Блажен тот, кому повезет с верным другом. - Менандр
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 212, 8 November 1994


President Boris Yeltsin has issued a decree establishing new rules
for the Russian securities market, ITAR-TASS reported on 7
November. According to the decree, business activity on the
financial market will be allowed only for trade professionals and
institutions which obtain state licenses. Consequently, only
state-licensed dealers will be permitted to emit stocks and bonds.
The decree also sets up the Federal Commission on the Securities
and Bond Market headed by newly appointed First Deputy Prime
Minister Anatoly Chubais. The function of Chubais' Commission is
to protect the rights of the shareholders and investors and to
monitor Russian financial institutions' compliance with
international and domestic laws. Finally, the decree directs the
Central Bank to cease the financial activity of institutions that
do not obtain the appropriate licenses by end of 1994. Yeltsin's
decree is considered to be a response to the activity of numerous
controversial dealers like Sergei Mavrodi, who organized a
colossal pyramid-scheme. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.

Ostankino Television reported on 7 November that President Boris
Yeltsin had sent his condolences to the family of slain Duma
deputy Valentin Martemyanov, who died after being robbed and
severely beaten by unknown persons near his house on 1 November.
Several Duma factions and public organizations are demanding the
immediate resignation of Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD)
Minister Viktor Yerin, according to Interfax on 7 November. Yerin
said that he has no intention of resigning, but to continue
investigating the recent killings of politicians, journalists and
businessmen. Yerin also said that during a recent meeting between
Yeltsin and the chiefs of law enforcement agencies, the Russian
president demanded the quick investigation of the murder of Father
Aleksandr Men, who was murdered in 1990, and the recent killing of
investigative reporter Dmitrii Kholodov. Yerin added that he
personally believes that at least in these two cases, the
investigation is not in a "stalemate." Meanwhile, agencies
reported yet another murder. On November 6, the executive director
of Trans-Volga Railroad, Yury Tsittel, was gunned down in Saratov.
The killers escaped and the transportation ministry said it has no
further details on the murder. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.

LEBED CALLS ON GRACHEV TO RESIGN. In separate interviews with Le
Figaro and with Ekho Moskvy, both on 5 November,
Lieutenant-General Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th
Army in Moldova, called on General Pavel Grachev to resign as
Russia's Defense Minister for the sake of the armed forces' honor
and morale. Lebed has in recent months openly accused his former
protector Grachev of failing to implement military reform or to
ensure the provision of social benefits for servicemen, and has
opposed the Yeltsin administration's and Grachev's official goal
of reducing the army's manpower to 1,500,000. At the moment,
however, Lebed exploits the corruption affair involving Grachev's
hand-picked deputy, Colonel-General Matvei Burlakov, to strike at
the minister. Lebed replied "no comment" to Le Figaro's question
of whether he would seek to become defense minister or run for the
Russian presidency; he has in recent months signaled his
availability for both. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

Independent Television program "Itogi" on 6 November, and
disclosing in the process his schedule of meetings with Yeltsin,
Grachev insisted that he "enjoys the President's full trust" and
"has not noticed even the slightest lack of confidence in him"
during his daily, 10 a.m. briefings with Yeltsin. Grachev
threatened that "should Burlakov's innocence be established, Lebed
will be severely punished for slandering a leader of the defense
ministry, particularly since [Burlakov] is his direct superior . .
. Lebed will be immediately removed from duty and sent into the
reserves." Grachev disputed the widespread view that Lebed is
popular with the armed forces and maintained that he is only
popular with the 14th Army. Burlakov, for his part, told Russian
Television on 3 November that he agreed with Yeltsin's view that
Grachev must stay on as minister. He conceded that other potential
candidates such as Colonel-General Boris Gromov or the Chief of
the General Staff, Colonel-General Mikhail Kolesnikov, are capable
figures but saw no substitute for Grachev. As for Lebed, "this man
is too undignified for me to talk about him." -- Vladimir Socor,
RFE/RL, Inc.

Television and Broadcasting adopted on first reading by the State
Duma last week can only worsen the miserable state of public
broadcasting, Vsevold Volchek, the director of the sociological
service of Ostankino Television, said in Obshchaya gazeta issue
No. 44. The bill includes controversial provisions such as a quota
on the screening of foreign films, political correctness
provisions, and a ban on explicit sexual scenes. It is not,
however, the two state channels but commercial companies NTV and
Sixth Channel, which are showing more domestic programs, noted
Volchek. Additionally, the political programming on commercial
television is much more objective than those on state channels,
which recently aired a promotion campaign for controversial
financial dealer Sergei Mavrodi. Finally, the law postulates that
state television is subsidized by the government, but it does not
mention the income it receives from advertisements. In reality,
however, the lion share of the direct and indirect advertisement
goes through state channels. Thus, the law is aimed to preserve
the present situation rather to improve it, concludes Volchek. --
Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.

Force Base outside Washington, DC on 11 November, U.S. and Russian
aviation officials applauded the roll-out of the first
Ilyushin-96M airliner, UPI reported. The 375-seat wide-body jet
was designed by Moscow's Ilyushin design bureau. Production models
will be built in Voronezh--some 500 kilometers south of Moscow.
The plane's engines, avionics, and many of its other components
were built in the U.S. Genrikh Novozhilov, the plane's designer,
said that airlines both within and outside the former Soviet Union
had already taken options on 40 aircraft. Ilyushin hopes to boost
production from five to 24 jet liners per year. -- Doug Clarke,
RFE/RL, Inc.

news agency Yonhap reported on 6 November that eight military
officers would be sent to Russia soon for training. They will
study Russian for ten months, then receive a full military
education for another year. The report said they were being
trained as Russian specialists, and their trip "would serve to
enhance mutual understanding and friendship between the military
forces of the two countries . . . " Three South Korean warships,
on a round-the-world cruise since August, were also scheduled to
dock at the Russian port of Novorossiysk on the Black Sea that
same day. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.


November on the fairness of the 6 November presidential elections
in Tajikistan, Western and Russian news agencies reported. The
campaign headquarters of candidate Abdumalik Abdullodzhonov, who
lost to parliament chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, issued a statement
charging the Rakhmonov camp with fraud and intimidation of voters.
Official election observers from several CIS states and Turkey,
Iran and Pakistan reported to the Central Election Commission
having observed voting irregularities, Commission Chairman
Kadriddin Giesov told a news conference on 7 November. An official
of the Russian embassy in Dushanbe was quoted by Interfax as
saying that charges of vote-rigging were likely, but have little
chance of success. Voters also approved the draft constitution
that had been submitted to popular referendum on the same day as
the election. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.


PAN-ORTHODOX FORUM ESTABLISHED. At a conference in Athens,
reported by ITAR-TASS on 6 November, parliamentarians from 16
ex-Soviet republics and Balkan states, including Russia, Ukraine,
Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and
Montenegro, and Greece, resolved to establish an
Interparliamentary Assembly of [Christian] Orthodoxy. The new
forum offers to "help overcome national and religious conflicts
through the unifying spirit of Orthodoxy and to find effective
means to defend ethnic and religious minorities." The organizers
will in particular seek to "use the special role of Greece and
Russia in the European Union and the UN Security Council,
respectively, to assert the role of Orthodoxy in a manner
commensurate with its importance." The Assembly will meet annually
and will have a permanent Secretariat in Athens on which Russia
and Greece will sit as permanent members. The Assembly's first
elected President is Viktor Zorkaltsev, head of the Russian
parliament's committee on social and religious organizations. The
next annual meeting will be in Moscow. The organization appears to
be constructed around a Russian-Greek axis and is likely to
promote common political objectives in the Balkans. -- Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.


media reported on 7 November that President Sali Berisha has lost
his bid to pass a proposed new constitution through a referendum.
He had campaigned hard across the country for the measure, but the
results of the 6 November poll indicate that some 60 percent of
the electorate voted "no." Reuters quoted Berisha as saying that
"it seems that this option [for the constitution] . . . did not
find the approval of the people . . . [but] when the people speak,
the others must keep silent." A new constitution is a prerequisite
for Albanian membership in the Council of Europe, but it is not
clear whether new elections are in the cards or whether a new
draft constitution will go before parliament. Both in the
parliament and in the referendum, Berisha had made his own power
and popularity the issue to the detriment of discussing the real
strengths and weaknesses of the constitution itself. -- Patrick
Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

BOSNIAN UPDATE. International media report on 8 November that NATO
airplanes buzzed Sarajevo for the third night in a row to deter
fighting between Serb and government forces. Combat also continued
in the Kupres area, and Borba quotes UN sources as saying that the
Muslim and Croat armies are now likely to move on to Donji Vakuf
and to try to raise the siege of Gradacac. AFP reported the
previous day that some 700 mainly Muslim, Croat, and Roma refugees
sought "safety from ethnic terror" in Serb-held areas in the Banja
Luka region by crossing into Croatia. Meanwhile in the Hague, the
UN war crimes tribunal issued its first indictment, namely against
Dragan Nikolic, the Serb ex-commander of the Susica concentration
camp. At the United Nations itself, a report confirmed that the
border between Serbia and Bosnia remains closed, but the 8
November Wall Street Journal writes that pressures may now grow on
President Slobodan Milosevic to help and resupply the Bosnian
Serbs. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

the Polish government failed to approve the outline of
privatization strategy for 1995. According to a government
communique cited by Gazeta Wyborcza of 8 November, the draft
requires "further improvements." This illustrated existing
differences within the government over privatization policies,
with Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak and his rural party suspicious
of privatization proposals and postcommunist officials ready to
speed up the program. The government meeting was attended by
President Lech Walesa, who was reported to have argued for the
expansion and the speeding up of privatization programs. In a
related development, the postcommunist Sejm deputies planned to
replace the current chairman of the parliamentary privatization
commission, the populist rural politician Bogdan Pek, who has
recently emerged as one of the strongest critics of privatization
strategies. The move could have major political repercussions in
other areas because the postcommunists were supported in their
efforts by the opposition Freedom Union, which is rooted in the
anticommunist Solidarity traditions. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL,

raises the prospect of future changes on the Polish political
scene, local councilors in Warsaw from the postcommunist Union of
Democratic Left and the Solidarity-rooted Freedom Union united to
elect Marcin Swiecicki, former minister and Freedom Union
politician, as the city's president, despite opposition from the
Polish Peasant Party. The Peasant Party and the leftist union are
members of the ruling coalition at the national level. In an
interview with Gazeta Wyborcza on 8 November, leading Freedom
Union politician Andrzej Celinski said the turnaround in Warsaw
showed that postcommunist and anticommunist groups could work
together at the national level as well and that the Freedom Union
should cooperate closely with reform-minded groups within
postcommunist formations in the future. -- Jan de Weydenthal,
RFE/RL, Inc.

address to the Pen Club's World Congress, which began in Prague on
7 November, Czech President Vaclav Havel called on the world's
writers who in the past have steered clear of politics as a dirty
business to plunge in and become publicly active against
intolerance. The Czech president proposed "the gradual creation of
a rather conspiratorial mafia" which would "not only write
brilliant books or civic manifestations" but also influence
politics. Havel also called on congress participants to take
high-profile stances in support of Salmon Rushdie, who has been
threatened with death by Iranian Muslims for his writings. Havel
further called on writers throughout the world to protest the
Nigerian government's travel ban on Nobel Prize winner Wole
Soyinka. The American playwright Arthur Miller supported Havel's
ideas in a press conference with US writers. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL,

for the Czech local elections officially began on 7 November, CTK
reported. A total of 295 political parties and movements
registered with the central electoral commission, of which 49 will
compete on their own and 137 will run as part of a coalition.
Campaigning ends on 16 November, and the elections will be held on
18 and 19 November. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

presidential spokesman Anton Balaz told TASR that President Michal
Kovac has asked legal experts to study the constitutionality of
the parliament's no-confidence vote in Interior Minister Ladislav
Pittner and Privatization Minister Milan Janicina following their
resignation on 3 November. According to Slovak law, government
members must resign at the end of the first session of parliament
but remain in office until a new cabinet can be formed. It is the
president's duty to appoint and remove government members, and
Kovac said he would make his decision by 9 November. Meanwhile,
outgoing Premier Jozef Moravcik said he would not sign the law
passed by the parliament which cancels all direct sale
privatization projects approved by his government since 6
September. Moravcik said the law is unconstitutional and noted
that should the parliament approve the law once again, he will ask
the Constitutional Court to review it. In a statement issued on 7
November the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia said that the
reason for the failure of coalition talks is that certain
representatives of the Common Choice and Christian Democratic
Movement aim to discredit the MDS as a political body, questioning
the party's ability to compromise and find political partners. --
Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

Slovak defense officials began four days of bilateral talks on
defense issues in Bonn. Defense Ministry officials from both
countries will discuss NATO's partnership for peace program,
reforms in each country's army and joint activities for 1995.
Slovakia's six-member delegation is headed by Major General Jan
Pancik. Also on 7 November, Slovak Army Chief of Staff, General
Jozef Tuchyna, began four days of talks with NATO officials in
Heidelberg. The purpose of the visit is to acquaint Tuchyna with
the organizational structure of the command of NATO ground forces,
to improve understanding among NATO members and those hoping to
join the organization, as well as to discuss opportunities for
joint training exercises, TASR reports. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL,

published by MTI on 4 November, Hungary's foreign trade deficit
will probably reach $2.8 billion by the end of 1994. During the
first nine months of the year, the value of exports was $7.36
billion, while imports reached $10.1 billion. Trade with Germany
accounted for one-third of both imports and exports. Exports to
Western industrial countries grew 21% over last year's figures,
but exports to developing countries fell by 15%. Some $900 million
of foreign capital was invested in Hungary from January through
September, along with another $109 worth of machinery and other
industrial items. Industrial production grew 8.4% in the first 8
months of 1994 and 16.3% over the previous year. -- Judith Pataki,
RFE/RL, Inc.

WEU DELEGATION VISITS ROMANIA. A delegation of the West European
Union is participating in a two-day symposium on East Central
Europe and the European Security System which began on 7 November.
Among the members of the delegation are WEU Secretary General
Willem van Eekelen and WEU President Sir Dudley Smith. The
symposium is being held on the occasion of the opening of a WEU
Bureau of Information and Documentation in Bucharest. On 6
November, during a visit to Calafat on the Danube River, members
of the delegation praised Romania's cooperation with the UN and
the WEU in enforcing the embargo against rump Yugoslavia. The
guests were received on 7 November by President Ion Iliescu,
Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca, and Foreign Minister Teodor
Melescanu, who was awarded the WEU silver medal as a sign of
appreciation for his country's cooperation in monitoring the
embargo, Radio Bucharest reported. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

SEGUIN IN ROMANIA. A parliamentary delegation led by French
National Assembly President Philippe Seguin arrived in Bucharest
on 7 November and was received by Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu and
Foreign Minister Melescanu, Radio Bucharest reported. They
discussed Romania's integration into European structures and
bilateral relations. Seguin is also scheduled to meet President
Ion Iliescu and to address the Chamber of Deputies -- Michael
Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

Chairman Filip Dimitrov said on 7 November that his party's main
economic enemy is inflation, while Zhan Videnov of the Bulgarian
Socialist Party said his party will focus on reducing
unemployment. Reuter reported the two leaders' statements which
were made in advance of the early parliamentary elections
scheduled for 18 December. Both parties are vowing to fight crime,
speed up privatization, attract foreign investors, and promote
links with Western Europe. They also promise financial help for
Bulgarians who have suffered the most in the country's shift from
central planning to a market economy. Videnov argued that his
opponents' plans are "meaningless initiatives and comic threats."
Dimitrov said the main issue of the campaign is credibility, and
the UDF has the right program. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

Macedonian elections on 30 October, there will be fewer seats for
ethnic Albanians than in the last parliament. According to
Rilindja of 4 November, only 14 seats were won by ethnic Albanian
candidates, although another five or six Albanians may get seats
when elections are repeated in 11 districts. The Party of
Democratic Prosperity gained eight seats, while a break-away
faction took only two seats in Tetovo and Gostivar, as did the
Democratic People's Party. The other two winners are independents.
In the last parliament the Albanians had a total of 24 seats and
participated to some extent in newly re-elected President Kiro
Gligorov's government. -- Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc.

quoted Amnesty International as saying that the human rights of
Albania's gays continue to be in jeopardy. It cited the case of
three members of the nascent Gay Albania Society, who were badly
beaten at a Tirana police station on 14 and 15 October. The men
fear they could be charged under a communist-era law that could
land them in prison for up to 10 years. Despite past protests from
the Council of Europe over Albania's failure to decriminalize
homosexuality, the best that the current government has offered is
a "liberalization" that would limit punishment to a fine or
imprisonment up to three years. AI says this violates
international human rights agreements Tirana has already signed.
-- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

SURVEY ABOUT ALBANIANS' CONCERNS A recently conducted survey of
310 Tirana citizens showed that 31.6% of respondents were most
concerned about economic problems, Koha e Jone reported on 2
November. Still, it was said that there was no lack of optimism. A
total of 21.9% of respondents said they were most concerned about
unemployment; the daily noted that almost every family had one
unemployed member. Another 7.7 % considered crime, drugs and
prostitution a burning problem. A mere 5.2% considered the
national question their main worry, as the issue has been overly
politicized by the country's parties. -- Louis Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc.

accompanying the CSCE's General Secretary, Wilhelm Hoynck, on his
recent visit to Tiraspol described the "Dniester republic" as
"priding itself on having preserved its Soviet ways" (The New York
Times, 28 October); "a living museum of the old USSR" (Reuters, 1
November); "a microcosm of the Soviet Union" populated by
"Russians filled with Soviet nostalgia" (Frankfurter Allgemeine
Zeitung, 2 November); "a creation of Russian nationalists and
Stalinists" (Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 2 November); and "a step back
in time to the bad old days of communism . . . combining the worst
aspects of communism with rampant corruption" (The European, 4-10
November). The same journalists described the "Dniester" Supreme
Soviet chairman "sitting under the flag of the former Soviet
republic [and] the hammer and sickle and five-pointed red star";
the "education minister" who "calls Russia the 'fatherland' and
has no qualms about using old Soviet textbooks;" and the red flags
and Lenin statues adorning public places. -- Vladimir Socor,
RFE/RL, Inc.

reported that Party of Popular Accord leader Henadz Karpenka said
right-wing parties in the Belarusian parliament, including the
Belarusian Popular Front, the Party of Popular Accord and the
Belarusian Social Democratic Hramada, would cooperate in the
second part of the parliamentary elections next spring as a
"single team." Aleh Trusau, head of the Hramada, said he was
convinced of the rightists victory in the elections and also said
that the right-wing bloc would seek President Alyaksandr
Lukashenka's resignation. He said Lukashenka could be removed
either through a referendum of confidence; or the Constitutional
Court's finding that some of his decrees run counter to the
constitution; or for reasons of health. Under Belarusian law, if
the president is unable to perform his duties due to ill health,
power would pass to the chairman of the Supreme Soviet. The move
would, however, require a two-thirds vote in parliament.
Lukashenka flew to Moscow earlier this week for treatment for a
spinal problem and is now recovering in Sochi. Presidential
spokesman Alyaksandr Feduta has said that their are no grounds to
remove Lukashenka for health reasons. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL,

BOMB DAMAGES BRIDGE IN LITHUANIA. On the morning of 6 November a
bomb badly damaged a bridge 35 kilometers west of Vilnius on
Lithuania's main east-west railway line, Radio Lithuania reports.
The Moscow-Kaliningrad and Kaunas-Vilnius trains had crossed the
bridge shortly before the explosion. Local residents stopped the
Klaipeda-Vilnius train before it reached the bridge some 15
minutes after the blast. On 7 November Prime Minister Adolfas
Slezevicius ordered tighter security on the railroad system and
other key installations. The Prosecutor's Office has established a
special commission, including high-ranking Security Department,
Interior and Defense Ministry officials, to investigate the bomb.
No one has taken responsibility for this terrorist act.
Transportation Minister Jonas Birziskis estimates that repairs
will take about three weeks and will cost 5.6 million litai ($1.4
million). -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

announced that during the first eight months of 1994 31,735 people
died and 29,655 were born in Lithuania, Radio Lithuania reported
on 3 November. Since 1990 the number of births and marriages each
year has been decreasing and the number of deaths increasing. In
1993 births exceeded deaths by only 620. In the first eight months
of 1994 the number of emigrants exceeded immigrants by more than
1,700. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

ESTONIA EMIGRATION HIGH. According to Alar Jaanus of the Estonian
Citizenship and Migration Department, since 1989 the number of
emigrants from the country has exceeded the number of immigrants,
BNS reported on 3 November. About 90,000 persons have left Estonia
during the past five years. While on the average about
10,000-15,000 left Estonia annually, the number of emigrants
peaked in 1992 when 37,000 people, most of them former Soviet
military, moved away. At the same time 800 ethnic Estonians have
returned since the second half of 1992. On 4 November BNS reported
that 2,390 persons settled in Estonia; the vast majority of them
came from CIS states and Eastern Europe, and the greatest number
of settlers (102) from any single country came from Latvia. --
Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

OCTOBER INFLATION IN ESTONIA. The Estonian Statistics Department
announced that the consumer price index in October increased by
1.1%, BNS reported on 7 November. The cost of services rose by
1.2% and that of goods by 1% (of which food prices increased by
0.7% and manufactured goods by 1.6%). Prices of leisure activities
and household expenses rose by 2.8% and 1.9%, respectively, while
health care costs declined by 0.3%. The cost of goods and services
in October 1994 were on average 48.8% greater than in October
1993. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

LATVIA'S FOREIGN DEBT. According to Latvian Finance Ministry
official Daina Nereta, on 1 November Latvia's foreign debt totaled
$324.43 million, excluding the sum of state guarantees for foreign
loans, which amounted to $37.72 million. It is not clear whether
this sum includes a recently announced loan of 2.2 million Latvian
lati (about $4 million) from the World Bank for environmental
rehabilitation, BNS reported on 2 November. By the end of 1994
foreign debt could reach $366.18 million if the country receives a
40 million ecu loan from the G-24 states. -- Dzintra Bungs,
RFE/RL, Inc.

Correction: In the 7 November Daily Report, Tajikistan's
president-elect, Imomali Rakhmonov, was incorrectly identified as
prime minister. His correct title is parliament chairman.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Sharon Fisher and Pete Baumgartner)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to
Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as
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Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.

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