What you can become, you are already. - Friedrich Hebbel
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 202, 24 October 1994


JUDGES . . . According to Segodnya of 20 October and Rossiiskie
vesti of 21 October, the Federation Council is expected to
approve President Boris Yeltsin's nominees for the Constitutional
Court on 24 October. The nominees are Mikhail Mityukov (deputy
chairman of the State Duma, representing Egor Gaidar's Russia's
Choice faction), Vladimir Tumanov (a Duma deputy from the
progovernment Party of Russian Unity and Concord), Valerii
Savitsky (identified by Rossiiskie vesti as the only Russian
jurist who approved Yeltsin's decree on combating organized
crime, branded "unconstitutional" by other Russian lawyers and
human rights activists), Olga Khokhryakova (a specialist on labor
and social security law from Yeltsin's native city of
Ekaterinburg), Mikhail Krasnov (an adviser to Yeltsin's aide
Yurii Baturin), and St. Petersburg judge Vladimir Yaroslavtsev.
Should the candidates be approved, the Constitutional Court,
which was suspended following Yeltsin's showdown with the
parliament in October 1993, will be able to resume its work. --
Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc.

chamber of the Russian parliament is also expected to approve the
appointment of Aleksei Ilyushenko, Yeltsin's candidate for the
post of prosecutor-general. Yeltsin first asked the Federation
Council to confirm Ilyushenko's appointment earlier in the year,
but to no avail. For the past few months Ilyushenko has served as
acting prosecutor-general, although this goes against the
constitution. On 23 October Russian TV said the Federation
Council's committee on constitutional matters had recommended
that Ilyushenko's appointment be confirmed. -- Julia Wishnevsky,

. According to Russian media, on 21 October the Russian
Prosecutor-General's Office brought charges of libel and
defamation (oskorblenie) against the daily Moskovsky komsomolets
following an appeal by Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. Staff of
the newspaper have accused Grachev and his deputy, Matvei
Burlakov, of involvement in the assassination of Dmitrii
Kholodov, who had exposed corruption in the military. The
immediate reason for Grachev's request was the publication in the
daily on 20 October of documents pertaining to a criminal case
brought against the general by the military prosecutor a few
years ago. Grachev had been accused of appropriating for his own
use two large Mercedes bought with money allocated by the German
government for housing army officers leaving Germany; the case
was closed when Grachev said Yeltsin had given his consent to the
arrangement. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc.

of the State Duma opened with a statement by Nikolai Stolyarov
calling on Grachev to report to the legislature on the moral
state of the Russian military or resign. (Stolyarov is a
prominent moderate reformer, who served as a deputy USSR defense
minister and later as deputy to the liberal KGB reformer Vadim
Bakatin.) Stolyarov also said that the article published in
Moskovsky komsomolets on 20 October was an insult to all who had
ever served in the Russian army. On 23 October Russian TV said
the defense minister had agreed to give a report to the Duma
later this month. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc.

chief of military intelligence (GRU), said that neither he nor
his agency had any connection with the murder of Kholodov,
Russian television reported on 21 October. According to Lodygin,
reports in Moskovsky komsomolets that the 16th "spetsnaz" brigade
of the GRU was training "paid killers from the criminal
underworld" at its base in Chuchkovo were groundless. The GRU,
Lodygin said, is a foreign intelligence service and does not
operate in Russia or any other CIS country except Tajikistan. He
added that the armed forces respected the work of Kholodov. (In
fact, shortly before his death Kholodov had been awarded a medal
by the Border Troops.) Lodygin went on to say, however, that the
accusations made by the chief editor of Moskovsky komsomolets,
Pavel Gusev, were an "insult to the GRU" and that he would bring
charges against him. Meanwhile on 22 October Moskovsky
komsomolets "exposed" documents about a commercial company
founded by Grachev and other senior officers. In fact, this
information had already appeared in the ultranationalist
newspaper Den in 1992. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.

ezhednevnaya gazeta reported on 21 October that Moscow police had
arrested six people in connection with the murder of State Duma
deputy Andrei Aizderdsis, shot outside his house last April; two
other suspects escaped abroad. The murder of Aizderdsis caused an
uproar at the time, and the Duma demanded the resignation of MVD
Minister Viktor Erin. Yeltsin defended Erin, but promised a full
investigation of the case. According to the investigators'
report, Aizderdsis, a banker, was killed by his own bank's
security personnel, when he dismissed them. It failed to mention
that Aizderdsis had ceased his business activities when he was
elected to the Duma. He also owned a publication entitled Who Is
Who that frequently exposed corruption and illegal banking
practices. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.


October Kyrgyzstan held a referendum on the creation of a new
bicameral parliament to replace the existing Supreme Soviet and
on legitimizing constitutional amendments by means of a
referendum, Interfax and Western agencies reported. According to
preliminary results, voter participation was over 86%, of whom
72.9% voted in favor of a new two-chamber parliament, thus paving
the way for new parliamentary elections, scheduled for 24
December. The Legislative Assembly will have 35 deputies elected
from regional constituencies; it will sit permanently and draft
legislation, according to Reuters. The House of Representatives
will have 70 members, each oblast providing a certain number; it
will convene twice yearly. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.

Huseinov, dismissed on 6 October for his alleged complicity in
the failed coup against President Heidar Aliev, issued a
statement on 21 October addressed to the UN and to foreign
embassies in Baku affirming his innocence and accusing Aliev of
mass persecution of his opponents and of appropriating for his
family's use 5% of the income from the oil deal recently signed
with a Western consortium, AFP reported. Also on 21 October the
Turan News Agency claimed that the Russian intelligence service
had that evening spirited Huseinov and former Defense Minister
Rahim Gaziev (who escaped from a maximum security prison in Baku
in late September) out of the Gebele radar base in northern
Azerbaijan where they had been hiding to the Russian Federation.
-- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.


CIS SUMMIT: ECONOMIC DECISIONS. Meeting in Moscow on 21 October,
the heads of the twelve member states of the CIS signed a diluted
version of the Russian-initiated agreement to establish the
Interstate Economic Committee (IEC) as the executive body of the
CIS Economic Union. With a Collegium and permanent staff in
Moscow, the IEC is meant to be the first supranational body of
the CIS and exercise coordinating and managerial powers delegated
by the signatory states. Yeltsin, however, acknowledged at the
concluding news conference that "the question of delegating the
powers has yet to be resolved" (Interfax, 21 October), some of
the states being unwilling to renounce sovereign prerogatives or
yield control over some vital economic infrastructures on their
territories, as Russia had proposed. Proposals to empower the IEC
to impose sanctions for alleged breach of contract failed to pass
owing to opposition from most states. Voting in the IEC is to
reflect each country's share in funding IEC operations, with
Russia accounting for 50% of both funding and votes. But major
decisions on trade and finance will require a majority of 75%,
while decisions on economic matters deemed "strategic," including
customs or monetary unions or a common market, will require
"consensus" (implying a right of veto or nonparticipation by
individual states). Ukraine, Moldova, and several others appended
reservations to the agreement stating that the IEC could not
override national legislation. Yeltsin's offer to task Russia's
Ministry for CIS Economic Relations with performing the functions
of the IEC's multilateral staff, pending the latter's formation,
apparently did not pass. The pro-integration Belarus President
Aleksandr Lukashenko sharply criticized Yeltsin's proposals to
appoint former Belarusian Prime Minister Vyacheslav Kebich IEC
chairman and to locate the IEC headquarters in Moscow instead of
Minsk, the statutory location of CIS institutions. Lukashenko
managed to block the first but not the second proposal. Another
major agreement at the summit, one establishing a payments union
of CIS states facilitating mutual convertibility of currencies,
was adopted by nine of the prime ministers, the exceptions being
those of Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. Ukraine said it
would adhere to the payments union after its national currency
was introduce (which is not expected soon); but Ukraine, Moldova,
and several other states have signaled their intent to retain
full national control over monetary policy. -- Vladimir Socor,

POLITICAL DECISIONS. The meeting approved a draft convention,
initially proposed by Russia but amended since, on protecting the
rights of national minorities. Initial reports suggest that the
document focuses on individual, rather than collective rights and
that it bows to "generally accepted international
standards"--phrasing that should safeguard against unilateral
Russian interpretations in the future. The signatories commit
themselves to observing linguistic, cultural, and religious
rights and supporting educational institutions and media of
minorities. The heads of state also approved unanimously a joint
program to celebrate in May 1995 the 50th anniversary of the
victory over Nazism and honor the war dead and veterans.
Describing the program as "a unifying factor for the CIS,"
Yeltsin evoked "the sacred things that united us in the past" and
that subsumed the member states of the CIS to one "Fatherland"
and one "people"; but other leaderships were guided by different
priorities (mainly domestic political consolidation along ethnic
and generational lines) in agreeing to the program. -- Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL Inc.

MILITARY DECISIONS. The summit's military agenda was less
ambitious than previously announced. By decision of certain heads
of state (not specifically or completely listed in initial
reports) the mandate of the "peacekeeping" forces in Tajikistan
was prolonged to June 1995. According to the same incomplete
reports, the prime ministers of most states initialed a
memorandum on CIS development and a long-term plan for CIS
integration envisaging in the military sphere the formation of a
CIS collective security system and a common military-strategic
space, joint defense of borders and joint "peacekeeping"
operations, the formation of a CIS force for rapid deployment
under international mandate, cooperation in the production of
military hardware, and the standardization of weapons.
Reportedly, Ukraine agreed to participate only within the
framework of its own legislation; Moldova ruled out participation
in any political or military undertakings; and Azerbaijan and
Turkmenistan did not initial the documents. Ukrainian President
Leonid Kuchma and Foreign Minister Gennadii Udovenko announced
that their country would send cease-fire monitors to the
Georgian-Abkhaz theater and would consider a possible role in
keeping with "Ukrainian interests in several zones of such
conflicts." Kiev's decision (which is subject to parliamentary
approval) revises its previous abstention from such a role and
may be welcomed by several parties eager to limit Russia's
virtual monopoly in "peacekeeping" operations in CIS states. --
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.


STANDOFF ON MT. IGMAN. International media report on 24 October
that an impasse continues between UN negotiators and the Bosnian
military. The UN insists that some 500 Bosnian government troops
evacuate the demilitarized zone affecting Mt. Igman, near
Sarajevo. The Bosnian military refuses to do so until the UN
guarantees the safety from Serb artillery attack of a main supply
road to Sarajevo in the area. The UN previously evicted some
government forces from the zone and destroyed their earthworks.
The Serbs, who earlier gave the government troops until 20
October to leave the area, are now apparently awaiting the
outcome of the UN's latest efforts. Meanwhile, RFE/RL's South
Slavic Language Service reported on 23 October that UN
negotiators have had better luck with the Serbs than with the
Muslims and that the Serbs have agreed to unblock routes for
supply convoys, including fuel trucks. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL

October and Serbian dailies the previous day suggested that
Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has prevented a coup by
Bosnian Serb military and police officials loyal to Serbian
President Slobodan Milosevic. Karadzic supporters in the Bosnian
Serb Interior Ministry reported the recent arrest of "an illegal
group which committed several crimes with the goal of crippling
the functioning of state institutions." Ever since the tactical
differences in pursuing greater Serbian goals emerged between
Milosevic and Karadzic this summer, there has been speculation
that Belgrade might use elements in the Bosnian Serb military to
overthrow Karadzic. Attention has centered on Bosnian Serb
commander General Ratko Mladic and on the leadership in Banja
Luka, but the latest purge has apparently affected a variety of
military and police officials, including the security and
intelligence service known as Typhoon. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL

October reports that the opposition Democratic Party of Serbia
(DSS) has issued a statement warning that the rump Yugoslav
economy may be headed for a renewed bout of inflation. The DSS
maintains that there is a real danger of "a new price explosion,
with catastrophic consequences for the economy and citizenry."
Bank Governor Dragoslav Avramovic on 20 October admitted that
rapid economic growth and demands for credits were fueling
inflationary trends. But he remains committed to pursuing
inflation-fighting policies. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc.

WALESA AND PAWLAK IN US. President Lech Walesa and Prime Minister
Waldemar Pawlak on 22 October attended a meeting in Buffalo of
the Polish-American Congress commemorating the organization's
50th anniversary, but they neither met nor talked to each other.
Polish media report that Pawlak may have wanted to use his US
visit to secure the reputation of a well-connected politician
capable of winning US economic and political support for Poland.
They also report that Walesa intended to prevent that from
happening. The president was quoted by Rzeczpospolita on 24
October as saying he--"a fighter against communism"--came to
Buffalo to thank the congress for its support in the struggle
against the communism and that Pawlak--"although not a communist
himself"--was not the best person to do so. Gazeta Wyborcza on 24
October reports that Walesa may have gained the upper hand, at
least in terms of making an immediate impact on the congress's
participants. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL Inc.

Polish minister in charge of foreign trade relations, said at a
press conference on 21 October that Poland and Russia are likely
to agree to waive their respective debts during Russian Prime
Minister Victor Chernomyrdin's forthcoming visit to Warsaw.
Poland owes Russia 4.4 billion transfer rubles and $2 billion
dollars, while Russia is due to repay Poland about 7 billion
transfer rubles and $366 million. The debts date from before 1991
and have hampered trade between the two countries. Their
elimination could open the way for a major expansion of bilateral
trade relations. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL Inc.

CZECHS WORRIED ABOUT CRIME. An opinion poll released by the
Institute for Public Opinion Research on 20 October shows that
98% of the 1,017 respondents thought crime is the most pressing
problem in the country, CTK reports. Ninety-five percent
considered corruption and organized crime serious problems, while
92% saw the environment as a major issue. Only 47% regarded
relations with Slovakia as an important issue and only 38%
considered coexistence with Gypsies as problematic. -- Jiri Pehe,

Democratic Slovakia Chairman Vladimir Meciar on 22 October said a
new cabinet will not be formed before the first session of
parliament, scheduled for 3 November. He added that he favors its
formation only after the current government submits its 1995
budget bill, Reuters reports. Referring to the decision of the
Christian Democratic Movement to end the coalition discussions
and join the opposition, Meciar said he considers it the party's
right. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc.

DIFFERENCES EMERGE WITHIN PDL. Party of the Democratic Left
Deputy Chairman Pavol Kanis, during coalition discussions between
the MDS and Common Choice on 21 October, said it was a historic
mistake that his party's deputies voted to dismiss Meciar's
government in March. In an interview the following day, PDL
Chairman Peter Weiss said the MDS suggested that a committee be
established to investigate the activities of President Michal
Kovac. Weiss said the MDS "cannot assume that the PDL will
monitor the activities of such a committee and participate in the
cabinet at the same time." Meanwhile, PDL member Brigita
Schmoegnerova has said in an interview that she will give up her
parliamentary seat if the PDL forms a coalition with the MDS, Sme
reported on 21 October. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc.

SLOVAKIA'S FIRST REFERENDUM INVALID. Slovakia's first referendum,
which took place on 22 October, was declared invalid owing to a
low turnout. A total of 93.64% of participants replied "yes" and
3.97% "no" to the referendum question "Do you agree that a law
should be passed on proving the sources of money used in
privatization?" But according to official figures, only 773,624
out of 3,874,407 eligible voters, or 19.96% participated. The
constitution states that a referendum is valid only if at least
half of all eligible voters participate and if it is approved by
at least half of all those who vote. The Democratic Union,
Christian Democratic Movement and Hungarian coalition all
questioned the need for such a referendum, arguing that a law was
passed in August dealing with privatization projects. The parties
that demanded the referendum failed to run a media campaign.
Association of Slovak Workers Chairman Jan Luptak, who initiated
the referendum, did not vote because he was attending a
conference outside Slovakia. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc.

EUROPEAN LOANS TO HUNGARY. Hungarian Finance Minister Laszlo
Bekesi and Wolfgang Roth, vice president of the European
Investment Bank, have signed a three-year agreement in Budapest,
MTI reports. The new loan package to Hungary will total some 500
million ecu ($392 million), mostly for the further development of
telecommunications, the energy sector, railroads, and the
Budapest subway. The EIB has already provided Hungary with 400
million ecu over the last three years. Roth, after talks with
Prime Minister Gyula Horn, said a 2-billion ecu loan to Hungary
was also discussed. -- Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL Inc.

COMPOUND. Hungary has protested to the Iranian ambassador in
Budapest the third attack at its Teheran compound, MTI reported
on 21 October. In the latest incident, unknown perpetrators on 19
October robbed, ransacked, and set fire to the Hungarian consul's
apartment. The attacks have seriously disrupted the day-to-day
operations of the embassy, the Foreign Ministry said. -- Karoly
Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL Inc.

LILIC IN BUCHAREST. Zoran Lilic, the president of rump
Yugoslavia, arrived in Bucharest on 21 October for talks with his
Romanian counterpart, Ion Iliescu. At a joint press conference
the next day, Iliescu said Belgrade had taken "bold steps" and
Serb leaders "a great political risk" by severing ties with the
Bosnian Serbs, Radio Bucharest reported. He added that "if the
international community does not show open support now by lifting
the embargo against Belgrade, this may encourage extremist
elements." Lilic said the only way to establish peace quickly in
Bosnia is "to lift sanctions and allow the return of the Yugoslav
Federation to the international fold." He also noted that the two
countries will implement bilateral trade and cooperation
agreements as soon as the UN lifts its embargo against Belgrade.
-- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.

has ordered controls on the prices of six main food items to
combat steadily rising costs, an RFE/RL correspondent reported
from Bucharest on 21 October. The decision requires producers and
retailers to agree on set prices for eggs, milk, sugar, cooking
oil, pork, and chicken. President Ion Iliescu and the ruling
Party of Social Democracy in Romania have publicly blamed
retailers, saying they are making too high profits. Meanwhile,
the European Union on 21 October announced it will grant Romania
25 million ecu, Rompres reported the same day. The funds will be
used to improve Romania's transportation system and especially to
repair rural roads. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.

ROMANIA GROUNDS MiG-21s. The Romanian Air Force has decided to
ground all MiG-21s pending the results of an investigation now
under way. The decision came one week after another MiG-21
crashed. Air Force commander Major General Ion Stan told Romanian
Television on 21 October that the force so far this year has lost
16 planes and helicopters as well as 18 pilots. Nine of the lost
aircraft were MiG-21s. Stan said this was a "tragic record." --
Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.

recent statement by Romanian President Ion Iliescu in which he
referred to Moldovans as Romanians and Moldova as the Romanian
Bessarabia, Moldovan President Mircea Snegur told Interfax and
Moldovan Television that Iliescu's "baseless assertions" may
generate anti-Romanian feelings among Moldovans and that
"Moldova's leadership will bear no responsibility for the
consequences." Under Snegur's chairmanship, Moldova's Supreme
Security Council on 20 October "carefully analyzed ways of
ensuring the state's security in connection with certain
irresponsible statements from outside, posing claims to our
country's territory," Moldova Suverana reported the same day.
Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli told CSCE Secretary-General
Wilhelm Hoynck in Chisinau on 21 October that "recent statements
by Romanian officials, including Iliescu, who rejects the very
notion of an independent Moldovan state and people, cause
bewilderment and concern and do not help the goal of
stabilization and security building in this sensitive area,"
Interfax reported on 21 October. Dumitru Diacov, chairman of the
Moldovan Parliamentary Foreign Relations Commission, told
Interfax the same day that Romania may force Moldova "to turn to
international organizations with the appeal to defend Moldova's
independence" against Romania. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.

Central Bank Governor Todor Valchev, speaking at an international
seminar on privatization in Sofia on 23 October, called for the
country's banking system to be privatized. Valchev said state-run
banks are contributing to economic decay by continuing to lend to
debt-ridden firms. Reuters quoted Valchev as saying that "losses
sustained by a rushed privatization would be far less than losses
sustained by the wild plundering of financial resources." -- Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL Inc.

UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT ON NPT. Leonid Kuchma, during talks with
Irish Prime Minister Albert Reynolds at Ireland's Shannon
airport, said he had submitted a document to the parliament on
Ukraine's joining the Nonproliferation Treaty and hoped this
would speed up the process of approving the treaty, Interfax
reported on 23 October. Kuchma then proceeded to Ottawa for a
five-day visit to Canada. Reuters on 21 October quoted Gloria
Duffy, US deputy assistant secretary of state, as saying the US
hopes that Ukraine approves the NPT agreement before Kuchma
visits Washington in late November. One of the stumbling blocks
to Ukraine's ratifying the treaty has been the demand by some
Ukrainian officials that a separate document guaranteeing
Ukraine's security and borders be drawn up in exchange for its
accession to NPT as a non-nuclear nation. Duffy said the US
believes the NPT agreement already contains sufficient
guarantees. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc.

reported that a Ukrainian commission led by Deputy Prime Minister
Evhen Marchuk arrived in Crimea to discuss an aid package to help
the peninsula deal with the cholera outbreak and water shortage
resulting from the summer drought. The aid package, which also
includes assistance for Crimea's defense industries and banking
structures, is reportedly linked to Ukraine's demand that the
Crimean constitution be brought into line with Ukraine's by 1
November. The proposed package was reportedly agreed on during
recent talks in Kiev between Ukrainian officials, Crimean
parliament speaker Serhii Tsekov, and Crimean Prime Minister
Anatolii Franchuk. -- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc.

President Leonid Kuchma on 22 October signed a decree on the
structure of the Presidential National Security Council,
Ukrinform-TASS reported. The council is to have 16 members,
including President Kuchma, Prime Minister Vitalii Masol, Deputy
Prime Minister Evhen Marchuk, Defense Minister Valerii Shmarov,
and Presidential Adviser on National Security Volodymyr Horbulyn.
-- Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc.

Education Minister Peeter Olesk and Russian Education Minister
Evgenii Tkachenko signed on 21 October in Moscow a bilateral
accord on cooperation in education, BNS reported the next day.
Olesk also had talks at the Russian national press committee,
discussing opportunities for supplying Estonia with Russian
language textbooks and periodicals. With Russian Culture Minister
Evgenii Sidorov, Olesk coordinated a program for cultural events
until 1996 that includes the arrangement of art exhibitions and
book shows in both countries and performances of Estonian
theaters in Russia and vice versa. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL

Allied Forces Northwestern Europe Richard Johns completed a
five-day tour of the Baltic States in Vilnius on 21 October,
Radio Lithuania reports. Johns, who was appointed to his post on
1 August, met with the defense ministers and other military
officials of the three states, primarily to discuss cooperation
through the Partnership for Peace Program. He assured President
Algirdas Brazauskas that NATO would keep supporting Lithuanian
security and noted that the problems of the Kaliningrad region
called for more discussion and cooperation programs. -- Saulius
Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.

Tallinn on 21 October, said "we welcome Estonia into European
institutions," Western agencies reported. Commenting on Russia's
concern over the desire of all three Baltic States to become
full-fledged members of NATO, Hurd said the Baltics are not a
threat to anyone and stressed that NATO would gradually expand.
Asked whether being a NATO member would provide Estonia with
security guarantees in the case of a Russian threat, Hurd pointed
out that Estonia's "independence is not be trampled on by
anybody" and that "the present Russian government has no
nostalgia for the Soviet past." He also said that Britain was
prepared to push forward with the integration of postcommunist
countries into the European Union, despite calls by some EU
members for more attention to be paid to the Mediterranean
countries and North Africa. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Penny Morvant and Jan Cleave)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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