В каждом положении отыщется что-нибудь утешительное, если хорошо поискать. - Даниель Дефо
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 216, 14 November 1994


adopted a resolution calling on President Boris Yeltsin and the
Russian government to take "adequate" steps against the US
decision no longer to enforce the weapons embargo against Bosnia,
agencies reported on 11 November. The chairman of the State Duma
Committee for Foreign Affairs, Vladimir Lukin, said the resolution
asked the Russian Foreign Ministry to demand discussion of the US
decision in the UN Security Council. The Duma's resolution has no
legal force: according to the Russian Constitution, foreign policy
is the prerogative of the president -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL,

KOZYREV ON RUSSIAN POSITION ON IRAQ. By officially recognizing
Kuwait, Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi parliament are demonstrating
political wisdom, Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Andrei
Kozyrev told NTV on 13 November. Commenting on his recent visit to
Baghdad, Kozyrev said Russia supported Hussein's call for the
lifting of the oil embargo imposed by the UN Security Council.
Kozyrev said he was aware of the US reaction to his initiative but
hoped that the Americans would overcome their "emotions." He also
said he believed Hussein could alter his behavior and "eventually"
be accepted into the "family of civilized nations." The Russian
foreign minister pointed out that many former Communists were now
leaders of democratic Russia and that the leader of the Palestine
Liberation Organization and Nobel Peace Prize winner, Yasser
Arafat, had been refused a US visa a few years ago. -- Victor
Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.

pass at the second reading the bill on organized crime, Russian
television and Radio Mayak reported on 10 November. The bill,
introduced by the government, is intended to reinforce Yeltsin's
decree on combating organized crime issued in August. To advance
the bill, the government dropped the controversial provision
allowing law enforcement agencies to detain suspects for 30 days
without permission from the Prosecutor's Office. The deputies,
however, decided that the bill required further work. The chairman
of the Duma's Committee for Legislation, Viktor Pokhmelkin, said
that Russian organized crime was different from that in Western
countries. While in the West, he said, organized crime is centered
on such criminal activities as drug trafficking, prostitution, and
gambling, in Russia it revolves around economic crimes such as
state corruption, illegal banking transactions, and the illegal
export of strategic raw materials and weapons. -- Victor Yasmann,
RFE/RL, Inc.

representative to Russia, Belan Khamdzhiev, told Ehko Moskvy on 11
November that the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs
"deliberately spreads mendacious information" about the OMON raid
on an Ingush village near the capital Nazran on 6 November, in
which five people were killed and six Ingush detained. Khamdzhiev
cited evidence that the OMON soldiers were drunk, but he said that
although the Ingush authorities had made a full report to
Yeltsin's office there had been "no official reaction whatsoever."
The charges come in the wake of two independent Russian reports on
violations of human rights in Ingush areas by the Russian
authorities, which are accused of condoning North Ossetian "ethnic
cleansing" of the Ingush (see Daily Report, 10 and 11 November).
The head of Russia's temporary administration in the disputed
area, Vladimir Lozovoi, told ITAR-TASS on 13 November that the
situation was "complicated and tense" and controlled "on the
whole" by Russian military units. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

GRACHEV LINING UP SUPPORT. Emerging from a meeting with Yeltsin,
newly appointed acting Prosecutor-General Aleksei Ilyushenko told
Izvestiya, as cited by Interfax on 11 November, that he was
"outraged" by "the brazen boorishness" of Moskovsky komsomolets
toward Defense Minister Pavel Grachev and his suspended deputy,
Colonel General Matvei Burlakov. Ilyushenko characterized as
"nothing but personal insults" the corruption charges against
Burlakov and other officers of the former Western Group of Forces
and dismissed out of hand the accusation that Burlakov might have
had a hand in the murder of Moskovsky komsomolets investigative
reporter Dmitrii Kholodov. Defense Ministry spokeswoman Elena
Agapova confirmed to an RFE/RL correspondent on 11 November that
Yeltsin would attend the ministry's 14 November review conference,
described as "disinformation" the forecasts that participants
would call for Grachev's dismissal, and insisted that senior
commanders supported Grachev. In a statement that would appear to
bear this out, Russian General Staff Chief Colonel General Mikhail
Kolesnikov told Interfax on 12 November that the top brass had
discussed with Grachev the main points of his upcoming speech in
the Duma and that "there are no contradictions, no factions
whatsoever within the command. Stories that the Defense Ministry
has split into 'camps,' such as an 'Afghan camp,' are
fabrications." The reformist economic adviser Aleksandr Livshits,
seemingly in the minority in the presidential circle, told NTV on
13 November that Yeltsin must decide soon on Grachev's future or
be forced into a decision under pressure from the military. --
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

Interfax on 12 November that he was "convinced" that a "campaign
against Russia's armed forces has been cooked up" by "special
services from a number of foreign states and those who advance
their interests in Russia, working to ruin our military."
Ilyushenko, for his part, argued that Kholodov's assassins had
"calculated that his death . . . will strike a blow against the
Defense Ministry in the first place." In the United States, the
ultranationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky told media that there was a
"plan prepared abroad," a "scenario written by Western special
services," particularly those of US and Israel, aiming to
discredit Russia's military. The follow-up stage would see the
establishment of a "liberal dictatorship" through a "pseudo-coup"
carried out by Lieutenant General Aleksandr Lebed with the help of
Deputy Defense Minister Colonel General Boris Gromov, ITAR-TASS
and AFP cited him as saying. Meanwhile, Moskovsky komsomolets
reported on 11 November that in a recent survey of 615 Russian
officers from the rank of lieutenant colonel to colonel general,
57 percent of the respondents preferred Lebed; Gromov was a
distant second and Grachev had a low approval and high disapproval
rating. The survey was commissioned by the German Social
Democratic Party's Friedrich Ebert Foundation and carried out by
the Moscow-based Sinus group of Russian sociologists. -- Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

Committee for Defense Industries told Interfax on 11 November that
Russia's defense complex had lost 2 million workers since 1992.
The official--who preferred to remain anonymous--said the exodus
"undermines Russia's defense and economic security." He disclosed
that 630,000 had left this year alone, bringing the industry's
workforce down to 3.6 million employees. Interfax reported on 13
November that only 10-15 percent of the defense industry's output
constituted military goods. The complex also produces all the
cameras, 95 percent of the refrigerators, 90 percent of the
televisions, VCRs, and tape recorders, and 70 percent of the motor
bikes, bicycles, washing machines, and vacuum cleaners made in
Russia. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

Afghanistan Invalids Fund, Leonid Likhodei, and his bodyguard were
killed by an explosive device in Moscow, agencies reported on 11
November. The bomb went off when Likhodei pushed the intercom
button in his apartment house; his wife and a second bodyguard
were wounded. Moscow commentators have linked Likhodei's death
with the fact that his organization has substantial taxation and
export licensing privileges. In recent months, there has been a
power struggle within Afghan veterans' organizations for
leadership of the community. -- Victor Yasmann


TAJIK CEASE-FIRE EXTENDED. On the morning of 13 November, Tajik
government officials and representatives of the Tajik opposition
exchanged prisoners, thereby meeting the main condition that the
opposition had placed on a three-month extension of the cease-fire
that expired on 6 November, Interfax reported. The exchange of 27
government troops captured by opposition forces for 23 persons
designated by the opposition as political prisoners took place in
Khorog, the capital of autonomous Gorno-Badakhshan; observers from
the International Red Cross and Iran's ambassador to Tajikistan
were present at the exchange, which had been agreed on at the
latest round of negotiations between the Tajik government and
opposition. Seventeen of the political prisoners chose to go to
Dushanbe rather than to join opposition groups in Afghanistan or
Iran. According to Interfax, seven asked to be sent to Moscow,
where some 30,000 Tajik refugees are reported to be living; five
elected to go to Khojand in Leninabad Oblast, a region that has
not been friendly to the armed opposition; and five chose to go to
Garm, an opposition stronghold in the mountains east of Dushanbe.
-- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

     CENTURY." Following talks in Baku on
     11 November between Azerbaijani
     President Heidar Aliev and Iranian Oil
     Minister Gholamreza Aghazadeh on
     cooperation in the extraction of oil
     and gas, on 12 November the Azerbaijan
     State Oil Company SOCAR signed an
     agreement granting the Iranian Oil and
     Gas Ministry 25 percent of
     Azerbaijan's 20 percent share in the
     consortium that is to exploit three
     Caspian offshore oil deposits,
     Interfax reported. Interfax quoted
     unnamed Azerbaijani experts as
     hypothesizing that the decision was
     due to Azerbaijan's inability to
     finance its share. Meanwhile, the
     Azerbaijani People's Assembly, having
     announced that it would ratify the oil
     contract on 12 November, postponed
     doing so until 15 November. In
     addition, on 11 November Interfax
     quoted Aliev as denying reports that
     appeared in the Turkish press at the
     time of his visit to Ankara at the
     beginning of November that the
     decision had been made to export
     Azerbaijan's oil via a pipeline from
     Baku to the Turkish Mediterranean port
     of Ceyhan. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

KARABAKH MEDIATION UPDATE. Following his talks in Baku with
Azerbaijani President Aliev, the newly designated acting chairman
of the CSCE Minsk group, Anders Biewrner, flew on 11 November to
Stepanakert for talks with the leaders of the self-proclaimed
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic on the formation of a multinational
peacekeeping force and on the exchange of prisoners, Interfax and
ITAR-TASS reported. Biewrner then proceeded to Erevan for talks
with Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan on 12-13 November,
after which he told journalists that consultations between Russia
and the Minsk Group had resulted in a joint proposal for extending
the existing cease-fire. Biewrner also reiterated that several
CSCE member countries had responded positively to the Italian
request for peacekeeping troops for Nagorno-Karabakh but that
Russia had not yet stated whether it would be prepared to
participate in such a force. Biewrner returned from Erevan to Baku
on 13 November; from there he is to travel to Moscow. Meanwhile,
Interfax cited an unidentified source on 11 November as disclosing
that the third round of Russian-mediated talks on the Karabakh
conflict that began in Moscow on 9 November had failed to make any
progress. -- Liz Fuller

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIA UPDATE. International media on 13 November reported that
NATO checks of ships destined for the former Yugoslavia were
proceeding as before. The same day, a US decision to stop
enforcing the embargo went into effect and received mixed reviews
from among the international community. Intense fighting in
several areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina was reported, with some of
the most serious clashes taking place in the area around Bihac, in
northwestern Bosnia. Bosnian Serb forces, backed by rebel Serbs
from Croatia's Krajina region, have reportedly been rolling back
earlier gains made by Bosnian Muslim forces in Bihac. On 12
November, the Bosnian Serb onslaught appeared to be slowing down,
but AFP suggested the Bosnian Serbs may need to "refit, rearm and
refuel" before renewing their offensive. Bosnian Serb forces
resumed heavy shelling the following day, when the UN Security
Council met in New York to discuss the situation in the enclave.
Borba on 14 November reports that Bosnian Serbs attacked a major
hotel in downtown Sarajevo in which the US embassy is being
temporarily housed. Peacekeepers were reported to have returned
fire. Finally, on 11 November, the self-styled Bosnian Serb
parliament voted not to impose martial law on Bosnian
Serb-controlled territories. Instead, it authorized Bosnian Serb
leader Radovan Karadzic to do so when he deems circumstances
warrant such a move. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

weekly Der Spiegel on 12 November reported that Russian suppliers
have been shipping weapons and ammunition to the Bosnian Serbs in
violation of the UN embargo. According to the report, some 4,000
rail cars loaded with Soviet weapons have managed to reach the
Bosnian Serb side. It is believed that most, if not all, of the
weapons and ammunition belonged to ex-Soviet troops once based in
the former East Germany. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

BELGRADE LEANS ON BORBA. A civil tribunal in Belgrade on 13
November sided with the rump Yugoslav authorities in a
government-sponsored suit against the independent Belgrade daily
Borba. In 1991, Borba had signed an accord with federal
authorities establishing the publishing outfit as a limited
company. The tribunal's decision in effect declares the accord
null and void. The newspaper's management immediately criticized
the decision, insisting that the proceedings were politically
motivated and part of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic's plan
to further stifle free speech and independent media. Borba
director Dusan Mijic told AFP that the tribunal decision showed
that "the intention [of the government] is clear: behind the
judicial machinations lies a plan to liquidate the independent
Borba." -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

November reported that representatives of several right-wing
parties met two days earlier to discuss forming a new party. The
proposal--made by the Center Alliance, whose leader is a veteran
Solidarity activist and an opponent of President Lech
Walesa--envisages setting up a party at a special congress to be
held within two months, adopting democratic internal regulations
and a democratic political platform, and not selecting Walesa as
the new party's presidential candidate. The proposal also states
that none of the current right-wing leaders will be appointed to
the leadership of the new party. The meeting was hosted by a local
Warsaw Catholic priest but apparently received the tacit approval
of Poland's Catholic Primate Cardinal Jozef Glemp, who told Gazeta
Wyborcza on 12-13 November that the Poles are in great need of a
right wing. No decision on unification was taken at the meeting,
but further meetings are scheduled over the next few weeks. -- Jan
de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.

police on 11 November arrested the chairman of the extreme-right
Republican Party, Miroslav Sladek, on charges of attacking public
officials during the commemoration of the founding of
Czechoslovakia on 28 October. CTK reports Sladek was arrested as
he was attempting to enter Austria with his wife and daughter at
the border crossing in Slavonice. His arrest ended a week-long
hunt that included live television coverage of police staking out
his house. The Republican Party protested the arrest, calling it
part of "terrorist attacks" against members of the party. Sladek
was released from custody on 12 November. The prosecutor's office
said the investigation would continue into charges against Sladek
of creating a public disturbance and assaulting a public official.
-- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

on 11 November defended the government's privatization program,
saying it was very successful, despite a corruption scandal
involving the head of the Center for Coupon Privatization. Klaus
was responding to comments by US Ambassador to Prague Adrian
Basora, who was quoted by Reuters as saying it was important to
project a positive government attitude toward solving graft
problems and not to try to suggest the system was perfect. Klaus
told Czech media that "our process of privatization and our
financial markets are rational . . . and a huge success." The US
Embassy in Prague said the same day that Basora's statements had
been taken out of context and interpreted incorrectly. The
ambassador did not want to make any recommendations as to how the
Czech government should act, the embassy noted. -- Jiri Pehe,
RFE/RL, Inc.

SLOVAK POLITICAL UPDATE. In an interview with Slovak Radio on 11
November, outgoing Premier Jozef Moravcik said many of the
decisions made by the parliament during its first two sessions
were "unconstitutional." He noted that his cabinet has taken an
oath to continue in office until a new government can be formed.
Following the interview, the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia,
which won the recent parliamentary elections, released a statement
to TASR claiming that Moravcik and other cabinet ministers are now
civil servants and can no longer be considered "constitutional
officials." The MDS expressed surprise that Slovak Radio, unlike
Slovak Television, continued to broadcast its regular Friday
interview with Moravcik, although only officials appointed under
the terms of the constitution have the right to allocated air
time. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

supporting the Moravcik government on 13 November issued a
statement to TASR asking the MDS and its coalition partners to
form a new cabinet immediately. The declaration followed decisions
on 12 November by both the Party of the Democratic Left and the
Social Democratic Party of Slovakia to end coalition talks with
the MDS. The MDS responded by saying it has never given up its
responsibility to form a government. It also noted that the
Moravcik cabinet was pressuring the MDS to form a minority cabinet
immediately because it has neglected its duties, including the
preparation of the 1995 budget. In a televised debate, Meciar said
he expected the Christian Democratic Movement and the PDL to
change their minds on joining a coalition following local
elections, which are scheduled for 18-19 November. -- Sharon
Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

talks in Budapest on 10-11 November with Defense Minister Gyorgy
Keleti, Foreign Minister Laszlo Kovacs, Parliament Speaker Zoltan
Gal, and parliament Defense Committee Chairman Imre Mecs, MTI
reported. The Hungarian officials stressed their country's
determination to gain NATO membership as soon as possible.
Balanzino commented that Hungary's prospects of joining NATO were
"very positive." Keleti announced that Hungary would participate
in a peacekeeping exercise in Italy in 1995 and hold a similar
joint maneuver with the US in Hungary the following year. He also
noted that the training of Hungary's first peacekeeping company
had been completed. The government is to work out by year's end
the financial requirements for the army's peacekeeping program,
which will cost 493 million forint and will be financed from a
separate item in the state budget. -- Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.

Budapest military prosecutor's office on 11 November completed the
indictment of retired border guard Colonel Istvan Dudas and three
former rank-and-file border guards for crimes against humanity.
According to MTI, on 26 October 1956 Dudas, then commander of the
border guard barracks of Mosonmagyarovar, western Hungary, ordered
his soldiers to fire on a crowd of peaceful demonstrators. Fifty
people died and a large number were wounded in the shooting. The
trial will take place at the military division of the Budapest
Municipal Court. -- Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.

Bucharest reports that new requirements for Romanian citizens
traveling to the Czech Republic are to take effect on 14 November.
The Czech embassy in Bucharest issued a statement saying Romanian
visitors--for business or tourism--must have a written invitation.
This has to be confirmed by the Czech police, which will charge a
200 koruny ($7.5) fee. Children are not exempt from the charge. --
Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIAN PRESIDENT IN BULGARIA. Ion Iliescu on 12 November visited
Bulgaria for talks with his Bulgarian counterpart, Zhelyu Zhelev.
He was accompanied by Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu and
Transport Minister Aurel Novac. Radio Bucharest reports that the
talks focused on promoting bilateral relations--especially through
improved transportation and communication links. Romania wants two
new transport routes through the Balkans (from Central Europe to
Turkey, Greece, and Albania) to replace those traversing the
former Yugoslavia. After their meeting, both Iliescu and Zhelev
expressed concern over the US decision to stop enforcing the UN
arms embargo against the rump Yugoslavia as it applies to the
Muslim-led Bosnian government. They also stressed that their
countries intended to cooperate on integration into
European-Atlantic structures. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

November reported that Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev met with
his Kyrgyz counterpart, Askar Akayev, to sign a treaty of
friendship and cooperation in Sofia the same day. In addition,
they put their signatures to a series of bilateral accords on
trade, culture, and science. Part of their discussion focused on
the US decision to stop enforcing the arms embargo against Bosnia.
Zhelev said the decision could lead to an escalation of the
fighting, while Akayev suggested that the embargo be lifted
against all warring parties. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

BUSH IN ALBANIA. International media on 12 November reported that
former US President George Bush arrived in Tirana the same day for
a 24-hour visit. Bush was greeted by Albanian President Sali
Berisha and awarded the country's highest order. -- Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

reported that an opinion poll conducted in Kiev showed that 82
percent of respondents said they did not support any party in
particular and would not vote in elections. The most popular
parties were Rukh, the Democratic Party of Ukraine, and the
Communist Party of Ukraine--each with a mere 3 percent. One
percent of those polled said they would vote for the Socialist
Party of Ukraine. The Party of Greens of Ukraine also received 1
percent of the vote. Both the Ukrainian Republican Party and the
Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine were supported by 0.5
percent, while 6 percent of those polled named other parties or
blocs. In past elections, Kiev has distinguished itself as more
politically apathetic than any other city or region in Ukraine. --
Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

International agencies reported that Belarusian President
Alyaksandr Lukashenka cut short his convalescence in Sochi and
returned to Minsk on 11 November to deal with a state of emergency
resulting from price increases of 50-200 percent since the
beginning of the month. In a televised address on 12 November,
Lukashenka accused politicians, businessmen, and journalists of
seeking to undermine him and said he would arrest or dismiss
anyone who opposed him. He singled out Prime Minister Mikhail
Chyhir and Chairman of the National Bank of Belarus Stanislau
Bahdankevich, charging that they had ignored his orders to keep
inflation down. The president said prices must return to 1
November levels within two days and said he was placing the KGB
and Interior Ministry under his control. Lukashenka blamed
Belarus's dependence on Russia for the country's economic problems
and noted it was forcing him to find a political solution to the
economic crisis. An emergency government session was held the same
day. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

BALTIC ASSEMBLY IN VILNIUS. The fifth session of the Baltic
Assembly on 13 November concluded its work by adopting 17
documents, Radio Lithuania reports. One resolution called on the
Baltic Council of Ministers to prepare and sign as soon as
possible a defense treaty. Another urged the demilitarization of
the Kaliningrad Region as "an essential element in the process
leading to the security of Central Europe and of Europe in
general." Prime Ministers Adolfas Slezevicius (Lithuania), Maris
Gailis (Latvia), and Andres Tarand (Estonia) on 12 November
addressed the 170 delegates to the session. Slezevicius said the
Baltic States must aim to become associate members of the European
Union in the first half of 1995 and full members before 2000.
Maris Budovskis of Latvia was elected chairman of the Presidium,
since the sixth session will be held in Riga in May 1995. --
Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

November, Adolfas Slezevicius said that while government income
increased significantly in October, only 92 percent of projected
revenues were expected to be collected, RFE/RL's Lithuanian
Service reports. He estimated that Lithuania's gross domestic
product would increase by 5 percent in 1995 . He also affirmed
that there would be no change in the decision to peg the litas to
the US dollar at a rate of 4:1. Lithuania's hard-currency reserves
had been increasing by $20-25 million a month and now exceeded
$600 million. Slezevicius said credits obtained from the IMF for a
litas stabilization fund were no longer needed and would be
returned to save on interest payments. He also noted that the
talks on financing the construction of the oil terminal at Butinge
had begun that day in Vilnius and that foreign investors would be
allowed to purchase only 49 percent of shares in that company. --
Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

between Tallinn and Stockholm was restored on 11 November, Western
agencies report. The service had been disrupted by the sinking on
28 September of the ferry "Estonia," with the loss of more than
900 lives. Swedish parliament chairman Birgitta Dahl and Estonian
parliament deputy chairman Edgar Savisaar sailed on the
replacement ferry "Mare Balticum," which stopped at the site where
the "Estonia" sank. Wreathes and flowers were cast into the sea.
On 14 November, the Finnish icebreaker "Nordica," assisted by the
Swedish minelayer "Furusand," plans to raise the 55-ton ferry door
of the "Estonia" to help determine why it broke off, causing the
ship to sink. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

Latvia's admission to the Council of Europe is to be included on
the agenda of the meeting scheduled for 31 January of the
council's Parliamentary Assembly, deputy speaker of the Estonian
parliament Tunne Kelam told BNS on 11 November after returning
from meetings in Strasbourg of the assembly's leading bodies.
Kelam, who is also vice president of the assembly, said "it seems
there are no more problems about Latvia's admission to the Council
of Europe." The PA's leading committees--the political,
nonmembers, and joint committee--approved Latvia's admission in
October. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Penny Morvant)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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