The demonstration, attended by about 150 Cossacks from the Semirechye and members of the Russian Society and the Slavic interest group Lad, was held on 19 November in Almaty. City authorities had denied the demonstrators a permit for a rally and procession, fearing clashes with Kazakh nationalists, but there was no official interference with the gathering in a city park, though the demonstrators were surrounded by special service troops. In addition to the demand that Kazakhstan give up its independence, speakers also called for the Russian language to be granted the status of a state language. Representatives of the Semirechye Cossacks later met with President Nursultan Nazarbaev's adviser Kairbek Suleimenov to discuss the refusal of local authorities to register Cossack societies in Taldy-Kurgan and Chimkent. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS MILITARY BLOC FORESEEN. Using the term soyuz, which may mean either union or alliance, Russian Foreign Minister Kozyrev told Russian TV on 19 November that the CIS collective security system (which Moscow currently seeks to develop) was meant "to become in the future a real military-political soyuz of republics united by a common history and by the common CIS border, for we simply do not have and do not need another border." While offering the familiar argument that a Russian-led CIS collective security system would end "existing conflicts" and "stabilize this entire [CIS] space, contributing to European and world security," Kozyrev now seemed to consider such arguments less important: "Let the West react as it pleases, we will do our work as we need. We have nothing to explain to anyone, we don't have to justify ourselves. . . . There are, of course, those who see any strengthening of Russia or the CIS as harmful because they prefer a weak partner to a strong one. Well let them think that way while we strengthen both Russia and the CIS." The chairman of Russia's Federation Council and of the CIS Parliamentary Assembly, Vladimir Shumeiko, who is also considered a moderate, in turn claimed in Podmoskovskie izvestiya of 17 November that the West had "reserved for Russia merely the role of a regional power" and of raw material supplier. He claimed to possess a 1984 map of the USSR on which Western corporations had allegedly staked out and divided among themselves the ex-Soviet republics' resources. To prevent that scenario, Shumeiko warned, Russia must keep up its armed forces, intelligence, and "military industrial-complex." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. JOINT BORDERS, TROOP DEPLOYMENTS. On another Russian TV program on 19 November, Russia's civilian First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin, also a moderate, claimed that "within the borders of the former USSR . . . the CIS states are vitally interested in maintaining the single military-political space. . . . We serve our Russian national interests and those of many CIS states by actively working to create our own collective security system." That would, moreover, enable Russia "to build an equal relationship with the West." Kokoshin claimed that Russia's military operations in Transcaucasus and Central Asia were "collective decisions," the Russian troops being deployed "at those countries' genuine request." Lieutenant General Valerii Manilov, deputy secretary of Russia's Security Council, said on the same program that Russia's land forces and border troops had begun "organizing the joint defense of the CIS' outer borders." Russia's border troop commander Nikolaev has recently coordinated the action in a number of CIS states, to public praise from Yeltsin. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE NATO STRIKES KRAJINA SERB AIRFIELD. International media on 22 November report on NATO air strikes the previous day against the rebel Serb-held Udbina airfield, situated in the Croatian region of Krajina. According to a NATO statement, the air strike was in response to "attacks which had been launched from that airfield against targets in the Bihac area of Bosnia-Herzegovina in the past few days." At least 30 NATO planes were involved in the mission, which NATO officials describe as a success and designed in part to deter Krajina Serbs from participating in fighting around Bihac, in northwestern Bosnia. The airfield's runways were cratered, but Krajina Serb planes were not targeted. Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic, who supported the NATO action, told Newsday on 22 November that the air strikes have not stopped the attacks on Bihac: "The assault on Bihac never stopped. Shells are raining on Bihac from tanks and artillery as we speak." In other news, Reuters on 21 November reports that about 1,200 Bangladeshi UN peacekeepers remain stranded in the Bihac pocket, with their supplies of food and fuel running perilously low. In addition, medicines are in short supply, and on average there is only one rifle for every five peacekeepers. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. BELGRADE DENOUNCES NATO AIR ATTACKS. State-controlled Serbian and rump Yugoslav media on 21 November denounced the NATO attacks against the Udbina airfield in the strongest possible terms. Belgrade Radio alleged that NATO planes had destroyed civilian targets, causing damage to villages and other population centers. Meanwhile, Reuters reports that Serbian Television gave prominent coverage to a government statement saying that "the federal government most vigorously condemns the unfounded and irresponsible bombing of the Udbina airport by NATO aircraft." The statement also commented that the NATO action was "proof of the bias and one-sided approach shown in the Yugoslav crisis." Krajina Serb authorities were also quick to denounce the NATO action. Borba on 22 November quotes rebel Krajina Serb President Milan Martic as saying the air attacks were carried out "at Croatia's request." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. SARAJEVO BUILDINGS SHELLED. International media reported on 21 November that several missiles hit Sarajevo City Hall and the presidential building in the second attack on government buildings in Sarajevo within a week. The missile that landed on the presidential building did not explode. Bosnian government officials have asked the United Nations for retaliatory air strikes. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. POSTCOMMUNIST LEADER SUPPORTS STRONG PRESIDENCY. In a surprise announcement on 20 November, leader of the postcommunist Alliance of the Democratic Left Aleksander Kwasniewski said he would support the strengthening of presidential prerogatives in the new constitution. Kwasniewski's party has consistently advocated a parliamentary system for Poland. According to Rzeczpospolita on 22 November, Kwasniewski's turnaround could mean either that the post-Communists believe they can win the presidential election in November 1995 or that Kwasniewski has already decided to run. Public opinion polls have consistently showed Kwasniewski as one of the favorites to win the election. Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW POLISH CURRENCY READY TO BE ISSUED. The Polish National Bank on 21 November revealed details of the new currency to be introduced on 1 January 1995. Initially, three bank notes (10, 20, and 50 zloty) and nine coins (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 groszy and 1, 2, and 5 zloty) will be introduced; 100- and 200-zloty notes are to be issued in mid-1995. The new currency will replace the current zloty by reducing its nominal value by 10,000. Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH LOCAL ELECTIONS: AN UPDATE. The latest preliminary returns from the Czech local elections, held on 18-19 November, show that independent candidates won more than half of the seats in municipal councils. The Civic Democratic Party of Premier Vaclav Klaus won about one-quarter of the popular vote. CTK quotes Klaus as saying that the results are "confirmation" of the success of his reforms since the fall of communism. The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, with 14 percent of the popular vote, placed second, followed by the Christian Democrats and the Social Democrats. Klaus's party gained more than 40 percent of the popular vote in Prague. The CDP will have 23 seats in the 55-member Prague municipal council. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. EU TRADE COMMISSIONER IN PRAGUE. Leon Brittan said in Prague on 21 November that "the question of Czech membership in the European Union is not a question of whether, nor even really a question of when, but only a question of how." CTK reports that Brittan was addressing a forum on the Czech Republic's integration into the EU. He said many current Czech economic indicators-such as a balanced budget and low unemployment-would make many EU members envious. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said at the same forum that the Czech Republic is sufficiently strong to negotiate with the EU on its own, rather than as one of a group of Central European countries. Brittan agreed with Klaus's argument "in essence" but said that if all Central European countries are able to enter the EU together, he sees no reason why that should not happen. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK POLITICAL UPDATE. At a press conference on 21 November, Movement for a Democratic Slovakia Deputy Chairwoman Olga Keltosova said her party considers it probable that a coalition with the Association of Slovak Workers will be formed, although conditions have yet to be agreed upon, TASR reports. She added, however, that the MDS will continue coalition talks with the Party of the Democratic Left and the Christian Democratic Movement, even though the two parties have said they will not participate in an MDS government. But CDM Deputy Chairman Ivan Simko said discussions will nonetheless take place between the CDM and MDS on 23 November about support for certain legislative measures. In other news, the final results of the local elections show that independents won 28.48 percent of mayoral seats, followed by the PDL with 17.87 percent, the MDS with 15.88 percent, the CDM with 14.77 percent, and Coexistence with 4.66 percent. The MDS apparently received most of its support in villages; the only major towns where MDS mayoral candidates won were Povazska Bystrica and Partizanske. The party also won two districts posts in Bratislava and one in Kosice. In the race for local administration seats, the MDS won 22.78 percent, the CDM 19.69 percent, the PDL 15.65 percent, independents 7.58 percent, and Coexistence 6.3 percent. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. MINORITIES IN SLOVAKIA. Representatives of the Council of Europe's Political Affairs Committee on 21 November ended a two-day visit to Slovakia. Meeting with Slovak parliament chairman Ivan Gasparovic, Tarja Halonen said all recommendations made by the CE when Slovakia joined the group have been fulfilled and in some ways exceeded. A final report on Slovakia is expected to be completed in the near future. Members of the Hungarian coalition presented Halonen with a memorandum stating serious objections to the wording of laws on names and road signs and claiming that recommendations on a solution to Slovakia's territorial division have not yet been considered. Lubomir Fogas, member of the Party of the Democratic Left and deputy chairman of the CE Parliamentary Assembly, expressed surprise at the report. Halonen said she considers the question of the administrative arrangement to be an internal matter. Also on 21 November, Christian Democratic Movement Chairman Jan Carnogursky met with a team of experts from the CSCE to discuss minority issues. Proposals for schools teaching some subjects in Hungarian and some in Slovak have been strongly criticized by ethnic Hungarian politicians, but Carnogursky argued that the Slovak minority in Hungary has only bilingual schools. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT BEGINS DISCUSSING 1995 STATE BUDGET. Hungarian Finance Minister Laszlo Bekesi on 21 November submitted the 1995 state budget to the parliament, MTI reports. Deputies voted to limit discussion of the budget to 30 hours, with the ruling and opposition parties each having 15 hours to express their opinions. The speaker of the house suspended the discussion in the afternoon, partly because a third of the cabinet members failed to show up (according to parliamentary rules, all cabinet members should be present). The state budget plans to increase government spending by 26.5 percent. The budget deficit (excluding debt repayment) is expected to reach some 282 billion forint or 5.5 percent of GDP. Bekesi warned that these figures can be achieved only if privatization proceeds as expected and the state budget is cut back. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER DISCUSSES WEU AND HUNGARY. . . Teodor Melescanu said in an interview with RFE/RL on 21 November that his country's assistance in enforcing the UN embargo against rump Yugoslavia has given it "privileged ties" with the Western European Union. He said cooperation with the WEU is allowing Bucharest to become part of European defense structures without arousing Russia's suspicions. Melescanu also reported progress in the negotiations on a political treaty with Hungary. He said during discussions the previous week in Bucharest, Hungary for the first time proposed recognizing the inviolability of existing borders between the two countries. Melescanu said he agrees with Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca, who recently commented that Romania and Hungary must gain NATO membership at the same time. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND HOPES FOR ROMANIAN-MOLDOVAN DIALOGUE. In the same interview, Melescanu called for a Romanian-Moldovan "dialogue" to replace the polemical exchanges of the past year. He attributed the friction mainly to Moldova's insistence on distinguishing its ethnic, linguistic, and cultural identity from that of Romania and claimed that such differentiation was unnecessary since Romania did not plan to force Moldova into a merger. Romania's chief concern at present is "the Romanophobia that is gaining ground in Moldova," Melescanu said. He called for redoubled Romanian efforts toward a "pragmatic economic relationship," governmental interaction, and "cultural engagement to develop historical and cultural awareness in Moldova as a basis for political decisions there." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA TO FINANCE MOLDOVAN POPULAR FRONT NEWSPAPER. At its 11 November session, the Romanian government resolved to finance, via its Culture Ministry, the Moldovan Popular Front's weekly Tara, Moldpres reported on 17 November from Bucharest, citing official Romanian sources. The Popular Front and Tara reject Moldovan statehood, advocate early and unconditional unification with Romania, and vociferously attack the Moldovan government and parliamentary majority. Bucharest has until now supported a more gradualist pro-Romanian party in Chisinau and its publications. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. WATER RATIONING INTRODUCED IN SOFIA. Bulgarian media report that water rationing was introduced in Sofia on 21 November and is expected to continue for the next two weeks. About 500, 000 residents will be affected. The measure was reportedly necessitated by the summer drought, which seriously depleted water supplies. Affected residents will have one day of water, followed by two days without. Meanwhile, AFP on 21 November reports that Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev has arrived in France for a four-day visit. Zhelev called on support for integrating Balkan nations into West European political and economic structures. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. RESULTS OF UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. The Ukrainian Election Commission on 21 November announced that owing to low turnout, only nine seats were filled in the parliamentary by-elections the previous day, international agencies reported. A total of 55 seats were contested. Runoff elections will be held in two weeks for four districts where the turnout was over 50 percent but no candidate won at least half the vote. Elections for the remaining seats are to be postponed indefinitely. Five of the newly elected deputies are independents, three are from nationalist parties, and one is a communist. The turnout was particularly low in Kiev, where 18 seats were contested and only two filled. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT AT UN. Addressing the UN General Assembly on 21 November, Leonid Kuchma stressed the inadequacy of international financial assistance for Ukrainian disarmament, international agencies report. He said he hoped that now Ukraine has ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promises of aid from other countries would be transformed into concrete support for Ukraine's economic reforms. Kuchma also said that the closure of Chornobyl should not be regarded as a local affair but an issue of international interest. Kuchma is scheduled on 22 November to meet with US President Bill Clinton, but it is unlikely he will win approval for the right to launch US satellites. The lucrative deal would help boost Ukraine's economy, but US rocket manufacturers have been lobbying against allowing Ukraine to bid for the launching contracts, saying the market is already glutted and would be less profitable if Ukraine were permitted to compete. Ukraine is seeking Western telecommunications customers for its launchers for low-orbit civil space payloads and for converted SS-18 and SS-24 missiles. Kuchma was formerly the director of the world's largest rocket factory--Pivdenmash in Dnipopetrovsk--which had a work force of more than 50,000. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF WILL NOT GRANT CREDIT TO BELARUS. The IMF on 21 November notified the Belarusian government that it will not grant a new credit of $308 million to the republic, Interfax reported. The IMF justified its announcement by saying that Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka's decision to return prices to their 1 November level suggested there would be no price liberalization in the republic. The Belarusian government had submitted an economic plan to the IMF on 15 November that was intended to open the way for the credit. IMF officials have said the republic has met almost none of preconditions for obtaining the credit. Those preconditions include price liberalization, wage adjustment, and the reduction of the budget deficit to around 4 percent of GDP in the fourth quarter of the year. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN PRIME MINISTER IN US. Adolfas Slezevicius arrived in Washington on 21 November for a four-day unofficial visit organized by the US Baltic Fund, Radio Lithuania reported the next day. He will hold talks with FBI chief Louis Freeh, IMF Director Michel Camdessus, World Bank President Lewis Preston, and other officials. He is also to meet with Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA'S RULING PRO PATRIA HOLDS CONGRESS. At its congress in Tartu on 19 November, the ruling coalition's leading party, Pro Patria, approved a coalition agreement with the Estonian National Independence Party signed the previous day by their chairmen, Mart Laar and Tunne Kelam, BNS reported on 21 November. The congress authorized the party council to begin talks with the Estonian Reform Party and other right-of-center parties on forming a coalition for the March 1995 parliament elections. It also adopted the party's election program, made changes in the party's regulations, and elected a new court of honor, headed by parliament deputy Arvo Valton. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW POLITICAL MOVEMENT IN LATVIA. Founded on 18 November in Jelgava, the Latvijai (For Latvia) movement is expected to become a political party espousing "Christian, socialist, [and] conservative ideas" and to field candidates in the next parliamentary elections, scheduled for the fall of 1995, LETA reported on 21 November. Initiators of the movement were the right-wing parliamentary deputies Odisejs Kostanda and Joachim Siegerist. Siegerist was elected chairman at the founding meeting, Kostanda and Roberts Lasmanis deputy chairmen, and theology professor Roberts Feldmanis honorary chairman. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Penny Morvant and Jan Cleave) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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