Да не изрекают уста твои слов, которые не обдуманы в сердце. Ибо лучше споткнуться мысленно, чем в разговоре. - Ахикара
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 192, 10 October 1994


experts have concluded that Russia is unfit to join the
organization because of human rights problems, Western agencies
and newspapers reported on 7 and 8 October. (In sharp contrast
with Western media, Russian TV newscasts of the same days made no
mention of the experts verdict. Moreover, on 8 October "Vesti"
broadcast a report on Russia's plans to join the Council of
Europe giving the impression that all prominent West European
politicians favor Russia's entry.) The experts were said to have
noted the appalling state of Russian prisons and police
brutality. They acknowledged the considerable progress made in
Russia in the past few years, citing the introduction of free
elections and adoption of a constitution that provides human
rights guarantees, but added that these improvements have yet to
be implemented. A few days earlier, Russia was refused entry to
another prestigious club of democratic countries--the
International Association of Constitutional Courts. Two reasons
have been cited by the Russian media for the latter decision:
first, the fact that the Russian Constitutional Court has not
functioned since Yeltsin's decree suspending it in October 1993;
and second, the political involvement of judges. -- Julia
Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc.

Russian President's Office announced that Yeltsin had officially
apologized to Irish Prime Minister Albert Reynolds for canceling
a meeting the two were to have had at Shannon Airport the
previous week, Russian TV newscasts and news agencies reported
later that day. On his way back from a visit to the US Yeltsin
was supposed to have attended a state dinner with Reynolds, who
had cut short a visit to Australia and New Zealand to meet the
Russian president. Yeltsin, however, failed to get off the plane,
leaving the Irish premier and his wife, a military band, and
children carrying flowers to wait for about 30 minutes at the
foot of the gangway until the appearance of First Deputy Prime
Minister Oleg Soskovets. It was widely rumored in both the
Western and Russian press that Yeltsin was too drunk to meet
Reynolds. In the letter of apology, Yeltsin begged Reynolds's
forgiveness for the "misunderstanding" and invited him to visit
Russia. Meanwhile, on 8 October Western agencies quoted the
veteran democratic journalist Egor Yakovlev as saying in the
weekly Obshchaya gazeta that when he was chairman of the
Ostankino Radio and TV Company and a member of the Presidential
Council in 1991-1993 he had seen Yeltsin drunk. According to
Yakovlev, Yeltsin's drunkenness had caused Russia grave political
problems on more than one occasion. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL

the controversial leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of
Russia (LDPR), announced in the State Duma on 7 October that his
party would withdraw its signature from the National Accord
Treaty and boycott parliamentary sessions for an unspecified
period. The move was to protest the refusal of regional
authorities to allow a plane carrying 29 LDPR activists to make
an emergency landing at Kemerovo Airport on 2 October.
Zhirinovsky said his party was the victim of "state terrorism,"
claiming that the head of the regional administration, a Yeltsin
appointee, had ordered a petrol tanker onto the runway to stop
the aircraft landing, thus endangering the lives of its 50
passengers. Despite the intervention of State Duma speaker Ivan
Rybkin, other opposition factions--the Communist and Agrarian
parties and the Derzhava and Russian Path groups--also abstained
from voting, to show their solidarity with Zhirinovsky. On 9
October the anchor of Ostankino TV's weekly newscast,
"Voskresenie," opined that the State Duma might be unable to work
normally because of the lack of a quorum, but the lower house did
manage to ratify an economic agreement between CIS member states
later that day. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc.

YAVLINSKY OUTLINES HIS POLICIES. The liberal economist Grigorii
Yavlinsky, widely viewed as a major democratic contender in the
1996 Russian presidential elections, has outlined his differences
with the head of Russian's Democratic Choice party, Egor Gaidar.
In an interview with Literaturnaya gazeta (no. 40), Yavlinsky
denied that democratic politicians were divided by personal
ambitions rather than political disagreements. He said that
Gaidar supported Yeltsin, while he did not; that Gaidar opposed
economic alliances among the newly independent states, while he
supported them; and that Gaidar believed economic reform should
be initiated in Moscow, while he thought it should come from the
regions. In addition, Yavlinsky believes that inflation in Russia
is caused by imbalances in the country's industrial structure and
the lack of private property, while Gaidar emphasizes the need to
balance the state budget. Yavlinsky also pointed out that, unlike
Gaidar, he had opposed Yeltsin's decree dissolving the Russian
parliament and Constitutional Court on 21 September 1993.
Meanwhile, at a congress of Russia's Democratic Choice on 8
October, former Russian Finance Minister Boris Fedorov suggested
that the party announce its opposition to Yeltsin and change its
name, which he said had been "compromised" by Gaidar policies.
Fedorov's ideas were, however, rejected by the overwhelming
majority of participants. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc.

Following week-long Russian-Iranian consultations in Tehran, an
Iranian delegation left for Moscow on 9 October for a meeting of
Caspian states, initiated by Russia as part of a drive to drum up
opposition to Azerbaijan's recent major oil deal with an
international consortium. ITAR-TASS reported from Tehran on 9
October that Iran opposed the deal, "fearing a strengthening of
Western influence in the Caspian region." According to a
commentary on Radio Tehran cited by the Russian agency, "Russia
sees in Iran a natural ally" in resisting Azerbaijan's oil deal
with the mainly Western consortium. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL

Spelling out its position on the oil project in a document
distributed at the UN on 9 October and reported by ITAR-TASS,
Russia claimed that any "unilateral steps" by a Caspian state in
developing marine resources were "unlawful," because they violate
Soviet-Iranian agreements of 1921 and 1940 that in Russia's view
obligate the states bordering the Caspian to joint use of the
sea's resources. The Russian document also denies that today's
Caspian states have territorial waters, arguing that such a
concept is inapplicable to that sea. Contending further that "the
norms of international maritime law do not apply to the Caspian
Sea" and that "its legal regime is determined by the
Soviet-Iranian agreements," the document calls on the states
bordering the Caspan to urgently adopt two new documents,
prepared by Russia and Iran, respectively, updating the prewar
agreements. Russia "reserves to itself the right to take such
measures as needed, at a suitable time, to restore the legal
order and eliminate the consequences of unilateral steps. . . .
All responsibility for possible material damages rests on those
who take the unilateral steps." The implied threat appears
designed to discourage implementation of the Western investment
project in Azerbaijan. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.

nuclear-armed neighbors--Russia and Kazakhstan--protested China's
7 October underground nuclear test. A Russian Foreign Ministry
statement quoted by Interfax charged that it ran "counter to the
latest prospects for nuclear disarmament." The document called on
the Chinese to review their position on nuclear testing and
refrain from further tests. In a statement released by the KazTAG
news agency, the Kazakh Foreign Ministry charged that the Chinese
tests were "undermining the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
regime." It also warned that the tests at Lop-Nor--close to the
border with Kazakhstan--were endangering the region's
environment. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.

OUT. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev indicated that he was
pleased with the air force weapons tested on 7 October at a new
site in the small Caucasian republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. The
commander of the Russian Air Force, Colonel General Pyotr
Deinekin, told Interfax that the testing ground would be used for
tests of civilian as well as military hardware. It was being
financed by the military, the state arms export company
Rosvooruzhenie, and the Russian Meteorological Committee. On 8
October the executive committee of the Kabardian People's
Congress demanded that Russian troops and military equipment be
removed from the republic. According to Interfax, the congress
believed the troops would be committed to action against the
neighboring Chechens. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.

RUSSIA WARNS IRAQ ABOUT KUWAIT. Russia told Iraq that it must not
defy the UN Security Council over Kuwait. A Foreign Ministry
statement quoted by ITAR-TASS on 10 October said the council was
determined Iraq should recognize the sovereignty and independence
of Kuwait and its borders. Russia generally supported the
international coalition that drove Iraq out of Kuwait in 1991,
but did not take part in the conflict. It signed a defense
cooperation agreement with Kuwait in December 1993. Interfax
quoted a Defense Ministry spokesman as saying he was unaware of
any military moves by Russian forces in response to the Iraqi
troop movements near the border with Kuwait. -- Doug Clarke,


AZERBAIJAN COUP AFTERMATH. Meeting on 7 October, Azerbaijani
President Heidar Aliev named as interim prime minister the
53-year-old oil engineer Fuad Guliev, previously first deputy
premier, Western and Russian agencies reported. On the same day,
a night-time curfew was introduced in Baku and a number of senior
Interior Ministry officials were dismissed, according to
Azerbaijani media reports. On 8 October the Azerbaijan People's
Assembly confirmed the dismissal by presidential decree on 7
October of Prosecutor-General Ali Omarov and his deputy. Iranian
Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati, Russian President Yeltsin,
and Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma have reportedly all
expressed their support for Aliev. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.

President Islam Karimov and Tajikstan's head of state, parliament
chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, signed a declaration on strengthening
cooperation between their countries, Interfax reported. Karimov
was quoted as pointing out that Tajikistan needs help not only in
ending the armed conflict between the Tajik government and
opposition but also in containing tension between the country's
regions. The Uzbek leader called for the inclusion of persons
from all regions of Tajikistan in the country's leadership and
offered as a model the personnel practices of the Uzbek
government, which, according to Karimov, does not allow persons
from any one region to dominate. Karimov may have been reacting
to recent criticism inside and outside Tajikistan that the only
two candidates registered for the upcoming presidential election
represent only one region--in the case of Rakhmonov, the region
is Kulyab, in that of his opponent, former Prime Minister
Abdumalik Abdullodzhonov, the region represented is Leninabad.
One region of Tajikistan, Gorno-Badakhshan, has raised doubts
over its participation in the election. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL


reported on 7 October that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic
has insisted on a formal apology from Yasushi Akashi, the chief
UN representative to the former Yugoslavia. Akashi had earlier
endorsed a UNPROFOR report that claimed Bosnian government troops
mutilated some 20 Serb soldiers and medics killed near Sarajevo.
The report proved false, with the BBC stating that the Serbs had
all died in battle and in a manner "normal in war." Izetbegovic
then accused Akashi of "slander" and demanded the apology to
offset the damage his government suffered as a result of the
well-publicized charge. He also accused UN commander General Sir
Michael Rose of threatening the Bosnian government with air
strikes, Reuters said on 9 October. Izetbegovic demanded to know
on what authority Rose had said such things to a UN member
government, which numerous UN resolutions have described as the
victim of aggression. Rose on 8 October told Sarajevo's leading
daily that he had not made such a threat, adding that "it is a
fact that we, as the UN, cannot be impartial, because this is
about a recognized member of the UN that has been attacked and
whose nation has become a victim." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.

SARAJEVO UPDATE. International media reported on 8 October that
French UNPROFOR forces the previous day expelled more than 500
Bosnian government soldiers from the demilitarized zone in the
Mt. Igman area to prevent further clashes between government and
Serb forces there. Serb snipers on 8 October fired on a tram and
other civilian targets in Sarajevo, killing one and wounding 11,
including a group of children. The government forces, in an
apparent act of retaliation, shelled the Serb-held town of Ilijas
to the north, killing two children. The UN on 9 October
nonetheless resumed the airlift to the Bosnian capital, where a
food shortage is imminent. UN officials were also able to
negotiate an agreement between the government and the Serbs on a
joint commission to deal with the demilitarized zone. Finally,
Reuters on 9 October and The New York Times the following day
reported on efforts by Muslim hard-liners to use wartime
conditions to impose their values on what is a secular, European
society. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.

that federal rump Yugoslav Deputy Premier Uros Klikovac has
reiterated that Belgrade will not recognize the authority of an
international tribunal mandated to investigate war atrocities in
the former Yugoslavia. But he also said Belgrade does not rule
out all ties with the international body since it remains in rump
Yugoslavia's interests to see "that those who have committed war
crimes on the territory of the former Yugoslavia pay for their
misdemeanors." The tribunal's chief prosecutor, South African
judge Richard Goldstone, arrived in Belgrade on 7 October for
talks with rump Yugoslav officials. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL

Kolodziejczyk on 7 October met with Prime Minister Waldemar
Pawlak, post-communist leader Aleksander Kwasniewski, and former
Premier Tadeusz Mazowiecki amid rumors that President Lech Walesa
wanted the minister to resign. The Polish media recently reported
that a number of high-ranking officers demanded Kolodziejczyk's
resignation at a meeting with the president during military
maneuvers. The media have also claimed that the officers acted
according to the wishes of the president. Moreover, there has
been speculation that the president wants direct control over the
military by concentrating power in the hands of the General
Staff, whose leaders were appointed by the president and remain
dependent on him. Following the 7 October meeting, Kolodziejczyk
was reported by Rzeczpospolita and Gazeta Wyborcza on 8 October
as having ruled out resigning, thus setting the stage for a
confrontation with the president. Pawlak is due to hold talks
with Walesa on 10 October, while Kolodziejczyk and head of
General Staff Gen. Tadeusz Wilecki are scheduled to meet with the
Sejm's commission on national defense the next day. -- Jan de
Weydenthal, RFE/RL Inc.

Senate on 7 October rejected by a vote of 74 to five with three
abstentions government-sponsored legislation on state secrets
imposing prison terms on those disclosing classified information.
The legislation, which would in effect reintroduce press
censorship, was overwhelmingly approved by the leftist majority
in the Sejm on 15 September. It was subsequently criticized by
various opposition groups, representatives of the media, and
President Lech Walesa, who vowed to veto it. Public criticism may
have prompted the about-face of many left-wing politicians in the
Senate. The bill returns now to the Sejm, where a two-thirds
majority is needed to approve it. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL

CZECH PRIME MINISTER IN CHINA. Vaclav Klaus arrived in Beijing on
7 October for a four-day visit. After his meeting with Chinese
Prime Minister Li Peng and President Jiang Zemin, Klaus said on 8
October that he and the Chinese leaders agreed that differences
of political ideology should not block bilateral relations. Klaus
revealed that the Czech concern Skoda Export has been guaranteed
a major role in the construction of a $400 million electric power
plant in the northern Chinese province of Shaanxi. The premier
also said the Czech Republic and China held different views of
human rights. "I think we discussed those issues in a friendly
way and explained those positions," Klaus noted. -- Jiri Pehe,

HAVEL ON CIVIL SOCIETY. Commenting on his recent visit to the
United States, Czech President Vaclav Havel said on Czech Radio
on 9 October that while there is a lot of confusion in the Czech
Republic over the notion of civil society, a "developed system of
civic self-help" exists in the United States. He commented that
"non-profit organizations and other associations do not want to
compete with the government; they simply fulfill those functions
the government cannot fulfill." Havel went on to say that each US
entrepreneur participates in several non-profit organizations as
a way of taking part in public affairs. "We should not ridicule
[civil society] as non-political politics or fantasy," he added.
Czech President Vaclav Klaus has repeatedly criticized the
concept of civil society, while parliamentary chairman Milan
Uhde, a member of Klaus's party, recently ridiculed Havel for
promoting the notion of non-political politics. -- Jiri Pehe,

COALITION TALKS IN SLOVAKIA. The first round of coalition talks
between the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the
Association of Slovak Workers began on 7 October, TASR reported.
ASW Chairman Jan Luptak said that because of his party's interest
in the advancement and prosperity of Slovakia, the ASW would be
glad to give tacit support to a coalition between the MDS, the
Slovak National Party, the Party of the Democratic Left, and
possibly the Christian Democratic Movement. Also on 7 October,
the MDS held its first round of talks with the Common Choice
coalition (of which the PDL is the largest member). Common Choice
representatives said the negotiations signaled that agreement
could be reached in many areas, and both sides said another
meeting would take place shortly. PDL Chairman Peter Weiss,
however, said his party is against removing President Michal
Kovac and that it supports a stable constitutional system. Common
Choice also began talks with the Hungarian coalition on 7
October. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc.

three-day congress, HSP delegates on 9 October reelected by an
overwhelming majority Prime Minister Gyula Horn as party
chairman, MTI reports. Horn told the delegates that since it was
founded five years ago, the HSP has established itself as an
equal partner of the conservative and liberal parties. Finance
Minister Laszlo Bekesi appealed to the delegates to support the
government's harsh economic measures and stressed there was no
realistic alternative to the government's economic program. The
congress stated in a final communique that conditions for steady
economic growth have to be created before a social democratic
welfare program can be implemented. It regretted that creating
the conditions for such growth entailed economic burdens for the
population and promised special assistance for the needy. --
Edith Oltay, RFE/RL Inc.

monarch, who was forced to leave the country by the Communists in
December 1947, was refused entry at Bucharest's Otopeni airport
on 7 October, Western agencies report. Michael arrived from Paris
on an Air France airliner to attend a conference about events in
August 1944, when Romania ceased supporting Nazi Germany and
joined the allied camp. He and his wife, Ana of Bourbon-Parma,
re-embarked the same airliner one hour later. In a statement
broadcast by Radio Bucharest, the Romanian government described
the former king's visit as "illegal" and "an attempt at forcing
entry into the country." Michael, in turn, called the behavior of
the authorities "scandalous from a moral and historical point of
view." In a message read in his absence at the Bucharest
historians' gathering, he said Romania was still suffering the
legacy of communism. Michael's only visit to post-communist
Romania, in April 1992, drew huge crowds in Bucharest. -- Dan
Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.

ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN MEETING. The second Romanian-Hungarian Civic
Forum, meeting in the Romanian mountain resort of Poiana Brasov
from 7 to 9 October, focused on relations between ethnic
majorities and minorities, Radio Bucharest reports. The gathering
was organized by the Romanian Pro-Democracy association and the
Pecs-based Hungarian-Romanian Friendship Association, with
financial support from the European Union. Addressing the
conference on 8 October, Romanian President Ion Iliescu termed as
"exaggerated" the belief that relations between Romania and
Hungary were tense. He expressed hope that the two countries
would soon sign a bilateral treaty. Participants in the meeting
noted an improvement in Hungarian-Romanian relations under the
recently elected Hungarian government. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL

on 8 October that three crossings on the Ukrainian border have
been closed for fear of cholera and plague. The radio quoted a
communique, published in the daily Graiul Maramuresului, as
saying the posts would stay closed until the situation was
"clarified." A Romanian border official said on 9 October that
the step had been taken at Kiev's request in an effort to stop
the spread of cholera from Ukraine, where hundreds of cholera
cases recently have been registered. Romania has reported dozens
of cases, but none in the northwestern region of Maramures, which
borders Ukraine. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.

RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER IN UKRAINE. Viktor Chernomyrdin arrived in
Kiev on 7 October to take part in ceremonies commemorating the
50th anniversary of Ukraine's liberation from Nazi forces. He
also met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma to discuss
bilateral relations. Chernomyrdin said shortly after his arrival
that a treaty of friendship and cooperation between Ukraine and
Russia could be signed within a month, ITAR-TASS reported.
Reuters on 8 October quoted Kuchma as saying that Ukraine was
encountering difficulties paying off its Soviet-era debts and
that Kiev may soon agree to a deal whereby Russia will assume
Ukraine's debt burden. As part of the commemoration ceremonies, a
controversial military parade took place on 8 October along
Kiev's main street. Members of the Ukrainian Army paraded with
Soviet veterans and nationalists who fought both communism and
fascism during the Second World War. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL

that Anatoly Franchuk has officially taken over as Crimean prime
minister. Franchuk held meetings with top level government
officials to ask them to stay in office until a working
government can be formed. Until Franchuk's appointment by the
parliament, Crimea was without a premier. President Yurii Meshkov
continues to hold the post of president officially but has been
stripped of his powers. Meshkov has described Franchuk's rise to
power as illegal. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc.

UKRAINIAN SCHOOLS IN MOLDOVA. Moldova, the only ex-Soviet
republic where Ukrainians constitute the largest ethnic minority,
has opened more than 70 Ukrainian schools since independence,
Ukrainian Television reports. Until 1991, Moldova's Ukrainians
received only Russian schooling. Graduates of Moldova's Ukrainian
schools may attend institutes of higher education in Ukraine
under an agreement between the two countries. Ethnic Ukrainian
teachers, parents, and students are optimistic about the schools'
future in Moldova, Ukrainian Television reports. -- Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL Inc.

AB--the Swedish co-owner of the Estline company, whose ferry
"Estonia" sank on 28 September, killing more than 900 people--has
decided to pull out completely from passenger ferry service, BNS
reported on 7 October. It will end its ties with the
Stockholm-Tallinn passenger ferry immediately and will not renew
its contract, due to expire in 1997, to run a passenger ferry
from mainland Sweden to the island of Gotland. The other Estline
partner, Estonian Shipping Co., plans to put a replacement ferry
into service between Stockholm and Tallinn in November and is
seeking another partner. The "Estonia" was insured for $60
million in Sweden. The Estonian government on 6 October dissolved
its investigation commission on the ferry disaster and appointed
an Estonian cooperation commission to work within the
International Board of Inquiry. It will be headed by
Transportation and Communications Minister Andi Meister. --
Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.

of Russian-speakers' organizations--including the
Russian-Speakers' Assembly, the Estonian Chernobyl Victims
Committee, the Estonian-Russian Chamber of Businessmen, and the
Russian Democratic Movement of Estonia--met in Tallinn on 8
October to form Estonia's United People's Party, Interfax
reported. The convention adopted a party program and statutes and
elected a ruling board. Alexei Semyonov, one of the organizers of
the convention and a leader of the Russian-Speakers' Assembly,
said the new party intends to promote the interests of the
republic's non-indigenous population and plans eventually to
exist outside the framework of the "Russian party." UPP Deputy
Chairman Nikolai Yugantsev said the party will run for parliament
in the March 1995 elections and hopes to win 10 of the 101
parliamentary mandates. The new party expects backing from the
110,000 or so non-indigenous residents who have received Estonian
passports and are eligible to vote in the elections. Yugantsev
observed that the various organizations of Russian-speakers need
to overcome their differences and work for common goals. --
Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.

The Estonian government extended from 5 October to 28 October the
deadline for evaluating the Russian-Estonian agreements on the
troop pull-out and social guarantees for retired Russian
officers, according to Press Secretary Ain Saarna. The decision
was made following a request by the Justice Ministry, which needs
more time to assess the documents before recommending them for
ratification, BNS reported on 7 October. Russian Foreign Ministry
official Sergei Prikhodko expressed regret over the delay and
said the Foreign Ministry has submitted the agreements to the
government so that the president can send them for parliamentary
ratification. Claiming that "everything is perfectly clear" in
legal terms, Prikhodko said "it is astonishing that Estonia still
feels the need for some kind of juridical expertise." -- Dzintra
Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.

Department has announced that the rate of inflation in September
was 2.3 percent, or 0.1 percent above the August level, BNS
reported on 7 October. Transportation and communications costs
rose by 4.1 percent; household bills and fuel and energy by 3.8
percent, and food by 1.8 percent. Inflation in the nine months of
1994 was 31.3 percent, compared with 137.2 percent in the same
period in 1993. The Estonian Statistics Department said the
consumer price index in September increased by 3.2 percent.
Prices for services rose by 5.3 percent and for goods by 1.7
percent (0.8 percent for food and 3.3 percent for manufactured
goods). Compared with September 1993, the prices for goods and
services have risen by 50.9 percent. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL

[As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Penny Morvant and Jan Cleave)
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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