|Every man passes his life in the search after friendship. - Emerson|
No. 212, 8 November 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN'S DECREE ON STATE REGULATION OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. President Boris Yeltsin has issued a decree establishing new rules for the Russian securities market, ITAR-TASS reported on 7 November. According to the decree, business activity on the financial market will be allowed only for trade professionals and institutions which obtain state licenses. Consequently, only state-licensed dealers will be permitted to emit stocks and bonds. The decree also sets up the Federal Commission on the Securities and Bond Market headed by newly appointed First Deputy Prime Minister Anatoly Chubais. The function of Chubais' Commission is to protect the rights of the shareholders and investors and to monitor Russian financial institutions' compliance with international and domestic laws. Finally, the decree directs the Central Bank to cease the financial activity of institutions that do not obtain the appropriate licenses by end of 1994. Yeltsin's decree is considered to be a response to the activity of numerous controversial dealers like Sergei Mavrodi, who organized a colossal pyramid-scheme. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN EXPRESSES CONDOLENCE FOR MURDERED DEPUTY MARTEMYANOV. Ostankino Television reported on 7 November that President Boris Yeltsin had sent his condolences to the family of slain Duma deputy Valentin Martemyanov, who died after being robbed and severely beaten by unknown persons near his house on 1 November. Several Duma factions and public organizations are demanding the immediate resignation of Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) Minister Viktor Yerin, according to Interfax on 7 November. Yerin said that he has no intention of resigning, but to continue investigating the recent killings of politicians, journalists and businessmen. Yerin also said that during a recent meeting between Yeltsin and the chiefs of law enforcement agencies, the Russian president demanded the quick investigation of the murder of Father Aleksandr Men, who was murdered in 1990, and the recent killing of investigative reporter Dmitrii Kholodov. Yerin added that he personally believes that at least in these two cases, the investigation is not in a "stalemate." Meanwhile, agencies reported yet another murder. On November 6, the executive director of Trans-Volga Railroad, Yury Tsittel, was gunned down in Saratov. The killers escaped and the transportation ministry said it has no further details on the murder. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. LEBED CALLS ON GRACHEV TO RESIGN. In separate interviews with Le Figaro and with Ekho Moskvy, both on 5 November, Lieutenant-General Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, called on General Pavel Grachev to resign as Russia's Defense Minister for the sake of the armed forces' honor and morale. Lebed has in recent months openly accused his former protector Grachev of failing to implement military reform or to ensure the provision of social benefits for servicemen, and has opposed the Yeltsin administration's and Grachev's official goal of reducing the army's manpower to 1,500,000. At the moment, however, Lebed exploits the corruption affair involving Grachev's hand-picked deputy, Colonel-General Matvei Burlakov, to strike at the minister. Lebed replied "no comment" to Le Figaro's question of whether he would seek to become defense minister or run for the Russian presidency; he has in recent months signaled his availability for both. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV, BURLAKOV COUNTERATTACK. Interviewed on the Russian Independent Television program "Itogi" on 6 November, and disclosing in the process his schedule of meetings with Yeltsin, Grachev insisted that he "enjoys the President's full trust" and "has not noticed even the slightest lack of confidence in him" during his daily, 10 a.m. briefings with Yeltsin. Grachev threatened that "should Burlakov's innocence be established, Lebed will be severely punished for slandering a leader of the defense ministry, particularly since [Burlakov] is his direct superior . . . Lebed will be immediately removed from duty and sent into the reserves." Grachev disputed the widespread view that Lebed is popular with the armed forces and maintained that he is only popular with the 14th Army. Burlakov, for his part, told Russian Television on 3 November that he agreed with Yeltsin's view that Grachev must stay on as minister. He conceded that other potential candidates such as Colonel-General Boris Gromov or the Chief of the General Staff, Colonel-General Mikhail Kolesnikov, are capable figures but saw no substitute for Grachev. As for Lebed, "this man is too undignified for me to talk about him." -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. OFFICIAL SKEPTICAL ABOUT PROPOSED TELEVISION BILL. The Law on Television and Broadcasting adopted on first reading by the State Duma last week can only worsen the miserable state of public broadcasting, Vsevold Volchek, the director of the sociological service of Ostankino Television, said in Obshchaya gazeta issue No. 44. The bill includes controversial provisions such as a quota on the screening of foreign films, political correctness provisions, and a ban on explicit sexual scenes. It is not, however, the two state channels but commercial companies NTV and Sixth Channel, which are showing more domestic programs, noted Volchek. Additionally, the political programming on commercial television is much more objective than those on state channels, which recently aired a promotion campaign for controversial financial dealer Sergei Mavrodi. Finally, the law postulates that state television is subsidized by the government, but it does not mention the income it receives from advertisements. In reality, however, the lion share of the direct and indirect advertisement goes through state channels. Thus, the law is aimed to preserve the present situation rather to improve it, concludes Volchek. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. ROLLOUT OF JOINT US/RUSSIAN AIRLINER. At a ceremony at Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington, DC on 11 November, U.S. and Russian aviation officials applauded the roll-out of the first Ilyushin-96M airliner, UPI reported. The 375-seat wide-body jet was designed by Moscow's Ilyushin design bureau. Production models will be built in Voronezh--some 500 kilometers south of Moscow. The plane's engines, avionics, and many of its other components were built in the U.S. Genrikh Novozhilov, the plane's designer, said that airlines both within and outside the former Soviet Union had already taken options on 40 aircraft. Ilyushin hopes to boost production from five to 24 jet liners per year. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. SOUTH KOREAN OFFICERS AND SHIPS SENT TO RUSSIA. The South Korean news agency Yonhap reported on 6 November that eight military officers would be sent to Russia soon for training. They will study Russian for ten months, then receive a full military education for another year. The report said they were being trained as Russian specialists, and their trip "would serve to enhance mutual understanding and friendship between the military forces of the two countries . . . " Three South Korean warships, on a round-the-world cruise since August, were also scheduled to dock at the Russian port of Novorossiysk on the Black Sea that same day. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA CHARGES OF ELECTION-RIGGING IN TAJIKISTAN. Assessments varied on 7 November on the fairness of the 6 November presidential elections in Tajikistan, Western and Russian news agencies reported. The campaign headquarters of candidate Abdumalik Abdullodzhonov, who lost to parliament chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, issued a statement charging the Rakhmonov camp with fraud and intimidation of voters. Official election observers from several CIS states and Turkey, Iran and Pakistan reported to the Central Election Commission having observed voting irregularities, Commission Chairman Kadriddin Giesov told a news conference on 7 November. An official of the Russian embassy in Dushanbe was quoted by Interfax as saying that charges of vote-rigging were likely, but have little chance of success. Voters also approved the draft constitution that had been submitted to popular referendum on the same day as the election. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS PAN-ORTHODOX FORUM ESTABLISHED. At a conference in Athens, reported by ITAR-TASS on 6 November, parliamentarians from 16 ex-Soviet republics and Balkan states, including Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and Greece, resolved to establish an Interparliamentary Assembly of [Christian] Orthodoxy. The new forum offers to "help overcome national and religious conflicts through the unifying spirit of Orthodoxy and to find effective means to defend ethnic and religious minorities." The organizers will in particular seek to "use the special role of Greece and Russia in the European Union and the UN Security Council, respectively, to assert the role of Orthodoxy in a manner commensurate with its importance." The Assembly will meet annually and will have a permanent Secretariat in Athens on which Russia and Greece will sit as permanent members. The Assembly's first elected President is Viktor Zorkaltsev, head of the Russian parliament's committee on social and religious organizations. The next annual meeting will be in Moscow. The organization appears to be constructed around a Russian-Greek axis and is likely to promote common political objectives in the Balkans. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BIG UPSET DEFEAT FOR ALBANIAN PRESIDENT BERISHA. International media reported on 7 November that President Sali Berisha has lost his bid to pass a proposed new constitution through a referendum. He had campaigned hard across the country for the measure, but the results of the 6 November poll indicate that some 60 percent of the electorate voted "no." Reuters quoted Berisha as saying that "it seems that this option [for the constitution] . . . did not find the approval of the people . . . [but] when the people speak, the others must keep silent." A new constitution is a prerequisite for Albanian membership in the Council of Europe, but it is not clear whether new elections are in the cards or whether a new draft constitution will go before parliament. Both in the parliament and in the referendum, Berisha had made his own power and popularity the issue to the detriment of discussing the real strengths and weaknesses of the constitution itself. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BOSNIAN UPDATE. International media report on 8 November that NATO airplanes buzzed Sarajevo for the third night in a row to deter fighting between Serb and government forces. Combat also continued in the Kupres area, and Borba quotes UN sources as saying that the Muslim and Croat armies are now likely to move on to Donji Vakuf and to try to raise the siege of Gradacac. AFP reported the previous day that some 700 mainly Muslim, Croat, and Roma refugees sought "safety from ethnic terror" in Serb-held areas in the Banja Luka region by crossing into Croatia. Meanwhile in the Hague, the UN war crimes tribunal issued its first indictment, namely against Dragan Nikolic, the Serb ex-commander of the Susica concentration camp. At the United Nations itself, a report confirmed that the border between Serbia and Bosnia remains closed, but the 8 November Wall Street Journal writes that pressures may now grow on President Slobodan Milosevic to help and resupply the Bosnian Serbs. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH GOVERNMENT DEBATES PRIVATIZATION. Meeting on 7 November, the Polish government failed to approve the outline of privatization strategy for 1995. According to a government communique cited by Gazeta Wyborcza of 8 November, the draft requires "further improvements." This illustrated existing differences within the government over privatization policies, with Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak and his rural party suspicious of privatization proposals and postcommunist officials ready to speed up the program. The government meeting was attended by President Lech Walesa, who was reported to have argued for the expansion and the speeding up of privatization programs. In a related development, the postcommunist Sejm deputies planned to replace the current chairman of the parliamentary privatization commission, the populist rural politician Bogdan Pek, who has recently emerged as one of the strongest critics of privatization strategies. The move could have major political repercussions in other areas because the postcommunists were supported in their efforts by the opposition Freedom Union, which is rooted in the anticommunist Solidarity traditions. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. POSTCOMMUNIST-NONCOMMUNIST COALITION IN WARSAW. In a move that raises the prospect of future changes on the Polish political scene, local councilors in Warsaw from the postcommunist Union of Democratic Left and the Solidarity-rooted Freedom Union united to elect Marcin Swiecicki, former minister and Freedom Union politician, as the city's president, despite opposition from the Polish Peasant Party. The Peasant Party and the leftist union are members of the ruling coalition at the national level. In an interview with Gazeta Wyborcza on 8 November, leading Freedom Union politician Andrzej Celinski said the turnaround in Warsaw showed that postcommunist and anticommunist groups could work together at the national level as well and that the Freedom Union should cooperate closely with reform-minded groups within postcommunist formations in the future. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. THE PEN CLUB'S WORLD CONGRESS BEGINS IN PRAGUE. In his opening address to the Pen Club's World Congress, which began in Prague on 7 November, Czech President Vaclav Havel called on the world's writers who in the past have steered clear of politics as a dirty business to plunge in and become publicly active against intolerance. The Czech president proposed "the gradual creation of a rather conspiratorial mafia" which would "not only write brilliant books or civic manifestations" but also influence politics. Havel also called on congress participants to take high-profile stances in support of Salmon Rushdie, who has been threatened with death by Iranian Muslims for his writings. Havel further called on writers throughout the world to protest the Nigerian government's travel ban on Nobel Prize winner Wole Soyinka. The American playwright Arthur Miller supported Havel's ideas in a press conference with US writers. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. LOCAL ELECTIONS CAMPAIGN STARTS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC. Campaigning for the Czech local elections officially began on 7 November, CTK reported. A total of 295 political parties and movements registered with the central electoral commission, of which 49 will compete on their own and 137 will run as part of a coalition. Campaigning ends on 16 November, and the elections will be held on 18 and 19 November. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PARLIAMENT'S DECISIONS TO BE OVERTURNED? On 7 November presidential spokesman Anton Balaz told TASR that President Michal Kovac has asked legal experts to study the constitutionality of the parliament's no-confidence vote in Interior Minister Ladislav Pittner and Privatization Minister Milan Janicina following their resignation on 3 November. According to Slovak law, government members must resign at the end of the first session of parliament but remain in office until a new cabinet can be formed. It is the president's duty to appoint and remove government members, and Kovac said he would make his decision by 9 November. Meanwhile, outgoing Premier Jozef Moravcik said he would not sign the law passed by the parliament which cancels all direct sale privatization projects approved by his government since 6 September. Moravcik said the law is unconstitutional and noted that should the parliament approve the law once again, he will ask the Constitutional Court to review it. In a statement issued on 7 November the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia said that the reason for the failure of coalition talks is that certain representatives of the Common Choice and Christian Democratic Movement aim to discredit the MDS as a political body, questioning the party's ability to compromise and find political partners. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK DEFENSE OFFICIALS IN GERMANY. On 7 November German and Slovak defense officials began four days of bilateral talks on defense issues in Bonn. Defense Ministry officials from both countries will discuss NATO's partnership for peace program, reforms in each country's army and joint activities for 1995. Slovakia's six-member delegation is headed by Major General Jan Pancik. Also on 7 November, Slovak Army Chief of Staff, General Jozef Tuchyna, began four days of talks with NATO officials in Heidelberg. The purpose of the visit is to acquaint Tuchyna with the organizational structure of the command of NATO ground forces, to improve understanding among NATO members and those hoping to join the organization, as well as to discuss opportunities for joint training exercises, TASR reports. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. LATEST HUNGARIAN ECONOMIC FIGURES. According to economic data published by MTI on 4 November, Hungary's foreign trade deficit will probably reach $2.8 billion by the end of 1994. During the first nine months of the year, the value of exports was $7.36 billion, while imports reached $10.1 billion. Trade with Germany accounted for one-third of both imports and exports. Exports to Western industrial countries grew 21% over last year's figures, but exports to developing countries fell by 15%. Some $900 million of foreign capital was invested in Hungary from January through September, along with another $109 worth of machinery and other industrial items. Industrial production grew 8.4% in the first 8 months of 1994 and 16.3% over the previous year. -- Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. WEU DELEGATION VISITS ROMANIA. A delegation of the West European Union is participating in a two-day symposium on East Central Europe and the European Security System which began on 7 November. Among the members of the delegation are WEU Secretary General Willem van Eekelen and WEU President Sir Dudley Smith. The symposium is being held on the occasion of the opening of a WEU Bureau of Information and Documentation in Bucharest. On 6 November, during a visit to Calafat on the Danube River, members of the delegation praised Romania's cooperation with the UN and the WEU in enforcing the embargo against rump Yugoslavia. The guests were received on 7 November by President Ion Iliescu, Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca, and Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu, who was awarded the WEU silver medal as a sign of appreciation for his country's cooperation in monitoring the embargo, Radio Bucharest reported. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. SEGUIN IN ROMANIA. A parliamentary delegation led by French National Assembly President Philippe Seguin arrived in Bucharest on 7 November and was received by Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu and Foreign Minister Melescanu, Radio Bucharest reported. They discussed Romania's integration into European structures and bilateral relations. Seguin is also scheduled to meet President Ion Iliescu and to address the Chamber of Deputies -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN PARTIES AGREE ON BIG ISSUES. Union of Democratic Forces Chairman Filip Dimitrov said on 7 November that his party's main economic enemy is inflation, while Zhan Videnov of the Bulgarian Socialist Party said his party will focus on reducing unemployment. Reuter reported the two leaders' statements which were made in advance of the early parliamentary elections scheduled for 18 December. Both parties are vowing to fight crime, speed up privatization, attract foreign investors, and promote links with Western Europe. They also promise financial help for Bulgarians who have suffered the most in the country's shift from central planning to a market economy. Videnov argued that his opponents' plans are "meaningless initiatives and comic threats." Dimitrov said the main issue of the campaign is credibility, and the UDF has the right program. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. MACEDONIAN ALBANIANS LOSE SEATS IN PARLIAMENT. As a result of the Macedonian elections on 30 October, there will be fewer seats for ethnic Albanians than in the last parliament. According to Rilindja of 4 November, only 14 seats were won by ethnic Albanian candidates, although another five or six Albanians may get seats when elections are repeated in 11 districts. The Party of Democratic Prosperity gained eight seats, while a break-away faction took only two seats in Tetovo and Gostivar, as did the Democratic People's Party. The other two winners are independents. In the last parliament the Albanians had a total of 24 seats and participated to some extent in newly re-elected President Kiro Gligorov's government. -- Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIAN GAY ACTIVISTS ARRESTED AND BEATEN. Reuters on 4 November quoted Amnesty International as saying that the human rights of Albania's gays continue to be in jeopardy. It cited the case of three members of the nascent Gay Albania Society, who were badly beaten at a Tirana police station on 14 and 15 October. The men fear they could be charged under a communist-era law that could land them in prison for up to 10 years. Despite past protests from the Council of Europe over Albania's failure to decriminalize homosexuality, the best that the current government has offered is a "liberalization" that would limit punishment to a fine or imprisonment up to three years. AI says this violates international human rights agreements Tirana has already signed. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SURVEY ABOUT ALBANIANS' CONCERNS A recently conducted survey of 310 Tirana citizens showed that 31.6% of respondents were most concerned about economic problems, Koha e Jone reported on 2 November. Still, it was said that there was no lack of optimism. A total of 21.9% of respondents said they were most concerned about unemployment; the daily noted that almost every family had one unemployed member. Another 7.7 % considered crime, drugs and prostitution a burning problem. A mere 5.2% considered the national question their main worry, as the issue has been overly politicized by the country's parties. -- Louis Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc. A RARE CLOSE-UP VIEW OF "DNIESTER REPUBLIC." Journalists accompanying the CSCE's General Secretary, Wilhelm Hoynck, on his recent visit to Tiraspol described the "Dniester republic" as "priding itself on having preserved its Soviet ways" (The New York Times, 28 October); "a living museum of the old USSR" (Reuters, 1 November); "a microcosm of the Soviet Union" populated by "Russians filled with Soviet nostalgia" (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 2 November); "a creation of Russian nationalists and Stalinists" (Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 2 November); and "a step back in time to the bad old days of communism . . . combining the worst aspects of communism with rampant corruption" (The European, 4-10 November). The same journalists described the "Dniester" Supreme Soviet chairman "sitting under the flag of the former Soviet republic [and] the hammer and sickle and five-pointed red star"; the "education minister" who "calls Russia the 'fatherland' and has no qualms about using old Soviet textbooks;" and the red flags and Lenin statues adorning public places. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. RUMORS OF MOVES TO REMOVE LUKASHENKA. On 3 November Interfax reported that Party of Popular Accord leader Henadz Karpenka said right-wing parties in the Belarusian parliament, including the Belarusian Popular Front, the Party of Popular Accord and the Belarusian Social Democratic Hramada, would cooperate in the second part of the parliamentary elections next spring as a "single team." Aleh Trusau, head of the Hramada, said he was convinced of the rightists victory in the elections and also said that the right-wing bloc would seek President Alyaksandr Lukashenka's resignation. He said Lukashenka could be removed either through a referendum of confidence; or the Constitutional Court's finding that some of his decrees run counter to the constitution; or for reasons of health. Under Belarusian law, if the president is unable to perform his duties due to ill health, power would pass to the chairman of the Supreme Soviet. The move would, however, require a two-thirds vote in parliament. Lukashenka flew to Moscow earlier this week for treatment for a spinal problem and is now recovering in Sochi. Presidential spokesman Alyaksandr Feduta has said that their are no grounds to remove Lukashenka for health reasons. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BOMB DAMAGES BRIDGE IN LITHUANIA. On the morning of 6 November a bomb badly damaged a bridge 35 kilometers west of Vilnius on Lithuania's main east-west railway line, Radio Lithuania reports. The Moscow-Kaliningrad and Kaunas-Vilnius trains had crossed the bridge shortly before the explosion. Local residents stopped the Klaipeda-Vilnius train before it reached the bridge some 15 minutes after the blast. On 7 November Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius ordered tighter security on the railroad system and other key installations. The Prosecutor's Office has established a special commission, including high-ranking Security Department, Interior and Defense Ministry officials, to investigate the bomb. No one has taken responsibility for this terrorist act. Transportation Minister Jonas Birziskis estimates that repairs will take about three weeks and will cost 5.6 million litai ($1.4 million). -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. DEATHS EXCEED BIRTHS IN LITHUANIA. The Statistics Department announced that during the first eight months of 1994 31,735 people died and 29,655 were born in Lithuania, Radio Lithuania reported on 3 November. Since 1990 the number of births and marriages each year has been decreasing and the number of deaths increasing. In 1993 births exceeded deaths by only 620. In the first eight months of 1994 the number of emigrants exceeded immigrants by more than 1,700. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA EMIGRATION HIGH. According to Alar Jaanus of the Estonian Citizenship and Migration Department, since 1989 the number of emigrants from the country has exceeded the number of immigrants, BNS reported on 3 November. About 90,000 persons have left Estonia during the past five years. While on the average about 10,000-15,000 left Estonia annually, the number of emigrants peaked in 1992 when 37,000 people, most of them former Soviet military, moved away. At the same time 800 ethnic Estonians have returned since the second half of 1992. On 4 November BNS reported that 2,390 persons settled in Estonia; the vast majority of them came from CIS states and Eastern Europe, and the greatest number of settlers (102) from any single country came from Latvia. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. OCTOBER INFLATION IN ESTONIA. The Estonian Statistics Department announced that the consumer price index in October increased by 1.1%, BNS reported on 7 November. The cost of services rose by 1.2% and that of goods by 1% (of which food prices increased by 0.7% and manufactured goods by 1.6%). Prices of leisure activities and household expenses rose by 2.8% and 1.9%, respectively, while health care costs declined by 0.3%. The cost of goods and services in October 1994 were on average 48.8% greater than in October 1993. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIA'S FOREIGN DEBT. According to Latvian Finance Ministry official Daina Nereta, on 1 November Latvia's foreign debt totaled $324.43 million, excluding the sum of state guarantees for foreign loans, which amounted to $37.72 million. It is not clear whether this sum includes a recently announced loan of 2.2 million Latvian lati (about $4 million) from the World Bank for environmental rehabilitation, BNS reported on 2 November. By the end of 1994 foreign debt could reach $366.18 million if the country receives a 40 million ecu loan from the G-24 states. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. Correction: In the 7 November Daily Report, Tajikistan's president-elect, Imomali Rakhmonov, was incorrectly identified as prime minister. His correct title is parliament chairman. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Sharon Fisher and Pete Baumgartner) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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