В каждый момент нашей жизни мы должны стараться отыскивать не то, что нас отделяет от других людей, а то, что у нас с ними общего. - Дж. Рескин
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 209, 3 November 1994


Sergei Yushenkov, Chairman of the State Duma Defense Committee,
has called for the resignation of Defense Minister Pavel Grachev,
ITAR-TASS reported 2 November. Yushenkov said Grachev's
resignation should follow the November 2 dismissal of Deputy
Defense Minister Matvei Burlakov, who was fired by President Boris
Yeltsin amid allegations of corruption when he served as commander
of Russian forces in Germany. Yushenkov said Burlakov was only
part of the problem and that Yeltsin's decree dismissing Burlakov
in order "to preserve the honor of the Russian armed forces" could
only be fully realized if Grachev resigned as well.
Lieutenant-General Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th
Army in Moldova, told ITAR-TASS 2 November that he welcomed
Burlakov's dismissal. He said Russia's armed forces need to be
"morally cleansed." -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc.

PIPELINE. Sergei Zhunyev, the chief environmental inspector of the
Komi Republic town of Usinsk, said in a 2 November interview that
oil-field operators refused a request to close down a nearby oil
pipeline after it began leaking in late August. The interview,
published by the Cox Newspaper Group (U.S.), said that Usinsk
acting Mayor Anatoly Zinoviev made an appeal at a meeting with the
managers of about eight oil companies to close the leaking
pipeline down. Zhunyev, who was also at the meeting, heard the
managers refuse to shut off the pipeline because of the potential
financial loss it would inflict. The oilmen explained that to shut
down oil wells in arctic conditions means that hardened oil could
clog equipment and leave the well useless. Zhunyev said that the
companies decided instead to slow the flow of oil while building
another pipeline to bypass the leaking section. The same report
quotes Yevgeny Leskin, Director-General of one of the oil
companies involved, as confirming Zhunyev's report. Meanwhile,
Western agencies and ITAR-TASS reported that the governor of the
U.S. state of Alaska, Walter Hickel, arrived in Usinsk on 2
November to see if his state could offer help in the cleanup of
the massive oil spill. -- Pete Baumgartner, RFE/RL, Inc.

KOZYREV IN DAMASCUS. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev,
after meetings with Syrian President Hafez Assad in Damascus on 2
November, said that Russia's presence in the Middle East was
necessary to provide a balance and a counterweight to the
US-supported peace process in the area, Reuters reported. Kozyrev
also said that as far as he was concerned, there was little doubt
about Syria's genuine commitment to backing a regional peace.
Syrian Foreign Minister Faruq Al-Shara said he openly welcomed
Russia "reactivating" its role in the Middle East peace process
and remarked that a strengthening of Russian-Syrian relations
would facilitate the peace process. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL,

to give a one-time grant to WWII veterans living in Latvia,
Estonia, and Georgia, according to Russian Vice Premier Yuri
Yarov. Yarov chaired a meeting of the committee planning for the
50th anniversay of the ending of WWII. According to Interfax of 31
October, Yeltsin approved the committee's proposal for the grant.
The report said that some 63,000 people would benefit, and they
could expect to receive a one-time allowance of from two to eight
times the minimum wage, as well as higher pensions and allowances.
The CIS heads of states must still approve the proposal. -- Doug
Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

DUDAEV ON ELECTIONS. In a statement quoted by Interfax on 1
November, Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev took issue with a
proposal made by the emergency Congress of the Chechen People on
29 October that new elections should be postponed until the armed
opposition has been neutralized and Russia's "aggression" halted.
Dudaev advocated holding both presidential and parliamentary
elections within the terms specified by the country's
constitution. Presidential elections are due on 27 October, 1995,
and parliamentary elections in 1996. Also on 1 November, Interfax
quoted Chechen intelligence spokesmen as claiming that two members
of the opposition Provisional Council had been arrested in Grozny
and would be charged with the attempted overthrow of the
constitutional system. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

DISGRACE. An emergency congress of the Central Muslim Religious
Directorate of Russia and the European CIS states in Ufa has voted
to dismiss its chairman, Talgat Tajuddin, and to strip him of his
status as mufti, Interfax reported on 1 November. Tajuddin was
accused of immorality and corruption, specifically the
embezzlement of large sums of hard currency donated by Saudi
Arabia for the construction of mosques. Tajuddin and ten other
Russian muftis have sent an appeal to Russian President Boris
Yeltsin asking for his support. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

Kolesnikov, the chief of the Russian general staff, is in Cuba
where he is said to be discussing the retention of a military
monitoring station. According to Interfax on 1 November, the
Cubans are asking for as much as $1 billion for the lease of the
facility. In November 1992 the two countries signed an agreement
allowing Russia to operate the ex-Soviet electronic
intelligence-collecting facility at Lourdes, near Havana--the
largest such facility outside the USSR. Over 2,000 intelligence
specialists are believed to man the site. It was designed to
monitor US military, commercial, and government communications,
although the Russians have tried to picture it as a link in their
ballistic-missile warning system. In the 1992 deal, the Russians
agreed to supply Cuba with military spare parts, but now the
Cubans need hard currency. Russia recently announced it would no
longer supply oil to Cuba as the island lacked the sugar to pay
for the fuel deliveries. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.


BOUTROS-GHALI ON ABKHAZ REFUGEES . . . Following talks on 2
November with Georgian Prime Minister Otar Patsatsia, UN
Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali stated that further
progress on the gradual repatriation of Georgian refugees to their
homes in Abkhazia would depend on progress in the upcoming round
of UN-sponsored talks on a political settlement of the Abkhaz
crisis, ITAR-TASS reported. According to Interfax, Boutros-Ghali
said that the UN Security Council resolutions on Abkhazia furnish
the political and legal infrastructure for resolving the conflict
on the basis of the principles of sovereignty, territorial
integrity and the inviolability of national frontiers, and that he
is considering convening a conference in December between
Georgian, Abkhaz and Russian representatives. Georgian opposition
spokesman Nodar Natadze was quoted by Interfax as dismissing
Boutros-Ghali's statements as evidence that "the UN is incapable
of exerting any practical influence on the settlement of the
conflict." Meanwhile, Interfax on 2 November quoted Abkhaz
parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba, who last year claimed that
Abkhazia had financed the cost of its war with Georgia entirely on
the proceeds of selling tea on the world market, receiving no
financial assistance from Russia, as telling Pravda that the
repatriation of the refugees is "practically impossible" without
substantial economic aid. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

. . . AND IN EREVAN. On 2 November Boutros-Ghali flew from Tbilisi
to Erevan where he met with Armenian Foreign Minister Vahan
Papazyan and President Levon Ter-Petrossyan, Russian agencies and
Reuters reported. Speaking to journalists afterwards,
Boutros-Ghali emphasized the importance of prolonging the existing
ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh and avoiding any further military
action. He also said that Ter-Petrossyan was in agreement that the
conflict should be resolved on the basis of the four UN Security
Council resolutions that require inter alia a withdrawal of ethnic
Armenian forces from occupied Azerbaijani territory. -- Liz
Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

Islam Karimov has issued a decree, published in Tashkent on 2
November, pardoning five opposition activists, according to
Interfax and a correspondent for Radio Liberty's Uzbek Service.
The five are Polatjan Akhunov, former chairman of the banned
political movement Birlik, sentenced in 1992 on fabricated charges
of hooliganism; Nasir Zakir, also a Birlik activist; and three
members of the Erk opposition party. Interfax quoted local
political observers as speculating that the pardon was intended to
increase the chances of a win by Karimov's Popular Democratic
Party of Uzbekistan in the parliamentary elections scheduled for
25 December. The trial of six further Erk members on charges of
anti-government activities, including treason, is, however,
continuing. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.


RUSSIA, TURKEY, AZERBAIJAN AND OIL. Azerbaijani President Heidar
Aliev, on a private visit to Ankara on 1 November for the 70th
birthday of President Suleyman Demirel, held talks with his host
on increasing the Turkish input into a solution of the Karabakh
conflict and on the construction of an oil pipeline for the export
of Azerbaijan's oil through eastern Turkey to the Mediterranean,
Interfax reported on 2 November. Also on 2 November, Interfax
quoted Natik Aliev, the head of the State Oil Company of
Azerbaijan, as having informed the Petroleum Information Agency
that the multi-billion dollar contract with a Western consortium
on exploiting Azerbaijan's Caspian oil will be ratified "by the
end of the year." (The contract was signed by Aliev and consortium
representatives on 20 September and was scheduled to be ratified
by the Azerbaijani parliament within one week; Parliament Chairman
Rasul Guliev told ITAR-TASS on 12 October that the ratification
discussion in parliament would last at least one month.) Meeting
on 31 October with a delegation from the Turkish Ministry of
Energy and Natural Resources, Russian Fuel and Energy Minister
Yuri Shafranik discussed the prospects for Russian-Turkish
cooperation in major pipeline projects including the Caspian
pipeline from Kazakhstan's Tengiz gas and oil fields to
Novorossiisk, Interfax reported on 2 November. Shafranik claimed
that the decision to export Kazakh oil via Novorossiisk "has
virtually been taken," since this route is the most attractive for
Russia on economic grounds. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

Petersburg (2 November Daily Report), the CIS Interparliamentary
Assembly created two groups to deal with the Abkhaz and Dniester
conflicts. The groups will be headed by Vadim Gustov, Chairman of
the Russian Federation Council's CIS Affairs Commitee, and
Valerian Viktorov, Deputy Chairman of the Russian Federation
Council, respectively. The assembly had earlier formed such a
group for the Karabakh conflict. The groups appear designed to
maximize Russian political influence on the monitoring mechanisms
and eventual resolution of those conflicts, at a time of growing
Western efforts to check Russian unilateralism in dealing with the
states of the former Soviet Union. While reaffirming the demand
for a UN endorsement of Russian "peacekeeping" operations in CIS
states, the assembly's resolution said that such operations may be
carried out upon decisions by the council of the heads of member
states. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

states are advancing toward a sort of Community, be it of a union
or some other type," Leonid Drachevski, Director of the Russian
Foreign Ministry's CIS Affairs Department, told a meeting of
staffers of Russian ministries involved in relations with CIS
member states. While "not yet" ready for the Eurasian Union
proposed by Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev, the CIS
member states are increasingly willing to join integrating
mechanisms, said Drachevski, but cautioning "haste is out of place
here." Meanwhile in Minsk, Russian Federation Council Chairman
Vladimir Shumeiko said that the CIS had provided "the only
possibility of saving the Soviet Union from complete breakup."
Calling for stepped-up legislative integration among CIS states,
Shumeiko also advised against a "too hasty formation of
supranational management bodies." Interfax reported the remarks of
both officials on 1 November. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

CROATS JOIN BOSNIAN ARMY OFFENSIVE. International media reported
on 2 November that Bosnian Croat forces have joined their mainly
Muslim allies in an attack against Serb-held Kupres. The central
Bosnian town had a large Croat population before the Serbs
launched "ethnic cleansing" in 1992, and it links Split with the
Bosnian interior. The Croats have brought up tanks and multiple
rocket launchers, and CNN said on 3 November that the Serbs' big
guns were proving ineffective against the government attack from
the north and the Croats in the south. The Washington Post added
that the reason for the government's latest successes is its
adoption of "commando and guerrilla techniques." This involves
using small groups to hit the Serbs quickly along an extended
front under circumstances that give maximum advantage to Muslim
manpower and minimize Serb strengths in artillery. Meanwhile,
other fighting was reported around Bihac in the northwest, Brcko
in the north, and Trnovo south of Sarajevo, which controls a
mountain supply route to the besieged enclave of Gorazde. --
Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

SERBIA UPDATE. On 1 November Tanjug reported that Serbian
President Milosevic met with Russian President Boris Yeltsin's new
envoy to the former Yugoslavia, Aleksandr Zotov and Russia's new
representative to the five-member contact group, Aleksei
Nikiforov. The war in Bosnia was discussed, as well as Russian
efforts to lift sanctions against the rump Yugoslavia. Meanwhile,
Tanjug also reported that Serbia's Patriarch Pavle issued a call
for an end to all hostilities in former Yugoslavia, stressing that
only negotiations could lead to a settlement. Finally, on 31
October rump Yugoslavia's national bank governor, Dragoslav
Avramovic, made his own remarks about the international sanctions
against the rump Yugoslavia, noting that their lifting could have
the negative effect of putting Belgrade in the position of having
to begin repaying its foreign debts. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL,

reports on 3 November, Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak intends to
telephone his Russian counterpart, Victor Chernomyrdin, to resolve
differences between the two countries that caused the cancellation
of Chernomyrdin's visit to Poland. Russia said that Poland must
make a formal apology for the 23 October incident during which
Russian tourists were mistreated by the Polish police and provide
compensation for the victims before Moscow would agree to
reschedule the visit. Poland said that it would conduct a thorough
investigation of the incident and its response would depend on the
findings of the investigation (the media report that investigation
is already in progress). Polish media speculate that the real
motive behind the Russian decision to cancel the visit was not the
incident itself, but disagreements within the Russian political
and economic establishments over economic problems, including the
financial and organizational problems related to the construction
of a gas pipeline across Poland to Germany. In addition, both
Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita on 3 November speculate that
the publicity surrounding the incident might reflect internal
political maneuvers in Moscow, both within the government and
between the government and the parliament. -- Jan de Weydenthal,
RFE/RL, Inc.

Rzeczpospolita of 3 November, President Lech Walesa plans to
invite all living Nobel Peace Prize winners in January 1995 to
commemorate the 50th anniversary of the liberation of the former
Auschwitz concentration camp. The invitation is also to be
extended to Yasser Arafat, who, together with Israel's Prime
Minister Yitzak Rabin and Foreign Minister Simon Perez, was the
recipient of this year's prize. Rzeczpospolita reports that
Walesa's plans have already prompted protests in Israel as well as
profound disapproval among several Jewish public organizations. --
Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.

reports that on 2 November Czech police arrested Jaroslav Linzer,
the head of the Czech Republic's Center for Coupon Privatization
and the head of the Securities Registry, for accepting a bribe of
more than 8 million koruny ($276,000). A spokesman for the
Ministry of Internal Affairs refused to disclose the name of the
company that bribed Linzer and other details. Prime Minister
Vaclav Klaus said that the affair is "very unpleasant" but that it
does not shed bad light on voucher privatization as such. Klaus
further said he hoped the affair will be thoroughly investigated
and promptly solved, so that the charges against Linzer be either
confirmed or dismissed. The prime minister claimed that the
members of the government were not aware of "Linzer's behavior"
and his arrest surprised them. Most opposition parties have said
that they have long suspected that the privatization process was
riddled with corruption. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Defense
denied reports on 2 November that the ministries' officials had
held talks with Iranian representatives on selling Russian
military equipment that is no longer needed by the Czech Army to
Iran. The spokesmen were reacting to an article published on 2
November in the Russian daily Izvestiya which claimed that Czech
and Iranian officials held secret talks on such sales in Prague at
the end of September. The newspaper claimed that Iranians, whose
delegation was reportedly led by General Narachijan of the Iranian
Ministry of Defense, were interested in MiG-29 fighter planes and
spare parts for T-72, T-62, and T-55 tanks. According to
Izvestiya, Iran promised to repay its debt of $300 million to the
Czech Republic should a contract on military supplies be
concluded. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

Czech parliament passed a bill to compensate victims of Nazi
Germany's occupation of the Czech Lands during World War II. CTK
reports that victims who are still alive will obtain 2,300 koruny
for every month spent in detention, while relatives of those who
have died will be eligible for a one-time payment of 100,000
koruny. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

SLOVAKIA TO APPLY IN 1995 FOR EU MEMBERSHIP. Attending the meeting
of EU foreign ministers in Luxembourg, Slovak Foreign Minister
Eduard Kukan said on 31 October that Slovakia will apply for EU
membership in the second half of 1995. He also said he was
convinced that Slovakia's association agreement with the EU will
be ratified by the end of 1994; four countries (Belgium, Greece,
Italy and Luxembourg) still have to ratify the agreement, but if
they do not do so before January, Slovakia will also require the
ratification of the four new members. Returning to Bratislava on 1
November, Kukan assured TASR that Slovakia has not fallen into the
second group of post-communist countries in line for EU
membership. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

presidential aid Milan Zemko announced that President Michal Kovac
invited substitutes to attend the parliament's opening session on
3 November in the place of current government members, but
parliament chairman Ivan Gasparovic responded on 2 November by
saying that the issue lies in his hands and is not under
presidential jurisdiction. On 2 November, the leaders of political
parties represented in the parliament met with Gasparovic, but no
solution was reached. According to Slovak law, the parliament
chairman has 15 days to call in replacements; however, it is
unclear whether these 15 days begin on the day the parliament
opens. Although the current cabinet will resign following the
parliament's opening session, it is obliged to continue its
function until a new government is appointed. In terms of top
parliament posts, Gasparovic, nominated by the Movement for a
Democratic Slovakia, is the only candidate for parliament
chairman, while nominees for the position of vice chairman include
Lubomir Fogas of the Common Choice, Jan Luptak of the Association
of the Slovak Workers, Ivan Simko of the Christian Democratic
Movement, Laszlo Nagy of the Hungarian Coalition and Augustin
Marian Huska of the MDS. It is still unclear how many vice
chairmen will be elected. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIA SAYS SOVIET TREATY INVALID. A spokeswoman for the Romanian
Foreign Ministry said on 2 November that Bucharest has told Moscow
that the 1970 treaty concluded with the Soviet Union was invalid
and no longer relevant for Romania's relations with Russia or any
other successor state, Rompres and Radio Bucharest reported on the
same day. Simona Miculescu said that in a note given to the
Russian embassy in Bucharest it was also stated that the question
of the validity or extension of the 1970 treaty would not be
considered in any way. The note repeated Romania's willingness to
sign a basic treaty with Russia in accordance with the new
political conditions in the two countries and Europe. The ministry
said it did not want to use the termination procedure of the 1970
treaty, calling for twelve months notice, because this would have
meant accepting the validity of the treaty until 6 November 1995,
which was not the case. The move follows a demand by the
opposition Democratic Convention of Romania that Bucharest
terminate the treaty by 6 November to avoid its automatic
extension for five more years. The DCR said non-termination could
delay efforts to obtain some redress for the loss of Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina, which are now part of Moldova and Ukraine.
-- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

police said on 2 November they had sized more than 10 kilograms of
radioactive material smuggled into the country in 1994, and
arrested 21 people involved in the traffic. Lieutenant Colonel
Lucian Fuica, head of the organized crime squad, told Reuters that
those arrested included two Jordanians, a former Red Army officer
from Moldova and two Romanian army officers. Police officials said
the radioactive material came from Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. In
addition police uncovered the theft of some 230 kilograms of
low-grade uranium from Romania's own nuclear plants in 1992 and
had arrested some 30 people, all of whom had since been released.
Fuica said Romania's Penal Code provides only mild jail terms
(from six months to five years) for trafficking in radioactive
material, and argued for stiffer terms. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL,

briefing, Bulgaria's new interior minister, Chavdar Chervenkov,
said that Bulgaria's war against corruption had to start at the
top. Observing that rumors of corruption in the ministry's highest
offices had led to a public disillusionment with the law, he
remarked that "the fight has to start from above--to cut out some
ulcers so people will be convinced that government is working in
the right direction." Chervenkov has promised another reshuffling
of officials in the interior ministry before week's end, and has
also pledged to fight for reform. Among his major objectives is to
reduce the number of weapons owned by citizens by having all
weapons re-registered and those deemed superfluous to be
confiscated by the government. Reuters carried the story. -- Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

reported on 2 November that Russian President Boris Yeltsin's
scheduled visit to Ukraine in the second half of the month is
unlikely to take place. This is the second time Yeltsin's visit
has been postponed, and again, it is attributed to hitches in the
drafting of a Russian-Ukrainian agreement on cooperation which is
to be the basis of their future relations. The newspaper writes
that this gives Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma the opportunity
to discuss Russian-Ukrainian relations with US President Bill
Clinton during his visit to the US at the end of the month. --
Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

deputies in the oblast council of Luhansk passed a resolution
giving the Russian language official status in Luhansk, ITAR-TASS
reported. In the resolution they pointed out that in a referendum
in the oblast in March, 90% of the Luhansk electorate voted in
favor of giving Russian official status. The Ukrainian language
has state status. This differs from official in that it applies to
the entire country, while official status refers only to regions
which are in favor of second language functioning alongside
Ukrainian. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

PRIVATIZATION IN BELARUS. The Belarusian guild of property
specialists has voiced the opinion that privatization of small
enterprises should be transacted exclusively on a cash basis,
Belarusian television reported on 2 November. According to the
guild, if the privatization of small businesses continues to take
place through the privatization cheques which have been issued, it
will take 35 years to complete. The ministry of state assets and
privatization confirmed that the privatization process is
progressing very slowly in the republic. To date less than 4% of
state enterprises have been privatized. In Minsk privatization has
been insignificant; only 2 small shops have been privatized. The
guild finds that one of the biggest obstacles to privatization is
that property which could be privatized is being rented out
instead. Under the country's rental law, any property which is
being leased is immediately excluded from privatization. -- Ustina
Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

Slezevicius, accompanied by Transportation Minister Jonas
Birziskis and Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party Seimas faction
head Gediminas Kirkilas, ended a five-day visit to Scotland and
England, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. On 30 October they
attended the signing by the mayors of Edinburgh and Vilnius of an
agreement on cooperation in architecture and education. On 31
October they held talks with British Aerospace about the possible
purchase or renting of airplanes. On 1 November they visited the
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and other
financial institutions. Slezevicius had a meeting with Prime
Minister John Major which primarily focused on economic questions
and Lithuania's integration into Europe. They also discussed
Lithuania's relations with its neighbors and its rules for
military transit. Trade and Industry Secretary Michael Hazeltine
and Birziskis signed an agreement on road transport. Slezevicius,
as LDLP chairman, also had talks with the British Labor Party's
deputy chairman John Prescott and Socialist International
Secretary General Luis Ayala who told him that the question of the
LDLP joining his organization is already in the program for its
next conference in 1996. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

31 October and 1 November, Latvian and Belarusian government
representatives and businessmen discussed ways to restore
commercial contacts, especially since during the Soviet era the
two republics had good economic relations. Belarus is interested
in selling its farm equipment and buying fodder, grain, mineral
fertilizers and other produce. Furthermore, Belarus is also
interested in using Latvian ports to export its products.
Meanwhile, Latvian Ambassador to Belarus Janis Lovniks visited
President Guntis Ulmanis on 1 November and expressed concern over
the delayed ratification of at least six Latvian-Belarusian
agreements by the Saeima. Lovniks pointed out that the agreements
on frontier crossing and on legal assistance could help tackle
problems of money transfers of individuals, customs issues and
curb crime and illegal migration, BNS reported on 31 October and 1
November. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Ustina Markus and Pete Baumgartner)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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