|One must learn by doing the thing; though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. - Sophocles|
No. 210, 4 November 1994
RUSSIA KOZYREV WARNS AGAINST NATO ENLARGEMENT. At a meeting with NATO's Deputy Secretary-General Gebhardt von Moltke in Moscow, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev termed plans for NATO's enlargement eastwards as "radical" and "unreasonable," an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 3 November. Kozyrev maintained that the admission of Central or East European countries into NATO would "seriously destabilize the situation in Europe." He was quoted by Interfax as saying he "would prefer to consider how to continue along the road of cooperation with the West, rather than what we can do politically and militarily in response to unfriendly steps. And we can do a great deal in this respect." Admitting that "a tough response to plans for a hasty expansion of NATO may complicate Russia's relations with some Central and East European countries," Kozyrev particularly objected to the allegedly fast pace of the process and reaffirmed the linkage to the admission of Russia itself into NATO. He also used the familiar argument that NATO's enlargement would strengthen Russia's hardliners. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN MEETS TOP POLITICIANS TO DISCUSS CHANGES; SACKS OFFICIAL. President Boris Yeltsin held talks with top Russian political leaders on 3 November to discuss envisaged changes in the government, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Presidential officials told the correspondent that Yeltsin met with Vladimir Shumeiko, Chairman of the Federation Council; Egor Gaidar, leader of Russia's Choice; Gavriil Popov, Chairman of the Democratic Reform Movement; Sergei Shakhrai, Chairman of the Russian Unity and Accord Party; Nationalities Minister Nikolai Yegorov and Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzkhov. Also on 3 November, Reuters reported that Yeltsin sacked V.F. Krunya, head of the Federal Service for Currency and Export Controls, in connection with last month's plunge of the ruble. A report from Russia's Security Council issued 3 November said the Central Bank, the Economics and Finance Ministries as well as some commercial banks were responsible for the ruble's collapse. The report said the currency's one-day plunge of more than 21 percent had threatened Russia's market reforms and its national security, Reuters reported. -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc. EXPLOSION AT PRESIDENTIAL PALACE IN GROZNY. Windows were shattered but no one was injured when a mine attached to a window grating of the presidential palace in Grozny exploded during the night of 2-3 November, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 November. The Chechen law enforcement bodies, which were criticized as incompetent at last weekend's emergency congress of the Chechen peoples, have not identified the perpetrators. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. "FOREIGN" SUBMARINE FOUND IN RUSSIAN WATERS. The Russian Navy staff confirmed on 3 November that a "foreign" submarine had been detected in Russian territorial waters in the Barents Sea. According to Interfax, the Northern Fleet headquarters identified the submarine as American, and said it had been found some five nautical miles off the mouth of the Kola fjord. Reuters said that Pentagon officials denied an American submarine was involved. Murmansk and Severomorsk--the headquarters of the Northern Fleet--are located on the fjord, as are a number of Russian submarine bases. In February 1992 an American attack submarine and a Russian ballistic-missile submarine collided near the location of the latest incident. The Russian Navy has complained that NATO navies are still spying on them. Northern Fleet commander Admiral Oleg Yerofeyev said that such incidents "undermine the foundation of the peace initiatives of the two states . . . and serve to escalate military tension at sea." -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. GRIM PICTURE OF RUSSIAN MISSILE FORCES. According to a 2 November article in the military newspaper Krasnaya zvezda, the Russian Strategic Missile Forces are in such poor shape that they are about to lose their combat readiness. This was said to be the conclusion of a recent session of the missile forces' military council. Almost half of the missiles on combat duty have exceeded their warranted operating lives, while spare parts, tools, and accessories kits are being used up and not replaced. The article said that the command posts and control centers were in even worse shape than the missiles. It complained that the lack of funding had prevented the forces from carrying out the measures designed to extend the operational life of the missile complexes. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA AND THE CASPIAN. The Russian government on 3 November resolved to prepare a resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers on measures to protect an estimated 160,000 residents of Dagestan whose livelihoods are threatened by the estimated 14-20 centimeter annual rise in the level of the Caspian Sea, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. ITAR-TASS also quoted Russian Ecology Minister Viktor Danilov-Danilyan as proposing that the government urgently demand that the Russian Security Council formally define Russia's position with regard to the international status of the Caspian. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. ARMS TRADE IN THE URALS REGION. The giant Uralvagonzavod tank factory in Nizhny Tagil plans to sell 260 T-90 tanks to India, according to the head of the Sverdlovsk regional administration, Aleksei Strakhov. He told Interfax on 2 November that he would discuss the sale with the federal government "because several politicians oppose this contract." The T-90 is Russia's most modern tank, and has been in limited production at the Nizhny Tagil plant. The same day the Chilean ambassador to Russia, James Holgaer, told Strakhov that Chile intended to buy arms in the Urals. Holgaer was to visit the Uraltransmash plant in Yekaterinburg, one of Russia's largest artillery factories. He said Chile was adding two military attache posts to deal with arms purchases, and these officers would hold talks with Uraltransmash in 1995. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA BOUTROS-GHALI IN EREVAN. Addressing the Armenian parliament on 3 November, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali praised the country's progress in implementing economic reform, specifically land privatization, and assured deputies of UN and world community support in overcoming Armenia's problems. He did not, however, mention Nagorno-Karabakh, Interfax and Western agencies reported. Also on 3 November, Azerbaijan Deputy Foreign Minister Araz Azimov told Interfax that the Azerbaijan leadership was encouraged by Boutros-Ghali's insistence that the Karabakh issue be resolved on the basis of territorial integrity and the inviolability of state borders, and by his proposal that the UN coordinate the various existing mediation efforts. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. GEORGIA, IMF AT ODDS. IMF officials have expressed concern at the Georgian government's failure to implement IMF and World Bank recommendations, specifically the liberalizing of bread prices and the 30 percent reduction of the state apparatus, on which the release of an estimated $100 million are contingent, Interfax reported on 3 November. A joint Georgian and IMF program for reducing inflation in Georgia, which at 61.9 percent is the highest of any CIS member, was published on 31 October; it also encompasses a stricter credit policy and the removal by March 1995, of all existing restrictions on the sale and purchase of land. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS ON SECURITY GUARANTEES. On 2 November Deputy Foreign Minister Borys Tarasyu led a Ukrainian delegation to Moscow to meet with Russian counterparts Igor Ivanovsky and Gregorii Mamedov to discuss security guarantees for Ukraine from nuclear powers, Ukrainian radio reported. The Ukrainians want a comprehensive document drawn up that would guarantee its security and which would be signed by all nuclear states. Ukraine has already held talks on its security with representatives from the US and France. So far Ukraine has not been satisfied with the assurances it has received and this has been a stumbling block in the country's joining the Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear state. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. KUCHMA IN TURKMENISTAN. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma was scheduled to visit Turkmenistan on 3 November, Ukrainian radio reported. He is to meet with Turkmen President Saparmuad Niyazov during the visit. Their talks will focus on Ukraine's gas debt to Turkmenistan, which Ukrainian radio says stands at over $800 million. ITAR-TASS reported that the debt stood at $1.08 billion. Turkmenistan cut gas deliveries to Ukraine in February because of Kiev's arrears. Kuchma is reportedly hoping to come to an agreement and have Turkmenistan defer Ukraine's debt. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA PROMOTING CUSTOMS UNION WITH CERTAIN CIS STATES. Russia's Minister for External Economic Relations, Oleg Davydov, told ITAR-TASS on 3 November that Russia and Belarus are prepared to sign an agreement to create a customs union using "internal, not world market prices in commercial operations." The customs union would also involve "joint control" by Russia and Belarus of their borders with Ukraine, Poland, and Latvia, Davydov said. (An agreement on "joint control," which would in practice result in Russian control of Belarus' borders, was recently initialled by the two countries' border troop commanders.) Davydov said Russia has asked Ukraine and Kazakhstan to join such a customs union but the two countries have "thus far declined" because it would involve "a single legislation, full renunciation of national regulatory authority in external trade, handing over powers to supranational bodies, and the unconditional execution of the latter's decisions on the entire territory of the parties to the agreement." -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. KURDS CHALLENGE TURKEY FROM MOSCOW. A "Confederation of Kurds of the CIS" announced its formation at a news conference on 1 November in Moscow. Claiming to speak for up to one million Kurds in the former Soviet republics, the organization will "support the national liberation struggle of the Kurdish people for creating a Kurdish homeland, an independent Kurdistan." Confederation chairman Yurii Nabiev indicated to the gathering that Turkey is the primary target. He added to Interfax that the organization intended to "maintain close relations with the Kurdistan Workers' Party (KWP)," which conducts guerrilla operations in Turkey. Another leader, Sharaf Ashiri, said that the organization's purposes were to preserve Kurdish identity in the CIS and to "support our brothers fighting against the Turkish regime," Nezavisimaya Gazeta reported on 2 November. The news briefing capped a three-day Kurdish conference held in a Moscow hall decorated with posters of KWP's terrorist leader Abdullah Ocalan and attended by KWP representatives who announced the founding of a Kurdish university in Moscow, the Neue Zuercher Zeitung reported on 3 September. An appeal to "support our liberation struggle against the Turkish authorities" was made to the gathering by Akhmed Dere, identified by Nezavisimaya Gazeta as a leader of the National Liberation Front of Kurdistan. An organization by that name had emerged earlier this year in Moscow, claiming at that time to pursue equal rights for Kurds within Turkey and to enjoy good relations with Russian authorities (8 September Daily Report). At the Russian Foreign Minstry briefing on 1 November, chief spokesman Grigorii Karasin declined to say whether Moscow regarded the KWP as terrorist and disclaimed any official connection with the conference. The event seemed intended to signal that Moscow might use a Kurdish card against Turkish interests in the Transcaucasus or within Turkey itself. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KUPRES FALLS TO MUSLIMS AND CROATS. International media reported on 3 November that Bosnian government and Bosnian Croat (HVO) troops took the strategically important town of Kupres along the highway from Split. The Serbs, who have held the once mainly Croat town since 1992, left their flank toward the Croats almost wide open while they tried to hold off the Muslims. The victors captured large quantities of weapons and equipment in what is clearly their biggest win over the Serbs. It is not clear whether this marks the beginning of steady Muslim-HVO cooperation, or whether the HVO became engaged mainly because Kupres is assigned to the Croats under the latest partition plan. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. KARADZIC LIVID, SILAJDZIC HAPPY WITH TURN OF EVENTS. Tanjug and Borba on 4 November report that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has once again threatened a "full state of war," this time in reaction to the fall of Kupres. He said that his forces had merely made a tactical withdrawal and called on Serbs to prepare for the "decisive battle." The New York Times on 2 November quoted Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic on the latest successes by the Bosnian army. He said: "The Serbs are fleeing because it's not a picnic anymore. It's not raping. It's not plunder. It's not taking gold from women. It's not easy. It's merely a bullet in your forehead." News agencies cited Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic as saying that the fall of Kupres "lights the way toward further liberation of other occupied parts of our country." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ROW OVER BRITISH AND FRENCH CONDUCT IN BOSNIA. International media have reported in recent days over a growing debate over the role of Britain and France and their UNPROFOR forces in Bosnia. On 31 October, a Bosnian minister told Oslobodjenje that London and Paris seek to "freeze the existing situation, to get agreement from the Serb side for every action they take." He added that UNPROFOR should go if that was its policy. On 3 November, Reuters quoted an unnamed Western diplomat in Sarajevo as saying that the UN mission "has become an instrument of French and British foreign policy, with Russia playing an important supporting role. France and Britain are using their troops in Bosnia to control international diplomatic action, not to oppose the aggressor." On 1 November, the Washington Post quoted the French overall UN commander as saying that the Bosnian Serbs needed support and understanding, but Reuters cited US Secretary of Defense William Perry as countering that he does not think "that understanding is the appropriate response to aggressive military actions." At bottom, many observers suspect London, Paris, and Moscow of trying to bolster their traditional Serb ally against a Croatia and a Bosnia that some in those three countries see as "serving the interests" of Washington and Bonn. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. EXPULSIONS TO BEGIN WITH THE FALL OF YUGOSLAV SANCTIONS. As a result of the resumption of international air traffic to Belgrade, expulsions of a large number of rump-Yugoslav refugees are expected to take place soon from various European countries. The Belgrade government announced, however, that it will admit only those "citizens of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia who have valid documents," Rilindja reported on 1 November. Refugees could therefore profit from Belgrade's policy since they would theoretically be difficult to deport from the West if they have no valid rump Yugoslav documents. But the Kosovar Information Center claimed that the policy "aims at ethnic cleansing" by keeping the majority of ethnic Albanian refugees from voluntarily returning Serbia if the Belgrade authorities choose not to issue them the proper documents. -- Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIAN JUDGES RESIGN OVER SUNDAY'S REFERENDUM. Reuters reported on 3 November that three of the nine members of the Constitutional Court resigned, charging the other six judges with deliberately delaying hearings on a challenge to the referendum on the new constitution slated for 6 November. The three said that the other six had either done something "intentional or committed a grave act of negligence" by going abroad instead of concentrating on what the three called "the most important case presented to the court to date." The referendum is widely expected to pass after extensive campaigning by President Sali Berisha all around the country, making appearances almost daily. He denies the new constitution will give him too much power, but the opposition, which had tried to block the constitution in parliament, has turned the question of the constitution into a question of Berisha. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. GOOD CHINESE-ALBANIAN RELATIONS. The Albanian Defense Minister Safet Zhulali visited China in late October, Lajmi i Dites reported on 25 October. During meetings with high Chinese military officials, both sides expressed the desire to start improving relations in the military field after their interruption 20 years ago. The Chinese defense minister evaluated the visit of the Albanian military delegation "as very important." On his way back to Tirana, Zhulali visited Pakistan too. A Chinese delegation headed by the vice president of the Chinese parliament visited Tirana, Rilindja reported on 27 October. President Berisha told the Chinese visitor during a meeting of his regret that Enver Hoxha "destroyed relations with Beijing when China began its reforms." He expressed his hope that relations between the two countries would improve " as much as possible and in all fields." Berisha also expressed the desire for the Chinese president to visit Albania. Chinese-Albanian relations are improving at a time when Tirana's relations with its other former ally Moscow remain formal and cool. -- Louis Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN DRAFT LAW ON PRIVATIZATION. Hungarian Finance Minister Laszlo Bekesi told a press conference on 3 November that the government plans to submit to parliament at the end of next week a draft law that outlines a strategy for privatization and the principles governing the sale of state property, MTI reports. He said that one of the major goals of the draft law is to substantially reduce the size of state-owned property and to speed up the sale of property temporarily in state ownership. Under the draft, the government will decide on the privatization of strategic firms such as banks, financial institutions, and large firms while the privatization of medium-sized and small companies falls under the jurisdiction of the State Privatization and Property Management Share Company. Bekesi reported that the value of state property is estimated at 1600 billion forint, and close to 900 firms are awaiting privatization. He announced that of the 251 firms which are in permanent state ownership the government plans to keep only 161 and seeks to maintain 100% state ownership only in 46 firms. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH-GERMAN AGREEMENTS SIGNED. During a visit to Bonn on 3 November, Czech Interior Minister Jan Ruml met his German counterpart Manfred Kanther and signed four bilateral agreements, including the long-awaited readmission treaty, CTK reports. The Czech Republic was Germany's only neighbor which had not signed such a treaty, and Kanther said the Czech border had become the main route for illegal immigration to Germany, noting that almost 10,000 illegal aliens were caught there between January and September of this year. Another agreement reached requires Germany to pay the Czech Republic 60 million DM to help finance increased border security. The two other agreements concern the marking and maintenance of the common border and allow citizens to cross the border for recreational purposes. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. FIRST SESSION OF NEW SLOVAK PARLIAMENT BEGINS . . . On 3 November the Slovak parliament held its first session since the parliamentary elections which took place just over one month ago. Under pressure from President Michal Kovac as well as parties represented in the current government, parliament chairman and Movement for a Democratic Slovakia member Ivan Gasparovic agreed to allow substitutes for cabinet members to participate, although he again emphasized that such decisions were outside the president's jurisdiction. In a secret ballot, Gasparovic was reelected to the post of parliament chairman, receiving 104 votes in the 150-member parliament. It was agreed that posts for four vice chairmen would be created, and MDS member Augustin Marian Huska and Association of Slovak Workers Chairman Jan Luptak won easily, while voting on the remaining two was postponed after the other candidates failed to win enough votes. At the end of the session, the cabinet of Premier Jozef Moravcik resigned but will remain in office until a new government can be formed. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AS POLITICAL TENSIONS MOUNT. Controversy began during the opening session when MDS member Olga Keltosova put forward a proposal that the Mandate and Immunity Committee, which is charged with verifying deputies' mandates, should have 15 rather than 17 members. The proposal was passed, and 8 committee members were chosen from the MDS-Peasant Party coalition, 2 each from the Hungarian coalition and Common Choice, and 1 each from the Christian Democratic Movement, the Association of Slovak Workers and the Slovak National Party. The Democratic Union does not have a single member on the committee. Protesting the fact that the committee's make-up does not comply with the distribution of political power in the parliament, members of the CDM, DU and Hungarian coalition walked out of the parliament. Miroslav Kocnar of the ASW was elected chairman of the committee, and he later reported that the validity of the mandates of all deputies and substitutes had been verified. Even so, committee members from the MDS initiated the creation of a temporary commission to examine whether DU deputies had been elected in accordance with law. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. THE MDS BRINGS POLITICAL REVENGE. Immediately following the opening session of the parliament, a second session began which lasted late into the night. Deputies from the CDM, Common Choice, DU and Hungarian parties walked out, calling the program unconstitutional, and the session continued with 84 deputies. Unexpected support from the ASW allowed the MDS and SNP to dismiss Interior Minister Ladislav Pittner and Privatization Minister Milan Janicina, despite the fact that they had already resigned. Meanwhile, members of the boards for Slovak Radio and Television were dismissed and new ones were appointed and members of the presidium and supervisory board of the National Property Fund were changed. Direct sale privatization projects passed by the current cabinet since 6 September were canceled, and amendments to the privatization law were passed. The chairman and vice chairman of the Supreme Supervisory Office were recalled, and a new supervisory commission was approved, designed to oversee the Slovak Intelligence Service, and placed under the leadership of MDS deputy Ivan Lexa. Attorney General Vojtech Bacho was also replaced. Party of the Democratic Left deputy Robert Fico, who remained in the parliament, called the session "a mockery of parliamentary democracy." -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. ILIESCU IN THE UK. Romanian President Ion Iliescu began on 2 November a three-day visit to the United Kingdom, Radio Bucharest announced on the same day. He met premier John Major and Secretary of Trade and Industry Michael Heseltine. Following the encounter with Major, presidential spokesman Traian Chebeleu said the main topics discussed were the help extended by the United Kingdom to Romania for its "non-discriminatory integration in European and Euro-Atlantic organizations." and bilateral economic ties. Major announced state-guaranteed credits extended to Romania would be doubled. Iliescu also met with a group of young parliamentarians, with British businessmen and with British Jewish parliamentarians, who questioned him on the process of rehabilitation of Romania's wartime dictator Ion Antonescu and on the restitution of confiscated Jewish property. Addressing the Royal Institute for International Affairs on 3 November, Iliescu warned against the danger of a new Iron Curtain falling across Europe if Western countries failed to help the former Communist countries economically. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. PRICE LIBERALIZATION IN UKRAINE. Ukraine received $371 million in credits from the IMF this week and initiated the price liberalizations agreed to under the IMF approved austerity program, various agencies reported. Drastic increases were reported on the cost of transport, rents, utilities, foodstuffs and other retail goods. On 2 November Ukrainian radio reported that Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma met with the president's regional councils to discuss the social-economic situation. The councils affirmed their support of the price liberalizations as a necessary measure. On 4 November, however, Interfax reported that Ukraine's parliament met to discuss the government's economic policies, including the price liberalization. Parliament had not been scheduled to meet until next week. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. DNIESTER SCHOOL CONFLICT. For the second consecutive week, several hundred parents of Moldovan school children are blockading railroad and highway approaches to the city of Bendery to protest the "Dniester republic's" imposition of the Russian alphabet in place of the Latin one in the few remaining Moldovan school classes and the conversion of the last Moldovan high school into a Russian-Moldovan one. Representatives of the Chisinau government have pleaded with the protesters, thus far in vain, to end the blockade which damages Moldova economically by impeding trade with the CIS states to the east. In the cities of Tiraspol and Rabnita, the last two remaining Moldovan schools continue to defy orders to abandon the Latin alphabet and are being guarded by pickets of parents. Lt.-General Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, has visited some of the pickets and promised to intercede with the "Dniester republic's" leaders, who are his political adversaries. On Tiraspol TV on 1 November, representatives of "Dniester" authorities claimed that the General had threatened to "shoot" them. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW ESTONIAN CABINET. On 4 November Estonian Prime Minister designate Andres Tarand presented his cabinet to President Lennart Meri, BNS reports. He will retain all the members of Mart Laar's previous government except for four new ministers: Kaido Kama (Internal Affairs), Juri Adams (Justice), Vootele Hansen (Environment), and Aldo Tamm (Agriculture). Pro Patria will continue to have the most ministers (four), with the Estonian National Independence Party having three, and Liberals, Moderates, and Rightists having two each. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. ECDU SUPPORTS LITHUANIA'S INTEGRATION INTO EU. On 2 November representatives of the European Christian Democratic Union ended a three-day visit to Lithuania, Radio Lithuania reports. Spaniard Jose Etxebarria said that the ECDU would help Lithuania get more foreign investments to strengthen its market economy and support its efforts to integrate into the European Union. Bundestag deputy Kersten Wetzel added that the Baltic States should be allowed to join NATO as soon as possible. They held talks with the leaders of the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party which had joined the ECDU in early 1993. They also had meetings with Seimas Chairman Ceslovas Jursenas, Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys, opposition leader Vytautas Landsbergis, Archbishop of Vilnius Audrys Backis, and Cardinal Vincentas Sladkevicius. The delegation departed for Latvia that day. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. NORWAY AND LATVIA SIGN PROTOCOL. As part of the process of bringing up to date and expanding Latvian-Norwegian ties, a protocol was signed in Riga by Norwegian Ambassador Torbjorn Aalbu and Maris Riekstins of the Latvian Foreign Ministry on 2 November annulling four treaties between Latvia and Norway from the 1920s. For Latvia, the most important aspect of this protocol is Norway's affirmation of not recognizing the legality of the incorporation of Latvia into the Soviet Union and that the Republic of Latvia, created on 4 May, 1991, is the legal continuation of the Republic of Latvia founded on 18 November, 1918. Norway is the first nation to sign such a protocol. Ambassador Aalbu, who is to return to Oslo on 4 November, will transmit an invitation of the Latvian president to the Norwegian king to visit Latvia, Diena and LETA reported on 1 and 3 November. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Ustina Markus and Pete Baumgartner) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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