No passion so effectually robs the mind of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear. - Edmund Burke
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 215, 11 November 1994

                              RUSSIA

POLTORANIN ALARMED AT YELTSIN VETO OF MEDIA BILL. Mikhail
Poltoranin, the chairman of a State Duma communication committee,
has sharply criticized President Boris Yeltsin for his veto of
amendments to a proposed media law on 10 November, Interfax
reported. Poltoranin, a former Information Minister in Yeltsin's
government, said that Yeltsin's veto was proof that the country is
slipping towards a totalitarian regime, saying that Yeltsin had
the opportunity to prove he was a true democrat and instead showed
"there is no true democrat in him." The amendments proposed by the
Duma stipulated that state authorities at the federal and
constituent level could not set up new media outlets such as
periodicals. Poltoranin said the amendments would help to end
journalists' reliance--what he called "serfdom"--on government
funding. Representatives of Yeltsin's staff told an RFE/RL
correspondent on the same day that Yeltsin saw the amendments as
limiting freedom of information. -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc.

DUMA COUNCIL APPROVES PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION DRAFT LAW. Grigory
Yavlinsky, the leader of the reformist Yabloko Bloc, said on 10
November that the State Duma Council has approved a draft law on
presidential elections, Interfax reported. The law was proposed by
Yabloko Duma deputies. Yavlinsky told Interfax that under the
draft, candidates for the Russian presidency could be put forward
by President Boris Yeltsin or groups of deputies from either
chamber of parliament. Individual citizens would need to collect
at least 250,000 signatures to propose a candidate. Yavlinsky said
the draft calls for suspension of the powers of the incumbent
president during the election campaign if he also runs in the
election. Russia's presidential elections are scheduled for June
1996. -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc.

CHEVRON CHIEF ON PIPELINE PROJECT. Interfax reported on 10
November that Chevron President Kenneth Derr had told Russian
Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin that Chevron is prepared to
guarantee half the cost of the Tengiz-Novorossiisk pipeline
project in return for half the shares in the construction
consortium. Russian Minister of Energy Yurii Shafranik told the
news agency that the Russian side finds the Chevron proposal
unacceptable, as it did a Chevron demand for lower fees for the
transport of oil across Russian territory. A construction
consortium with Russian, Kazakh and Omani participation was formed
in 1992 to build a pipeline to carry oil from the Tengiz field in
western Kazakhstan to the Russian port of Novorossiisk on the
Black Sea. Disagreements between the consortium and Chevron, which
is developing the Tengiz field, have been reported to have
endangered the pipeline project, which would significantly
increase the volume of oil that can be exported from western
Kazakhstan. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIAN OFFICIAL SAYS IT IS TOO EARLY TO LIFT SANCTIONS AGAINST
IRAQ. Reuters reported on 11 November that an unnamed senior
Russian official has declared that sanctions against Iraq, imposed
for that country's 1990 invasion of neighboring Kuwait, should not
yet be lifted, despite the Iraqi parliament's 11 November vote to
recognize Kuwait. The remarks come in the wake of a visit to
Baghdad by Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, who has urged
Iraq to recognize Kuwait as the first step in moving towards a
lifting of the international sanctions. According to the Reuters
report, the Russian official outlined three conditions which
Moscow saw as having to be met before any easing of sanctions
would be contemplated: Recognition of Kuwait, accounting for
missing Kuwaitis, and starting up a UN monitoring system to ensure
that Iraq has stopped making weapons of mass destruction. -- Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

GRACHEV RESISTING DUMA'S CORRUPTION PROBE. The Armed Forces Chief
of Staff, Col.-General Mikhail Kolesnikov, notified Duma chairman
Ivan Rybkin by letter on 10 November that Defense Minister Pavel
Grachev would not appear at the parliamentary question session
scheduled for the next day, AFP reported from Moscow. Grachev and
other generals had been scheduled to answer deputies' questions on
high-level military corruption. The letter said, however, that the
defense ministry's hierarchy would first have to meet and discuss
the allegations. The allegations are of course hardly new. Also on
10 November, Grachev told journalists that "the issue of the
alleged possible involvement of the command of the armed forces,
including the Western Group of Forces, in corruption should be
taken off the agenda," Interfax reported. Possibly signalling
top-level backing, Grachev made his statement while accompanying
President Boris Yeltsin to Izhevsk. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL,
Inc.

CRACKS AT THE TOP OF THE DEFENSE MINISTRY. Praising his suspended
deputy Matvei Burlakov, accused of corruption in his capacity as
commander of the Western Group of Forces, Defense Minister Pavel
Grachev charged in his statement that "the organizers of the
anti-military campaign fear the strong ties" between him and
Burlakov. Far from all senior commanders are behind that tandem,
however. The Air Force Commander in Chief, General Pyotr Deynekin,
has sided with their most vocal accuser, Lt.-General Aleksandr
Lebed. "I greatly respect General Lebed . . . am impressed by him
as a military figure. He has my confidence," Deynekin told Russian
Independent TV's program "Itogi" on 6 November. The program
described Lebed as "the army's undisputed informal leader." --
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

BALTIC FLEET ADMIRAL ACCUSED OF CORRUPTION. Rear Admiral Valery
Stalev, the former commander of the Russian naval base in Liepaja,
Latvia, was charged on 8 November with taking bribes. Interfax
reported on 11 November that he was in custody and that the
military prosecutor of the Baltic Fleet had proof that he received
large amounts in bribes for helping Latvian companies acquire the
fleet's decommissioned military property and ships. Stalev
reportedly sold ships' propellers, scrapped non-ferrous metal, and
other items to Latvian firms. The last Russian naval vessels left
Liepaja in June. It had been home for all the submarines in the
Baltic fleet, as well as for other warships. Ten ships were left
sunk in the harbor, including a cruiser. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL,
Inc.

BATURIN CAUTIOUS ON IDENTITY OF INTRUDING SUBMARINE. Yeltsin's
National Security Advisor, Yuri Baturin, told ITAR-TASS on 9
November that it was "inappropriate" to claim that the submarine
supposed to have intruded into Russian waters off the Kola
peninsula on 2 November was American. He said that the brief sonar
contact of the submarine made it very difficult to establish its
nationality. Baturin also referred to the difficulties the Swedes
have had in proving that Russian submarines had been violating
their territorial waters--a charge the Russians have consistently
denied. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

NORTH OSSETIA CHANGES ITS NAME. On 10 November the Republic of
North Ossetia's parliament voted to change the republic's name to
the Republic of North Ossetia--Alaniya, to reflect the ethnic
origin of the Ossetian people, Interfax reported. The Alans were
an Indo-European people whose original homeland was in the North
Caucasus close to the Sea of Azov. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIAN, NORTH OSSETIAN AUTHORITIES CRITICIZED OVER INGUSH
SITUATION. Duma deputy and veteran human rights campaigner Sergei
Kovalev, currently chairman of the Human Rights Commission
attached to Russia's presidency, told the daily Segodnya on 9
November that he has just addressed a memorandum to Yeltsin on the
situation in Ingushetia and North Ossetia--Alaniya upon inspecting
the region. In the state-of-emergency zone he found "large-scale,
gross violations of human rights, the main reason for the
deteriorating situation [being] the totally unconstructive
position of the North Ossetian leadership." The Ingush in turn are
being radicalized "partly due to the lack of progress on the
return of expellees" to Prigorodnyi raion, from which the Ingush
were violently evicted by the North Ossetians with Russian support
in November 1992. In a separate report, also highlighted by
Segodnya, titled "Two Years After the War," the Moscow-based
human-rights center Memorial rejects recent claims that an
organized repatriation of the Ingush expellees has begun,
observing to the contrary that "the federal authorities have been
unable and unwilling to ensure in practice the observance of human
rights." Noting that the abuses have mainly victimized the Ingush,
the report concludes that "the blame lies with the Russian
leadership and officials administering the state of emergency . .
. The federal organs could not or would not" restrain the
perpetrators. Large North Ossetian paramilitary units "existed
officially until May 1994, and the federal organs gave them a
large amount of weapons," Memorial's report said. -- Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

                  TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

KARABAKH MEDIATION UPDATE. On his first visit to the
Transcaucasus, the newly-designated acting chairman of the CSCE
Minsk group, Anders Biewrner, held talks in Baku on 10 November
with Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Hasan Hasanov and President
Heidar Aliev, Russian agencies reported. ITAR-TASS quoted Biewrner
as assuring Aliev that the prospects for creation of a
multinational CSCE peacekeeping force were good; but Reuters on 10
November quoted Western military analysts as predicting that
Russia would veto the deployment of such a force. A third round of
Russian-mediated Karabakh peace talks opened in Moscow on 9
November. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

CLEMENCY GRANTED TO UKRAINIAN MERCENARY IN NAGORNO-KARABAKH.
ITAR-TASS reported on 10 November that the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of Nagorno-Karabakh commuted the death sentence of
a Ukrainian mercenary, Yurii Belichenko, to 25 years imprisonment.
Belichenko was convicted last May of flying bombing missions which
allegedly resulted in the deaths of thousands of civilians on
behalf of Azerbaijan, and was sentenced to be shot. After appeals
by the Nagorno-Karabakh committee "Helsinki-92" and Belichenko's
own repentance, it was decided to show the Ukrainian clemency. --
Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

                               CIS

BOLSHAKOV TO PURSUE INTEGRATION "FROM ABOVE." Russia's newly
appointed Deputy Prime Minister responsible for CIS affairs,
Aleksei Bolshakov (10 November Daily Report) told ITAR-TASS on 10
November that his main tasks concern the integration of "the
economic-industrial complex" of CIS member states and that "the
emphasis will fall on integration from above, rather than from
below." Nevertheless he described himself as "a firm adherent of
the market approach" in macroeconomics. He insisted on "the legal
difference between cooperation within the CIS on the one hand and
economic relations with states of the 'far abroad' on the other
hand," but conceded that "this difference has not yet found a
clear legal expression." Bolshakov indicated that he had "agreed
in principle" with Yeltsin on developing "a more clearly defined
Russian position on integration." -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

UKRAINIAN-UZBEK COOPERATION AGREEMENT. An Uzbek delegation led by
President Islam Karimov arrived in Kiev on 10 November for an
official visit to discuss relations between Uzbekistan and
Ukraine, ITAR-TASS reported. The delegation met with Ukrainian
President Leonid Kuchma and the two presidents signed four
agreements on trade, economic and military cooperation, and
technical and cultural exchanges for 1995. At a press conference
following their meeting, Kuchma and Karimov stressed that neither
discriminated against the minorities in their country; 300,000
Ukrainians live in Uzbekistan and 36,000 Uzbeks reside in Ukraine.
Karimov also said he was opposed to any supranational CIS
governing bodies or an Eurasian union, although he upheld the
economic integration of the independent states of the former USSR
as independent entities. Kuchma agreed with Karimov on the need
for economic integration within the CIS, and also emphasized his
opposition to any supranational bodies. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL,
Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

POLISH DEFENSE MINISTER DISMISSED. Acting on a request of Premier
Waldemar Pawlak, on 10 November President Lech Walesa dismissed
Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk for failing to "stabilize the
ministry." The dismissal brought an end to a long-running feud
between Walesa and Kolodziejczyk prompted by the minister's
opposition to the president's plans to directly control the armed
forces. In late September Walesa asked for Kolodziejczyk's
resignation, but the minister failed to heed the request after
receiving open support from the parliament and tacit encouragement
from Pawlak. It appears that the prime minister has now changed
his mind. Kolodziejczyk's departure is unlikely to ease tension
within the government and between the president and the parliament
over the control of armed forces, however, and might even
exacerbate problems regarding personnel and policy decisions.
Pending the nomination of Kolodziejczyk's successor, the ministry
is to be headed by Deputy Minister Jerzy Milewski, who has been
critical of Walesa. Polish TV reported on 10 November that the
post could eventually go to former Quartermaster General and
current Deputy Defense Minister Jan Kuriata. The final appointment
will be made by the president at the prime minister's
recommendation. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.

US TO STOP ENFORCING ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST CROATIA AND BOSNIA. The
New York Times reports on 11 November that the Clinton
administration has directed the military to stop enforcing the
arms embargo against these two republics as of 12 November. The US
will also cease to share intelligence with countries still
policing the ban. Commentators on the VOA and BBC suggested that
the move will not have much practical effect, since relatively few
weapons arrive by sea and since it appears to be a response to
growing domestic political pressures to drop the arms embargo
altogether. It nonetheless underscores the fundamental policy
differences between Washington and London throughout much of the
Yugoslav conflict. Some observers believe Britain is willing to
let the conquests of its traditional Serb ally stand to offset a
German-backed Croatia and a US-supported Bosnia, while Washington
favors equalizing the military balance between Serbs and the
Bosnian government as the best way to push the former toward a
peace settlement. Elsewhere, Vjesnik reports that the US and
Croatia have agreed to sign a memorandum on military cooperation,
but no details have been published. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

CROATIA MAY "DO SOMETHING" AGAINST KRAJINA SERB MILITARY.
International media on 10 November quoted Croatian Defense
Minister Gojko Susak as saying his forces may take action in view
of continued Krajina Serb artillery and air support for the
Bosnian Serbs, whose offensive against Bihac continues. The Serbs
themselves continued deliberations at their legislative session in
Pale, where "Radio Yugoslavia" said that 28 items were on the
agenda. These center on the controversial proposal for parliament
to give up its rights, including the immunity of its members, to
Radovan Karadzic and the military. The London Times reported on
the "current tense atmosphere" among the Bosnian Serb leadership,
with Karadzic threatening to shoot anyone spreading rumors that
the recent Serb territorial losses were part of a secret deal. He
has also demanded "for the last time" that Bosnian Serbs who have
fled the country come home or risk loss of their property. The New
York Times on 11 November reports on UN charges that the Bosnian
Muslims shelled their own people in Sarajevo recently in an
apparent attempt to provoke a retaliatory strike against the
Serbs. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

PRE-ELECTION POLLS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC. An opinion poll released
by the Institute for Public Opinion Research on 10 November
indicates that 74% of the poll's 1,524 respondents have decided to
participate in the 18-19 November local government elections. A
total of 9% said they would not vote; the rest were undecided.
More than 30% of all respondents were convinced that the Civic
Democratic Party of Premier Vaclav Klaus will win the elections in
their municipality but only 18% said they would vote for the
party. The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, the Christian
Democratic Union and the Civic Democratic Alliance would each
receive 5% of the vote, while 8% said they would support
independent candidates. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

LATEST CZECH CORRUPTION AFFAIR: AN UPDATE. Charged with attempting
to bribe Czech Deputy Defense Minister Miroslav Kalousek during
his trip to Israel in May 1994, Vera Asherova, a representative of
the Singapore-based marketing company Eagle Group, told CTK on 10
November that Kalousek invented the story to "strengthen his
position [within the ministry]." Kalousek himself refused to
comment on the case until the investigation has been completed.
Kalousek's charges against Asherova came shortly after Czech
police charged the head of the Czech Center for Coupon
Privatization, Jaroslav Lizner, with accepting bribes. Meanwhile,
US Ambassador to Prague Adrian Basora told a forum on Czech-US
relations that it would take time to set up laws and a regulatory
system to ensure relatively crime-proof financial markets but
that, in the meantime, there was no point in becoming defensive to
criticism and trying to suggest that the system was perfect,
Reuters reports. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

CRITICISM BY HUNGARIAN MINORITY SPARKS SLOVAK REACTION. Hungarian
Christian Democratic Movement Deputy Chairman Pal Csaky spoke at
the Christian Democratic Peoples' Party headquarters in Budapest
about the situation in Slovakia following Vladimir Meciar's
election victory. Noting that Meciar is capable of doing anything
to gain absolute power, that he does not believe in democratic
principles and does not keep his promises, Csaky warned Hungarian
politicians that it would be a mistake to start negotiating a
friendship treaty with Slovakia under the given circumstances.
Although Csaky said it was not in the Hungary's interest to have
an unstable Slovakia as its neighbor, he noted that he did not
foresee any reasonable solutions under the present circumstances.
Without the Soviet empire the Slovak absolutist regime cannot
survive, and an Iliescu-type of political maneuvering might
develop, Csaky warned. On 10 November CTK reported that the press
department of Meciar's party, the Movement for a Democratic
Slovakia, asked Csaky for a public apology for "slandering the
Slovak Republic." -- Judith Pataki and Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

HUNGARIAN MINORITY PROTESTS ROMANIAN PENAL CODE ARTICLE. The
Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania protested on 10
November against an article in the new Penal Code approved in the
Chamber of Deputies, which provides for prison sentences ranging
from six months to three years for the unauthorized display of
foreign flags and the singing of foreign national anthems. The
RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest and Radio Bucharest reported
that Gyorgy Tokay and Ervin Szekely said their group would ask the
Constitutional Court to strike out the clause if the mediation
commission of the Chamber and the Senate (which adopted a draft of
the Penal Code that does not include this provision) fails to
solve the problem. The new clause was proposed by the junior
coalition partner, the extreme nationalist Party of Romanian
National Unity. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

IMF OFFICIAL URGES FASTER PRIVATIZATION IN ROMANIA. Max Watson,
the International Monetary Fund's chief negotiator for Romania,
said on 10 November that Bucharest should accelerate
privatization, which he claimed has slowed in recent months, an
RFE/RL correspondent in the Romanian capital and Radio Bucharest
reported. Watson said he sees signs of economic growth and noted
that Romania has become more attractive to foreign investors in
the past year. Although he cited currency stability as a success,
Watson warned that prices could still get out of control. He also
stressed that the government should keep state subsidies within
reasonable limits and devote more of its spending to
infrastructure. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

ORGANIZED CRIME IN ROMANIA. Romanian Interior Minister Doru Ioan
Taracila told reporters on 9 November that organized crime poses a
great threat to the country's moves toward democracy, Reuters
reported. Taracila said Mafia activities in Romania must be
stopped before it is too late. The Interior Ministry, he added, is
cooperating with Interpol and with neighboring countries, since
strong international links between crime groups make the situation
impossible to fight alone. Bucharest police chief Ion Pitulescu
said many of the most dangerous criminals in Romania come from
Russia and other CIS states. He said all types of crime, including
drug trafficking, uranium smuggling and weapons dealings are on
the rise. Illegal trade in children has also not been overcome;
authorities in the Black Sea port of Constanta recently uncovered
a criminal ring trying to acquire babies for buyers in Italy. --
Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

FIVE YEARS AFTER COMMUNISM'S COLLAPSE IN BULGARIA. The fifth
anniversary of the end of communist dictatorship in Bulgaria was
marked on 10 November with little fanfare, international media
report. Few public commemorations were held, and the mood was
characterized by indifference. In a speech on state radio
President Zhelyu Zhelev observed that the public's apathy and
disillusionment stem in part from exaggerated expectations in the
wake of communism's collapse. Zhelev, as quoted by Reuters, said
"we all had many illusions in the early days, me included . . . We
thought that the changes would come about more quickly, much more
easily . . . Alas, reality turned out to be cruel and much more
severe, and now we are paying the price for our own illusions."
Zhelev also criticized the country's major political parties,
observing that both the former communists and anti-communists had
to some degree stifled the reform processes. -- Stan Markotich,
RFE/RL, Inc.

BULGARIAN TREATMENT OF ROMAS CRITICIZED. On 9 November the New
York-based human rights group, Helsinki Human Rights Watch, issued
a report which is in part critical of the Bulgarian government's
treatment of the country's Roma minority, an RFE/RL correspondent
reported. Observing that Bulgarian authorities' failure to enforce
laws has triggered a significant rise in violent crimes against
Bulgaria's Romas, the report says, "the Bulgarian state bears
direct responsibility for ill-treatment, arson and murder." The
report also claims that police officers who themselves may be
responsible for serious offenses often go unprosecuted. -- Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

BULGARIAN ARMS FAIR. A total of 43 Bulgarian and 13 foreign
defense firms displayed a wide range of military equipment at the
"Hemus 94 International Defense Show" in Plovdiv, which opened on
8 November. Reuters said the largest displays were by the Vasov
Engineering Plants in Sopot, which specializes in guided missiles,
and Beta of Cherven Bryag, a producer of armored personnel
carriers. Ironically, thousands of Vasov workers went on strike
that same day, demanding higher wages and better working
conditions. Several companies reported that their business was
picking up; in October a defense ministry official said Bulgaria
had sold $300 million in arms through September compared with just
$70 million for all of 1993. Bulgaria reported to the United
Nations that it sold 24 tanks and 50 armored personnel carriers in
1993, all to Angola. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

UKRAINIAN NEWS. On 10 November various agencies reported that
Ukraine's parliament voted to maintain the ban on the Communist
Party of Ukraine. An earlier decision to lift the ban was voided
as being fraudulent after some deputies charged that there were
voting irregularities. After the vote, which took place amid a
noisy scuffle, communist deputies walked out of the parliament.
Should the ban on the Soviet communist party be lifted, its new
successor communist party could reclaim confiscated party
property. That same day, President Leonid Kuchma touched on the
subject of land reform in an interview with Ukrainian Radio,
saying that he wanted land to be distributed to those who worked
it, and calling on legislators to speed up drafting mechanisms for
its privatization. In Crimea, ITAR-TASS reported that the entire
parliamentary presidium in Simferopol has decided to travel to
Kiev with a message to the Ukrainian parliament, proposing that
Crimean deputies be allowed to participate in the drafting of
Ukraine's constitution. Crimea failed to meet the 1 November
deadline to bring its constitution in line with Ukraine's, and
Crimean legislators have argued that it would be more logical for
Ukraine to adopt its constitution first and for the Crimean
parliament to then amend its own constitution. -- Ustina Markus,
RFE/RL, Inc.

BELARUSIAN UPDATE. On 10 November Belarusian Radio reported that
President Alyaksandr Lukashenka is considering cutting short his
stay in Sochi, where he is recovering from a spinal problem, and
returning to Minsk to insure that his decrees are being carried
out. He is also reportedly considering proposing Dzmitry Bulakhau,
who was previously rejected by the parliament for a Constitutional
Court post, as a candidate for mayor of Minsk. In economic news,
the country's statistics department, Derzhkamstat, reported that
over five million Belarusians (half the population) live below the
poverty line. The lowest paid workers are health care personnel,
earning 61,809 Belarusian rubles per month. Even collective farm
workers earn more, at 64,797 rubles. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL,
Inc.

BERISHA CALLS FOR NEW CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION. News agencies
reported from Tirana on 10 November that Albanian President Sali
Berisha said again that his constitutional referendum has been
defeated, even though official vote totals have not yet been
released and his own party refuses to concede the loss. He called
for the five parties in parliament to approve a commission of
foreign and domestic experts to draft a new document and put it to
another referendum. All parties agreed, except for the
ex-communists, or Socialists, who want the document approved in
parliament only and who seem bent on using Berisha's defeat in the
6 November poll to force early elections. -- Patrick Moore,
RFE/RL, Inc.

DEATH PENALTY IN LITHUANIAN TRIAL. On 10 November the Lithuanian
Supreme Court sentenced the 32-year old Boris Dekanidze to death
for ordering the murder of Respublika Deputy Editor Vitas Lingys,
Radio Lithuania reports. Igor Akhremov, who admitted shooting
Lingys on 12 October 1993, was sentenced to life imprisonment. --
Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

TWO NEW MINISTERS IN LATVIA. On 10 November, the Saeima approved
the government's nominees for two new cabinet members: Janis
Adamsons as Minister of Internal Affairs and Vladimirs Makarovs as
State (i.e. deputy) Minister for Social Affairs, Latvian media
reported. Makarovs was born in the Rezekne district in 1957, and
he graduated in 1982 from the University of Latvia with a degree
in history and philosophy. Since December 1992 he has worked as
the Welfare Ministry's social assistance department director. (For
a short biography of Adamsons, see the 2 November Daily Report.)
-- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

LATVIAN PARLIAMENT FAVORS RATIFICATION OF ACCORDS WITH RUSSIA. In
its second reading of the legislation on the ratification of the
four accords related to the withdrawal of Russian troops from
Latvia, the Saeima once again voted in favor of ratification,
Baltic media reported. According to Saeima's Foreign Affairs
Commission Chairman Aleksandrs Kirsteins, the final approval on
the ratification is likely to come during the third reading of the
legislation, scheduled for 24 November. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL,
Inc.

ESTONIAN GOVERNMENT WANTS NORMAL RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA. A
normalization of relations with Russia is a priority of the new
Estonian government, according to both Premier Andres Tarand and
Foreign Minister Juri Luik, Interfax reported on 8-10 November. At
the same time, however, Luik, who held the same position in the
previous government, stressed the importance of integrating
Estonia "in Western political, economic, and cultural structures"
and promoting Baltic cooperation. Noting that the Russian troop
withdrawal has calmed relations, thus leaving economic issues as
the dominant unsettled bilateral concerns, Luik urged Russia to
lift the customs tariffs and grant Estonia most-favored nation
trade status. Luik reckoned with possible snags in the
ratification of Estonian-Russian accords on the troop withdrawals
and border issues. He called on Russia to return to Tallinn those
KGB files pertaining to Estonia. Reflecting the upbeat mood, an
Estonian-Russian accord on legal aid and cooperation on civil,
family and criminal suits by signed by Estonian President Lennart
Meri. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Sharon Fisher and Pete Baumgartner)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to
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