One must learn by doing the thing; though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. - Sophocles
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 210, 4 November 1994

                              RUSSIA

KOZYREV WARNS AGAINST NATO ENLARGEMENT. At a meeting with NATO's
Deputy Secretary-General Gebhardt von Moltke in Moscow, Russian
Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev termed plans for NATO's
enlargement eastwards as "radical" and "unreasonable," an RFE/RL
correspondent reported on 3 November. Kozyrev maintained that the
admission of Central or East European countries into NATO would
"seriously destabilize the situation in Europe." He was quoted by
Interfax as saying he "would prefer to consider how to continue
along the road of cooperation with the West, rather than what we
can do politically and militarily in response to unfriendly steps.
And we can do a great deal in this respect." Admitting that "a
tough response to plans for a hasty expansion of NATO may
complicate Russia's relations with some Central and East European
countries," Kozyrev particularly objected to the allegedly fast
pace of the process and reaffirmed the linkage to the admission of
Russia itself into NATO. He also used the familiar argument that
NATO's enlargement would strengthen Russia's hardliners. --
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

YELTSIN MEETS TOP POLITICIANS TO DISCUSS CHANGES; SACKS OFFICIAL.
President Boris Yeltsin held talks with top Russian political
leaders on 3 November to discuss envisaged changes in the
government, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Presidential
officials told the correspondent that Yeltsin met with Vladimir
Shumeiko, Chairman of the Federation Council; Egor Gaidar, leader
of Russia's Choice; Gavriil Popov, Chairman of the Democratic
Reform Movement; Sergei Shakhrai, Chairman of the Russian Unity
and Accord Party; Nationalities Minister Nikolai Yegorov and
Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzkhov. Also on 3 November, Reuters reported
that Yeltsin sacked V.F. Krunya, head of the Federal Service for
Currency and Export Controls, in connection with last month's
plunge of the ruble. A report from Russia's Security Council
issued 3 November said the Central Bank, the Economics and Finance
Ministries as well as some commercial banks were responsible for
the ruble's collapse. The report said the currency's one-day
plunge of more than 21 percent had threatened Russia's market
reforms and its national security, Reuters reported. -- Pete
Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc.

EXPLOSION AT PRESIDENTIAL PALACE IN GROZNY. Windows were shattered
but no one was injured when a mine attached to a window grating of
the presidential palace in Grozny exploded during the night of 2-3
November, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 November. The Chechen law
enforcement bodies, which were criticized as incompetent at last
weekend's emergency congress of the Chechen peoples, have not
identified the perpetrators. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

"FOREIGN" SUBMARINE FOUND IN RUSSIAN WATERS. The Russian Navy
staff confirmed on 3 November that a "foreign" submarine had been
detected in Russian territorial waters in the Barents Sea.
According to Interfax, the Northern Fleet headquarters identified
the submarine as American, and said it had been found some five
nautical miles off the mouth of the Kola fjord. Reuters said that
Pentagon officials denied an American submarine was involved.
Murmansk and Severomorsk--the headquarters of the Northern
Fleet--are located on the fjord, as are a number of Russian
submarine bases. In February 1992 an American attack submarine and
a Russian ballistic-missile submarine collided near the location
of the latest incident. The Russian Navy has complained that NATO
navies are still spying on them. Northern Fleet commander Admiral
Oleg Yerofeyev said that such incidents "undermine the foundation
of the peace initiatives of the two states . . . and serve to
escalate military tension at sea." -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

GRIM PICTURE OF RUSSIAN MISSILE FORCES. According to a 2 November
article in the military newspaper Krasnaya zvezda, the Russian
Strategic Missile Forces are in such poor shape that they are
about to lose their combat readiness. This was said to be the
conclusion of a recent session of the missile forces' military
council. Almost half of the missiles on combat duty have exceeded
their warranted operating lives, while spare parts, tools, and
accessories kits are being used up and not replaced. The article
said that the command posts and control centers were in even worse
shape than the missiles. It complained that the lack of funding
had prevented the forces from carrying out the measures designed
to extend the operational life of the missile complexes. -- Doug
Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIA AND THE CASPIAN. The Russian government on 3 November
resolved to prepare a resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers on
measures to protect an estimated 160,000 residents of Dagestan
whose livelihoods are threatened by the estimated 14-20 centimeter
annual rise in the level of the Caspian Sea, Interfax and
ITAR-TASS reported. ITAR-TASS also quoted Russian Ecology Minister
Viktor Danilov-Danilyan as proposing that the government urgently
demand that the Russian Security Council formally define Russia's
position with regard to the international status of the Caspian.
-- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

ARMS TRADE IN THE URALS REGION. The giant Uralvagonzavod tank
factory in Nizhny Tagil plans to sell 260 T-90 tanks to India,
according to the head of the Sverdlovsk regional administration,
Aleksei Strakhov. He told Interfax on 2 November that he would
discuss the sale with the federal government "because several
politicians oppose this contract." The T-90 is Russia's most
modern tank, and has been in limited production at the Nizhny
Tagil plant. The same day the Chilean ambassador to Russia, James
Holgaer, told Strakhov that Chile intended to buy arms in the
Urals. Holgaer was to visit the Uraltransmash plant in
Yekaterinburg, one of Russia's largest artillery factories. He
said Chile was adding two military attache posts to deal with arms
purchases, and these officers would hold talks with Uraltransmash
in 1995. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

                  TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

BOUTROS-GHALI IN EREVAN. Addressing the Armenian parliament on 3
November, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali praised the
country's progress in implementing economic reform, specifically
land privatization, and assured deputies of UN and world community
support in overcoming Armenia's problems. He did not, however,
mention Nagorno-Karabakh, Interfax and Western agencies reported.
Also on 3 November, Azerbaijan Deputy Foreign Minister Araz Azimov
told Interfax that the Azerbaijan leadership was encouraged by
Boutros-Ghali's insistence that the Karabakh issue be resolved on
the basis of territorial integrity and the inviolability of state
borders, and by his proposal that the UN coordinate the various
existing mediation efforts. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

GEORGIA, IMF AT ODDS. IMF officials have expressed concern at the
Georgian government's failure to implement IMF and World Bank
recommendations, specifically the liberalizing of bread prices and
the 30 percent reduction of the state apparatus, on which the
release of an estimated $100 million are contingent, Interfax
reported on 3 November. A joint Georgian and IMF program for
reducing inflation in Georgia, which at 61.9 percent is the
highest of any CIS member, was published on 31 October; it also
encompasses a stricter credit policy and the removal by March
1995, of all existing restrictions on the sale and purchase of
land. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

                               CIS

UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS ON SECURITY GUARANTEES. On 2 November
Deputy Foreign Minister Borys Tarasyu led a Ukrainian delegation
to Moscow to meet with Russian counterparts Igor Ivanovsky and
Gregorii Mamedov to discuss security guarantees for Ukraine from
nuclear powers, Ukrainian radio reported. The Ukrainians want a
comprehensive document drawn up that would guarantee its security
and which would be signed by all nuclear states. Ukraine has
already held talks on its security with representatives from the
US and France. So far Ukraine has not been satisfied with the
assurances it has received and this has been a stumbling block in
the country's joining the Non-Proliferation Treaty as a
non-nuclear state. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

KUCHMA IN TURKMENISTAN. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma was
scheduled to visit Turkmenistan on 3 November, Ukrainian radio
reported. He is to meet with Turkmen President Saparmuad Niyazov
during the visit. Their talks will focus on Ukraine's gas debt to
Turkmenistan, which Ukrainian radio says stands at over $800
million. ITAR-TASS reported that the debt stood at $1.08 billion.
Turkmenistan cut gas deliveries to Ukraine in February because of
Kiev's arrears. Kuchma is reportedly hoping to come to an
agreement and have Turkmenistan defer Ukraine's debt. -- Ustina
Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIA PROMOTING CUSTOMS UNION WITH CERTAIN CIS STATES. Russia's
Minister for External Economic Relations, Oleg Davydov, told
ITAR-TASS on 3 November that Russia and Belarus are prepared to
sign an agreement to create a customs union using "internal, not
world market prices in commercial operations." The customs union
would also involve "joint control" by Russia and Belarus of their
borders with Ukraine, Poland, and Latvia, Davydov said. (An
agreement on "joint control," which would in practice result in
Russian control of Belarus' borders, was recently initialled by
the two countries' border troop commanders.) Davydov said Russia
has asked Ukraine and Kazakhstan to join such a customs union but
the two countries have "thus far declined" because it would
involve "a single legislation, full renunciation of national
regulatory authority in external trade, handing over powers to
supranational bodies, and the unconditional execution of the
latter's decisions on the entire territory of the parties to the
agreement." -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

KURDS CHALLENGE TURKEY FROM MOSCOW. A "Confederation of Kurds of
the CIS" announced its formation at a news conference on 1
November in Moscow. Claiming to speak for up to one million Kurds
in the former Soviet republics, the organization will "support the
national liberation struggle of the Kurdish people for creating a
Kurdish homeland, an independent Kurdistan." Confederation
chairman Yurii Nabiev indicated to the gathering that Turkey is
the primary target. He added to Interfax that the organization
intended to "maintain close relations with the Kurdistan Workers'
Party (KWP)," which conducts guerrilla operations in Turkey.
Another leader, Sharaf Ashiri, said that the organization's
purposes were to preserve Kurdish identity in the CIS and to
"support our brothers fighting against the Turkish regime,"
Nezavisimaya Gazeta reported on 2 November. The news briefing
capped a three-day Kurdish conference held in a Moscow hall
decorated with posters of KWP's terrorist leader Abdullah Ocalan
and attended by KWP representatives who announced the founding of
a Kurdish university in Moscow, the Neue Zuercher Zeitung reported
on 3 September. An appeal to "support our liberation struggle
against the Turkish authorities" was made to the gathering by
Akhmed Dere, identified by Nezavisimaya Gazeta as a leader of the
National Liberation Front of Kurdistan. An organization by that
name had emerged earlier this year in Moscow, claiming at that
time to pursue equal rights for Kurds within Turkey and to enjoy
good relations with Russian authorities (8 September Daily
Report). At the Russian Foreign Minstry briefing on 1 November,
chief spokesman Grigorii Karasin declined to say whether Moscow
regarded the KWP as terrorist and disclaimed any official
connection with the conference. The event seemed intended to
signal that Moscow might use a Kurdish card against Turkish
interests in the Transcaucasus or within Turkey itself. --
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

KUPRES FALLS TO MUSLIMS AND CROATS. International media reported
on 3 November that Bosnian government and Bosnian Croat (HVO)
troops took the strategically important town of Kupres along the
highway from Split. The Serbs, who have held the once mainly Croat
town since 1992, left their flank toward the Croats almost wide
open while they tried to hold off the Muslims. The victors
captured large quantities of weapons and equipment in what is
clearly their biggest win over the Serbs. It is not clear whether
this marks the beginning of steady Muslim-HVO cooperation, or
whether the HVO became engaged mainly because Kupres is assigned
to the Croats under the latest partition plan. -- Patrick Moore,
RFE/RL, Inc.

KARADZIC LIVID, SILAJDZIC HAPPY WITH TURN OF EVENTS. Tanjug and
Borba on 4 November report that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan
Karadzic has once again threatened a "full state of war," this
time in reaction to the fall of Kupres. He said that his forces
had merely made a tactical withdrawal and called on Serbs to
prepare for the "decisive battle." The New York Times on 2
November quoted Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic on the
latest successes by the Bosnian army. He said: "The Serbs are
fleeing because it's not a picnic anymore. It's not raping. It's
not plunder. It's not taking gold from women. It's not easy. It's
merely a bullet in your forehead." News agencies cited Bosnian
President Alija Izetbegovic as saying that the fall of Kupres
"lights the way toward further liberation of other occupied parts
of our country." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROW OVER BRITISH AND FRENCH CONDUCT IN BOSNIA. International media
have reported in recent days over a growing debate over the role
of Britain and France and their UNPROFOR forces in Bosnia. On 31
October, a Bosnian minister told Oslobodjenje that London and
Paris seek to "freeze the existing situation, to get agreement
from the Serb side for every action they take." He added that
UNPROFOR should go if that was its policy. On 3 November, Reuters
quoted an unnamed Western diplomat in Sarajevo as saying that the
UN mission "has become an instrument of French and British foreign
policy, with Russia playing an important supporting role. France
and Britain are using their troops in Bosnia to control
international diplomatic action, not to oppose the aggressor." On
1 November, the Washington Post quoted the French overall UN
commander as saying that the Bosnian Serbs needed support and
understanding, but Reuters cited US Secretary of Defense William
Perry as countering that he does not think "that understanding is
the appropriate response to aggressive military actions." At
bottom, many observers suspect London, Paris, and Moscow of trying
to bolster their traditional Serb ally against a Croatia and a
Bosnia that some in those three countries see as "serving the
interests" of Washington and Bonn. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

EXPULSIONS TO BEGIN WITH THE FALL OF YUGOSLAV SANCTIONS. As a
result of the resumption of international air traffic to Belgrade,
expulsions of a large number of rump-Yugoslav refugees are
expected to take place soon from various European countries. The
Belgrade government announced, however, that it will admit only
those "citizens of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia who have
valid documents," Rilindja reported on 1 November. Refugees could
therefore profit from Belgrade's policy since they would
theoretically be difficult to deport from the West if they have no
valid rump Yugoslav documents. But the Kosovar Information Center
claimed that the policy "aims at ethnic cleansing" by keeping the
majority of ethnic Albanian refugees from voluntarily returning
Serbia if the Belgrade authorities choose not to issue them the
proper documents. -- Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc.

ALBANIAN JUDGES RESIGN OVER SUNDAY'S REFERENDUM. Reuters reported
on 3 November that three of the nine members of the Constitutional
Court resigned, charging the other six judges with deliberately
delaying hearings on a challenge to the referendum on the new
constitution slated for 6 November. The three said that the other
six had either done something "intentional or committed a grave
act of negligence" by going abroad instead of concentrating on
what the three called "the most important case presented to the
court to date." The referendum is widely expected to pass after
extensive campaigning by President Sali Berisha all around the
country, making appearances almost daily. He denies the new
constitution will give him too much power, but the opposition,
which had tried to block the constitution in parliament, has
turned the question of the constitution into a question of
Berisha. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

GOOD CHINESE-ALBANIAN RELATIONS. The Albanian Defense Minister
Safet Zhulali visited China in late October, Lajmi i Dites
reported on 25 October. During meetings with high Chinese military
officials, both sides expressed the desire to start improving
relations in the military field after their interruption 20 years
ago. The Chinese defense minister evaluated the visit of the
Albanian military delegation "as very important." On his way back
to Tirana, Zhulali visited Pakistan too. A Chinese delegation
headed by the vice president of the Chinese parliament visited
Tirana, Rilindja reported on 27 October. President Berisha told
the Chinese visitor during a meeting of his regret that Enver
Hoxha "destroyed relations with Beijing when China began its
reforms." He expressed his hope that relations between the two
countries would improve " as much as possible and in all fields."
Berisha also expressed the desire for the Chinese president to
visit Albania. Chinese-Albanian relations are improving at a time
when Tirana's relations with its other former ally Moscow remain
formal and cool. -- Louis Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc.

HUNGARIAN DRAFT LAW ON PRIVATIZATION. Hungarian Finance Minister
Laszlo Bekesi told a press conference on 3 November that the
government plans to submit to parliament at the end of next week a
draft law that outlines a strategy for privatization and the
principles governing the sale of state property, MTI reports. He
said that one of the major goals of the draft law is to
substantially reduce the size of state-owned property and to speed
up the sale of property temporarily in state ownership. Under the
draft, the government will decide on the privatization of
strategic firms such as banks, financial institutions, and large
firms while the privatization of medium-sized and small companies
falls under the jurisdiction of the State Privatization and
Property Management Share Company. Bekesi reported that the value
of state property is estimated at 1600 billion forint, and close
to 900 firms are awaiting privatization. He announced that of the
251 firms which are in permanent state ownership the government
plans to keep only 161 and seeks to maintain 100% state ownership
only in 46 firms. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.

CZECH-GERMAN AGREEMENTS SIGNED. During a visit to Bonn on 3
November, Czech Interior Minister Jan Ruml met his German
counterpart Manfred Kanther and signed four bilateral agreements,
including the long-awaited readmission treaty, CTK reports. The
Czech Republic was Germany's only neighbor which had not signed
such a treaty, and Kanther said the Czech border had become the
main route for illegal immigration to Germany, noting that almost
10,000 illegal aliens were caught there between January and
September of this year. Another agreement reached requires Germany
to pay the Czech Republic 60 million DM to help finance increased
border security. The two other agreements concern the marking and
maintenance of the common border and allow citizens to cross the
border for recreational purposes. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

FIRST SESSION OF NEW SLOVAK PARLIAMENT BEGINS . . . On 3 November
the Slovak parliament held its first session since the
parliamentary elections which took place just over one month ago.
Under pressure from President Michal Kovac as well as parties
represented in the current government, parliament chairman and
Movement for a Democratic Slovakia member Ivan Gasparovic agreed
to allow substitutes for cabinet members to participate, although
he again emphasized that such decisions were outside the
president's jurisdiction. In a secret ballot, Gasparovic was
reelected to the post of parliament chairman, receiving 104 votes
in the 150-member parliament. It was agreed that posts for four
vice chairmen would be created, and MDS member Augustin Marian
Huska and Association of Slovak Workers Chairman Jan Luptak won
easily, while voting on the remaining two was postponed after the
other candidates failed to win enough votes. At the end of the
session, the cabinet of Premier Jozef Moravcik resigned but will
remain in office until a new government can be formed. -- Sharon
Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

. . . AS POLITICAL TENSIONS MOUNT. Controversy began during the
opening session when MDS member Olga Keltosova put forward a
proposal that the Mandate and Immunity Committee, which is charged
with verifying deputies' mandates, should have 15 rather than 17
members. The proposal was passed, and 8 committee members were
chosen from the MDS-Peasant Party coalition, 2 each from the
Hungarian coalition and Common Choice, and 1 each from the
Christian Democratic Movement, the Association of Slovak Workers
and the Slovak National Party. The Democratic Union does not have
a single member on the committee. Protesting the fact that the
committee's make-up does not comply with the distribution of
political power in the parliament, members of the CDM, DU and
Hungarian coalition walked out of the parliament. Miroslav Kocnar
of the ASW was elected chairman of the committee, and he later
reported that the validity of the mandates of all deputies and
substitutes had been verified. Even so, committee members from the
MDS initiated the creation of a temporary commission to examine
whether DU deputies had been elected in accordance with law. --
Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

THE MDS BRINGS POLITICAL REVENGE. Immediately following the
opening session of the parliament, a second session began which
lasted late into the night. Deputies from the CDM, Common Choice,
DU and Hungarian parties walked out, calling the program
unconstitutional, and the session continued with 84 deputies.
Unexpected support from the ASW allowed the MDS and SNP to dismiss
Interior Minister Ladislav Pittner and Privatization Minister
Milan Janicina, despite the fact that they had already resigned.
Meanwhile, members of the boards for Slovak Radio and Television
were dismissed and new ones were appointed and members of the
presidium and supervisory board of the National Property Fund were
changed. Direct sale privatization projects passed by the current
cabinet since 6 September were canceled, and amendments to the
privatization law were passed. The chairman and vice chairman of
the Supreme Supervisory Office were recalled, and a new
supervisory commission was approved, designed to oversee the
Slovak Intelligence Service, and placed under the leadership of
MDS deputy Ivan Lexa. Attorney General Vojtech Bacho was also
replaced. Party of the Democratic Left deputy Robert Fico, who
remained in the parliament, called the session "a mockery of
parliamentary democracy." -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

ILIESCU IN THE UK. Romanian President Ion Iliescu began on 2
November a three-day visit to the United Kingdom, Radio Bucharest
announced on the same day. He met premier John Major and Secretary
of Trade and Industry Michael Heseltine. Following the encounter
with Major, presidential spokesman Traian Chebeleu said the main
topics discussed were the help extended by the United Kingdom to
Romania for its "non-discriminatory integration in European and
Euro-Atlantic organizations." and bilateral economic ties. Major
announced state-guaranteed credits extended to Romania would be
doubled. Iliescu also met with a group of young parliamentarians,
with British businessmen and with British Jewish parliamentarians,
who questioned him on the process of rehabilitation of Romania's
wartime dictator Ion Antonescu and on the restitution of
confiscated Jewish property. Addressing the Royal Institute for
International Affairs on 3 November, Iliescu warned against the
danger of a new Iron Curtain falling across Europe if Western
countries failed to help the former Communist countries
economically. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

PRICE LIBERALIZATION IN UKRAINE. Ukraine received $371 million in
credits from the IMF this week and initiated the price
liberalizations agreed to under the IMF approved austerity
program, various agencies reported. Drastic increases were
reported on the cost of transport, rents, utilities, foodstuffs
and other retail goods. On 2 November Ukrainian radio reported
that Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma met with the president's
regional councils to discuss the social-economic situation. The
councils affirmed their support of the price liberalizations as a
necessary measure. On 4 November, however, Interfax reported that
Ukraine's parliament met to discuss the government's economic
policies, including the price liberalization. Parliament had not
been scheduled to meet until next week. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL,
Inc.

DNIESTER SCHOOL CONFLICT. For the second consecutive week, several
hundred parents of Moldovan school children are blockading
railroad and highway approaches to the city of Bendery to protest
the "Dniester republic's" imposition of the Russian alphabet in
place of the Latin one in the few remaining Moldovan school
classes and the conversion of the last Moldovan high school into a
Russian-Moldovan one. Representatives of the Chisinau government
have pleaded with the protesters, thus far in vain, to end the
blockade which damages Moldova economically by impeding trade with
the CIS states to the east. In the cities of Tiraspol and Rabnita,
the last two remaining Moldovan schools continue to defy orders to
abandon the Latin alphabet and are being guarded by pickets of
parents. Lt.-General Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th
Army in Moldova, has visited some of the pickets and promised to
intercede with the "Dniester republic's" leaders, who are his
political adversaries. On Tiraspol TV on 1 November,
representatives of "Dniester" authorities claimed that the General
had threatened to "shoot" them. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

NEW ESTONIAN CABINET. On 4 November Estonian Prime Minister
designate Andres Tarand presented his cabinet to President Lennart
Meri, BNS reports. He will retain all the members of Mart Laar's
previous government except for four new ministers: Kaido Kama
(Internal Affairs), Juri Adams (Justice), Vootele Hansen
(Environment), and Aldo Tamm (Agriculture). Pro Patria will
continue to have the most ministers (four), with the Estonian
National Independence Party having three, and Liberals, Moderates,
and Rightists having two each. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

ECDU SUPPORTS LITHUANIA'S INTEGRATION INTO EU. On 2 November
representatives of the European Christian Democratic Union ended a
three-day visit to Lithuania, Radio Lithuania reports. Spaniard
Jose Etxebarria said that the ECDU would help Lithuania get more
foreign investments to strengthen its market economy and support
its efforts to integrate into the European Union. Bundestag deputy
Kersten Wetzel added that the Baltic States should be allowed to
join NATO as soon as possible. They held talks with the leaders of
the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party which had joined the
ECDU in early 1993. They also had meetings with Seimas Chairman
Ceslovas Jursenas, Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys, opposition
leader Vytautas Landsbergis, Archbishop of Vilnius Audrys Backis,
and Cardinal Vincentas Sladkevicius. The delegation departed for
Latvia that day. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

NORWAY AND LATVIA SIGN PROTOCOL. As part of the process of
bringing up to date and expanding Latvian-Norwegian ties, a
protocol was signed in Riga by Norwegian Ambassador Torbjorn Aalbu
and Maris Riekstins of the Latvian Foreign Ministry on 2 November
annulling four treaties between Latvia and Norway from the 1920s.
For Latvia, the most important aspect of this protocol is Norway's
affirmation of not recognizing the legality of the incorporation
of Latvia into the Soviet Union and that the Republic of Latvia,
created on 4 May, 1991, is the legal continuation of the Republic
of Latvia founded on 18 November, 1918. Norway is the first nation
to sign such a protocol. Ambassador Aalbu, who is to return to
Oslo on 4 November, will transmit an invitation of the Latvian
president to the Norwegian king to visit Latvia, Diena and LETA
reported on 1 and 3 November. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Ustina Markus and Pete Baumgartner)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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