|The only thing one knows about human nature is that it changes. - Oscar Wilde|
No. 192, 10 October 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIA FAILS TO QUALIFY FOR COUNCIL OF EUROPE. Council of Europe experts have concluded that Russia is unfit to join the organization because of human rights problems, Western agencies and newspapers reported on 7 and 8 October. (In sharp contrast with Western media, Russian TV newscasts of the same days made no mention of the experts verdict. Moreover, on 8 October "Vesti" broadcast a report on Russia's plans to join the Council of Europe giving the impression that all prominent West European politicians favor Russia's entry.) The experts were said to have noted the appalling state of Russian prisons and police brutality. They acknowledged the considerable progress made in Russia in the past few years, citing the introduction of free elections and adoption of a constitution that provides human rights guarantees, but added that these improvements have yet to be implemented. A few days earlier, Russia was refused entry to another prestigious club of democratic countries--the International Association of Constitutional Courts. Two reasons have been cited by the Russian media for the latter decision: first, the fact that the Russian Constitutional Court has not functioned since Yeltsin's decree suspending it in October 1993; and second, the political involvement of judges. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN'S DRINKING PROBLEM BECOMES PUBLIC ISSUE. On 7 October the Russian President's Office announced that Yeltsin had officially apologized to Irish Prime Minister Albert Reynolds for canceling a meeting the two were to have had at Shannon Airport the previous week, Russian TV newscasts and news agencies reported later that day. On his way back from a visit to the US Yeltsin was supposed to have attended a state dinner with Reynolds, who had cut short a visit to Australia and New Zealand to meet the Russian president. Yeltsin, however, failed to get off the plane, leaving the Irish premier and his wife, a military band, and children carrying flowers to wait for about 30 minutes at the foot of the gangway until the appearance of First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets. It was widely rumored in both the Western and Russian press that Yeltsin was too drunk to meet Reynolds. In the letter of apology, Yeltsin begged Reynolds's forgiveness for the "misunderstanding" and invited him to visit Russia. Meanwhile, on 8 October Western agencies quoted the veteran democratic journalist Egor Yakovlev as saying in the weekly Obshchaya gazeta that when he was chairman of the Ostankino Radio and TV Company and a member of the Presidential Council in 1991-1993 he had seen Yeltsin drunk. According to Yakovlev, Yeltsin's drunkenness had caused Russia grave political problems on more than one occasion. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. ZHIRINOVSKY INTERRUPTS STATE DUMA SESSION. Vladimir Zhirinovsky, the controversial leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR), announced in the State Duma on 7 October that his party would withdraw its signature from the National Accord Treaty and boycott parliamentary sessions for an unspecified period. The move was to protest the refusal of regional authorities to allow a plane carrying 29 LDPR activists to make an emergency landing at Kemerovo Airport on 2 October. Zhirinovsky said his party was the victim of "state terrorism," claiming that the head of the regional administration, a Yeltsin appointee, had ordered a petrol tanker onto the runway to stop the aircraft landing, thus endangering the lives of its 50 passengers. Despite the intervention of State Duma speaker Ivan Rybkin, other opposition factions--the Communist and Agrarian parties and the Derzhava and Russian Path groups--also abstained from voting, to show their solidarity with Zhirinovsky. On 9 October the anchor of Ostankino TV's weekly newscast, "Voskresenie," opined that the State Duma might be unable to work normally because of the lack of a quorum, but the lower house did manage to ratify an economic agreement between CIS member states later that day. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. YAVLINSKY OUTLINES HIS POLICIES. The liberal economist Grigorii Yavlinsky, widely viewed as a major democratic contender in the 1996 Russian presidential elections, has outlined his differences with the head of Russian's Democratic Choice party, Egor Gaidar. In an interview with Literaturnaya gazeta (no. 40), Yavlinsky denied that democratic politicians were divided by personal ambitions rather than political disagreements. He said that Gaidar supported Yeltsin, while he did not; that Gaidar opposed economic alliances among the newly independent states, while he supported them; and that Gaidar believed economic reform should be initiated in Moscow, while he thought it should come from the regions. In addition, Yavlinsky believes that inflation in Russia is caused by imbalances in the country's industrial structure and the lack of private property, while Gaidar emphasizes the need to balance the state budget. Yavlinsky also pointed out that, unlike Gaidar, he had opposed Yeltsin's decree dissolving the Russian parliament and Constitutional Court on 21 September 1993. Meanwhile, at a congress of Russia's Democratic Choice on 8 October, former Russian Finance Minister Boris Fedorov suggested that the party announce its opposition to Yeltsin and change its name, which he said had been "compromised" by Gaidar policies. Fedorov's ideas were, however, rejected by the overwhelming majority of participants. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA, IRAN JOINTLY OPPOSE WESTERN INFLUENCE IN CASPIAN REGION. Following week-long Russian-Iranian consultations in Tehran, an Iranian delegation left for Moscow on 9 October for a meeting of Caspian states, initiated by Russia as part of a drive to drum up opposition to Azerbaijan's recent major oil deal with an international consortium. ITAR-TASS reported from Tehran on 9 October that Iran opposed the deal, "fearing a strengthening of Western influence in the Caspian region." According to a commentary on Radio Tehran cited by the Russian agency, "Russia sees in Iran a natural ally" in resisting Azerbaijan's oil deal with the mainly Western consortium. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA CLAIMS ENFORCEMENT ROLE, HINTS AT COUNTERMEASURES. Spelling out its position on the oil project in a document distributed at the UN on 9 October and reported by ITAR-TASS, Russia claimed that any "unilateral steps" by a Caspian state in developing marine resources were "unlawful," because they violate Soviet-Iranian agreements of 1921 and 1940 that in Russia's view obligate the states bordering the Caspian to joint use of the sea's resources. The Russian document also denies that today's Caspian states have territorial waters, arguing that such a concept is inapplicable to that sea. Contending further that "the norms of international maritime law do not apply to the Caspian Sea" and that "its legal regime is determined by the Soviet-Iranian agreements," the document calls on the states bordering the Caspan to urgently adopt two new documents, prepared by Russia and Iran, respectively, updating the prewar agreements. Russia "reserves to itself the right to take such measures as needed, at a suitable time, to restore the legal order and eliminate the consequences of unilateral steps. . . . All responsibility for possible material damages rests on those who take the unilateral steps." The implied threat appears designed to discourage implementation of the Western investment project in Azerbaijan. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA, KAZAKHSTAN PROTEST CHINA'S NUCLEAR TEST. Two of China's nuclear-armed neighbors--Russia and Kazakhstan--protested China's 7 October underground nuclear test. A Russian Foreign Ministry statement quoted by Interfax charged that it ran "counter to the latest prospects for nuclear disarmament." The document called on the Chinese to review their position on nuclear testing and refrain from further tests. In a statement released by the KazTAG news agency, the Kazakh Foreign Ministry charged that the Chinese tests were "undermining the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty regime." It also warned that the tests at Lop-Nor--close to the border with Kazakhstan--were endangering the region's environment. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. GRACHEV PLEASED WITH WEAPONS TEST, BUT KABARDIANS WANT RUSSIANS OUT. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev indicated that he was pleased with the air force weapons tested on 7 October at a new site in the small Caucasian republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. The commander of the Russian Air Force, Colonel General Pyotr Deinekin, told Interfax that the testing ground would be used for tests of civilian as well as military hardware. It was being financed by the military, the state arms export company Rosvooruzhenie, and the Russian Meteorological Committee. On 8 October the executive committee of the Kabardian People's Congress demanded that Russian troops and military equipment be removed from the republic. According to Interfax, the congress believed the troops would be committed to action against the neighboring Chechens. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA WARNS IRAQ ABOUT KUWAIT. Russia told Iraq that it must not defy the UN Security Council over Kuwait. A Foreign Ministry statement quoted by ITAR-TASS on 10 October said the council was determined Iraq should recognize the sovereignty and independence of Kuwait and its borders. Russia generally supported the international coalition that drove Iraq out of Kuwait in 1991, but did not take part in the conflict. It signed a defense cooperation agreement with Kuwait in December 1993. Interfax quoted a Defense Ministry spokesman as saying he was unaware of any military moves by Russian forces in response to the Iraqi troop movements near the border with Kuwait. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN COUP AFTERMATH. Meeting on 7 October, Azerbaijani President Heidar Aliev named as interim prime minister the 53-year-old oil engineer Fuad Guliev, previously first deputy premier, Western and Russian agencies reported. On the same day, a night-time curfew was introduced in Baku and a number of senior Interior Ministry officials were dismissed, according to Azerbaijani media reports. On 8 October the Azerbaijan People's Assembly confirmed the dismissal by presidential decree on 7 October of Prosecutor-General Ali Omarov and his deputy. Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati, Russian President Yeltsin, and Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma have reportedly all expressed their support for Aliev. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. TAJIK-UZBEK DECLARATION ON COOPERATION SIGNED. On 8 October Uzbek President Islam Karimov and Tajikstan's head of state, parliament chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, signed a declaration on strengthening cooperation between their countries, Interfax reported. Karimov was quoted as pointing out that Tajikistan needs help not only in ending the armed conflict between the Tajik government and opposition but also in containing tension between the country's regions. The Uzbek leader called for the inclusion of persons from all regions of Tajikistan in the country's leadership and offered as a model the personnel practices of the Uzbek government, which, according to Karimov, does not allow persons from any one region to dominate. Karimov may have been reacting to recent criticism inside and outside Tajikistan that the only two candidates registered for the upcoming presidential election represent only one region--in the case of Rakhmonov, the region is Kulyab, in that of his opponent, former Prime Minister Abdumalik Abdullodzhonov, the region represented is Leninabad. One region of Tajikistan, Gorno-Badakhshan, has raised doubts over its participation in the election. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IZETBEGOVIC DEMANDS APOLOGY FROM AKASHI. International media reported on 7 October that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic has insisted on a formal apology from Yasushi Akashi, the chief UN representative to the former Yugoslavia. Akashi had earlier endorsed a UNPROFOR report that claimed Bosnian government troops mutilated some 20 Serb soldiers and medics killed near Sarajevo. The report proved false, with the BBC stating that the Serbs had all died in battle and in a manner "normal in war." Izetbegovic then accused Akashi of "slander" and demanded the apology to offset the damage his government suffered as a result of the well-publicized charge. He also accused UN commander General Sir Michael Rose of threatening the Bosnian government with air strikes, Reuters said on 9 October. Izetbegovic demanded to know on what authority Rose had said such things to a UN member government, which numerous UN resolutions have described as the victim of aggression. Rose on 8 October told Sarajevo's leading daily that he had not made such a threat, adding that "it is a fact that we, as the UN, cannot be impartial, because this is about a recognized member of the UN that has been attacked and whose nation has become a victim." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. SARAJEVO UPDATE. International media reported on 8 October that French UNPROFOR forces the previous day expelled more than 500 Bosnian government soldiers from the demilitarized zone in the Mt. Igman area to prevent further clashes between government and Serb forces there. Serb snipers on 8 October fired on a tram and other civilian targets in Sarajevo, killing one and wounding 11, including a group of children. The government forces, in an apparent act of retaliation, shelled the Serb-held town of Ilijas to the north, killing two children. The UN on 9 October nonetheless resumed the airlift to the Bosnian capital, where a food shortage is imminent. UN officials were also able to negotiate an agreement between the government and the Serbs on a joint commission to deal with the demilitarized zone. Finally, Reuters on 9 October and The New York Times the following day reported on efforts by Muslim hard-liners to use wartime conditions to impose their values on what is a secular, European society. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. BELGRADE REJECTS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. AFP reported on 9 October that federal rump Yugoslav Deputy Premier Uros Klikovac has reiterated that Belgrade will not recognize the authority of an international tribunal mandated to investigate war atrocities in the former Yugoslavia. But he also said Belgrade does not rule out all ties with the international body since it remains in rump Yugoslavia's interests to see "that those who have committed war crimes on the territory of the former Yugoslavia pay for their misdemeanors." The tribunal's chief prosecutor, South African judge Richard Goldstone, arrived in Belgrade on 7 October for talks with rump Yugoslav officials. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. CONFLICT WITHIN THE POLISH MILITARY. Minister of Defense Piotr Kolodziejczyk on 7 October met with Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak, post-communist leader Aleksander Kwasniewski, and former Premier Tadeusz Mazowiecki amid rumors that President Lech Walesa wanted the minister to resign. The Polish media recently reported that a number of high-ranking officers demanded Kolodziejczyk's resignation at a meeting with the president during military maneuvers. The media have also claimed that the officers acted according to the wishes of the president. Moreover, there has been speculation that the president wants direct control over the military by concentrating power in the hands of the General Staff, whose leaders were appointed by the president and remain dependent on him. Following the 7 October meeting, Kolodziejczyk was reported by Rzeczpospolita and Gazeta Wyborcza on 8 October as having ruled out resigning, thus setting the stage for a confrontation with the president. Pawlak is due to hold talks with Walesa on 10 October, while Kolodziejczyk and head of General Staff Gen. Tadeusz Wilecki are scheduled to meet with the Sejm's commission on national defense the next day. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL Inc. POLISH SENATE REJECTS STATE SECRETS LAW. The leftist-dominated Senate on 7 October rejected by a vote of 74 to five with three abstentions government-sponsored legislation on state secrets imposing prison terms on those disclosing classified information. The legislation, which would in effect reintroduce press censorship, was overwhelmingly approved by the leftist majority in the Sejm on 15 September. It was subsequently criticized by various opposition groups, representatives of the media, and President Lech Walesa, who vowed to veto it. Public criticism may have prompted the about-face of many left-wing politicians in the Senate. The bill returns now to the Sejm, where a two-thirds majority is needed to approve it. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL Inc. CZECH PRIME MINISTER IN CHINA. Vaclav Klaus arrived in Beijing on 7 October for a four-day visit. After his meeting with Chinese Prime Minister Li Peng and President Jiang Zemin, Klaus said on 8 October that he and the Chinese leaders agreed that differences of political ideology should not block bilateral relations. Klaus revealed that the Czech concern Skoda Export has been guaranteed a major role in the construction of a $400 million electric power plant in the northern Chinese province of Shaanxi. The premier also said the Czech Republic and China held different views of human rights. "I think we discussed those issues in a friendly way and explained those positions," Klaus noted. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. HAVEL ON CIVIL SOCIETY. Commenting on his recent visit to the United States, Czech President Vaclav Havel said on Czech Radio on 9 October that while there is a lot of confusion in the Czech Republic over the notion of civil society, a "developed system of civic self-help" exists in the United States. He commented that "non-profit organizations and other associations do not want to compete with the government; they simply fulfill those functions the government cannot fulfill." Havel went on to say that each US entrepreneur participates in several non-profit organizations as a way of taking part in public affairs. "We should not ridicule [civil society] as non-political politics or fantasy," he added. Czech President Vaclav Klaus has repeatedly criticized the concept of civil society, while parliamentary chairman Milan Uhde, a member of Klaus's party, recently ridiculed Havel for promoting the notion of non-political politics. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. COALITION TALKS IN SLOVAKIA. The first round of coalition talks between the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Association of Slovak Workers began on 7 October, TASR reported. ASW Chairman Jan Luptak said that because of his party's interest in the advancement and prosperity of Slovakia, the ASW would be glad to give tacit support to a coalition between the MDS, the Slovak National Party, the Party of the Democratic Left, and possibly the Christian Democratic Movement. Also on 7 October, the MDS held its first round of talks with the Common Choice coalition (of which the PDL is the largest member). Common Choice representatives said the negotiations signaled that agreement could be reached in many areas, and both sides said another meeting would take place shortly. PDL Chairman Peter Weiss, however, said his party is against removing President Michal Kovac and that it supports a stable constitutional system. Common Choice also began talks with the Hungarian coalition on 7 October. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc. HUNGARIAN SOCIALIST PARTY HOLDS CONGRESS. At the end of their three-day congress, HSP delegates on 9 October reelected by an overwhelming majority Prime Minister Gyula Horn as party chairman, MTI reports. Horn told the delegates that since it was founded five years ago, the HSP has established itself as an equal partner of the conservative and liberal parties. Finance Minister Laszlo Bekesi appealed to the delegates to support the government's harsh economic measures and stressed there was no realistic alternative to the government's economic program. The congress stated in a final communique that conditions for steady economic growth have to be created before a social democratic welfare program can be implemented. It regretted that creating the conditions for such growth entailed economic burdens for the population and promised special assistance for the needy. -- Edith Oltay, RFE/RL Inc. EX-KING MICHAEL BARRED FROM VISITING ROMANIA. The former Romanian monarch, who was forced to leave the country by the Communists in December 1947, was refused entry at Bucharest's Otopeni airport on 7 October, Western agencies report. Michael arrived from Paris on an Air France airliner to attend a conference about events in August 1944, when Romania ceased supporting Nazi Germany and joined the allied camp. He and his wife, Ana of Bourbon-Parma, re-embarked the same airliner one hour later. In a statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest, the Romanian government described the former king's visit as "illegal" and "an attempt at forcing entry into the country." Michael, in turn, called the behavior of the authorities "scandalous from a moral and historical point of view." In a message read in his absence at the Bucharest historians' gathering, he said Romania was still suffering the legacy of communism. Michael's only visit to post-communist Romania, in April 1992, drew huge crowds in Bucharest. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN MEETING. The second Romanian-Hungarian Civic Forum, meeting in the Romanian mountain resort of Poiana Brasov from 7 to 9 October, focused on relations between ethnic majorities and minorities, Radio Bucharest reports. The gathering was organized by the Romanian Pro-Democracy association and the Pecs-based Hungarian-Romanian Friendship Association, with financial support from the European Union. Addressing the conference on 8 October, Romanian President Ion Iliescu termed as "exaggerated" the belief that relations between Romania and Hungary were tense. He expressed hope that the two countries would soon sign a bilateral treaty. Participants in the meeting noted an improvement in Hungarian-Romanian relations under the recently elected Hungarian government. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIA CLOSES BORDER POSTS TO UKRAINE. Radio Bucharest reported on 8 October that three crossings on the Ukrainian border have been closed for fear of cholera and plague. The radio quoted a communique, published in the daily Graiul Maramuresului, as saying the posts would stay closed until the situation was "clarified." A Romanian border official said on 9 October that the step had been taken at Kiev's request in an effort to stop the spread of cholera from Ukraine, where hundreds of cholera cases recently have been registered. Romania has reported dozens of cases, but none in the northwestern region of Maramures, which borders Ukraine. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER IN UKRAINE. Viktor Chernomyrdin arrived in Kiev on 7 October to take part in ceremonies commemorating the 50th anniversary of Ukraine's liberation from Nazi forces. He also met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma to discuss bilateral relations. Chernomyrdin said shortly after his arrival that a treaty of friendship and cooperation between Ukraine and Russia could be signed within a month, ITAR-TASS reported. Reuters on 8 October quoted Kuchma as saying that Ukraine was encountering difficulties paying off its Soviet-era debts and that Kiev may soon agree to a deal whereby Russia will assume Ukraine's debt burden. As part of the commemoration ceremonies, a controversial military parade took place on 8 October along Kiev's main street. Members of the Ukrainian Army paraded with Soviet veterans and nationalists who fought both communism and fascism during the Second World War. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. FRANCHUK ASSUMES PREMIERSHIP. ITAR-TASS reported on 7 October that Anatoly Franchuk has officially taken over as Crimean prime minister. Franchuk held meetings with top level government officials to ask them to stay in office until a working government can be formed. Until Franchuk's appointment by the parliament, Crimea was without a premier. President Yurii Meshkov continues to hold the post of president officially but has been stripped of his powers. Meshkov has described Franchuk's rise to power as illegal. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. UKRAINIAN SCHOOLS IN MOLDOVA. Moldova, the only ex-Soviet republic where Ukrainians constitute the largest ethnic minority, has opened more than 70 Ukrainian schools since independence, Ukrainian Television reports. Until 1991, Moldova's Ukrainians received only Russian schooling. Graduates of Moldova's Ukrainian schools may attend institutes of higher education in Ukraine under an agreement between the two countries. Ethnic Ukrainian teachers, parents, and students are optimistic about the schools' future in Moldova, Ukrainian Television reports. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. AFTERMATH OF ESTONIAN FERRY DISASTER. Nordstrom and Thulin AB--the Swedish co-owner of the Estline company, whose ferry "Estonia" sank on 28 September, killing more than 900 people--has decided to pull out completely from passenger ferry service, BNS reported on 7 October. It will end its ties with the Stockholm-Tallinn passenger ferry immediately and will not renew its contract, due to expire in 1997, to run a passenger ferry from mainland Sweden to the island of Gotland. The other Estline partner, Estonian Shipping Co., plans to put a replacement ferry into service between Stockholm and Tallinn in November and is seeking another partner. The "Estonia" was insured for $60 million in Sweden. The Estonian government on 6 October dissolved its investigation commission on the ferry disaster and appointed an Estonian cooperation commission to work within the International Board of Inquiry. It will be headed by Transportation and Communications Minister Andi Meister. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIAN SPEAKERS IN ESTONIA FORM POLITICAL PARTY. Representatives of Russian-speakers' organizations--including the Russian-Speakers' Assembly, the Estonian Chernobyl Victims Committee, the Estonian-Russian Chamber of Businessmen, and the Russian Democratic Movement of Estonia--met in Tallinn on 8 October to form Estonia's United People's Party, Interfax reported. The convention adopted a party program and statutes and elected a ruling board. Alexei Semyonov, one of the organizers of the convention and a leader of the Russian-Speakers' Assembly, said the new party intends to promote the interests of the republic's non-indigenous population and plans eventually to exist outside the framework of the "Russian party." UPP Deputy Chairman Nikolai Yugantsev said the party will run for parliament in the March 1995 elections and hopes to win 10 of the 101 parliamentary mandates. The new party expects backing from the 110,000 or so non-indigenous residents who have received Estonian passports and are eligible to vote in the elections. Yugantsev observed that the various organizations of Russian-speakers need to overcome their differences and work for common goals. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. ESTONIAN GOVERNMENT CONTINUES TO EVALUATE ACCORDS WITH RUSSIA. The Estonian government extended from 5 October to 28 October the deadline for evaluating the Russian-Estonian agreements on the troop pull-out and social guarantees for retired Russian officers, according to Press Secretary Ain Saarna. The decision was made following a request by the Justice Ministry, which needs more time to assess the documents before recommending them for ratification, BNS reported on 7 October. Russian Foreign Ministry official Sergei Prikhodko expressed regret over the delay and said the Foreign Ministry has submitted the agreements to the government so that the president can send them for parliamentary ratification. Claiming that "everything is perfectly clear" in legal terms, Prikhodko said "it is astonishing that Estonia still feels the need for some kind of juridical expertise." -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. INFLATION IN LITHUANIA AND ESTONIA. The Lithuanian Statistics Department has announced that the rate of inflation in September was 2.3 percent, or 0.1 percent above the August level, BNS reported on 7 October. Transportation and communications costs rose by 4.1 percent; household bills and fuel and energy by 3.8 percent, and food by 1.8 percent. Inflation in the nine months of 1994 was 31.3 percent, compared with 137.2 percent in the same period in 1993. The Estonian Statistics Department said the consumer price index in September increased by 3.2 percent. Prices for services rose by 5.3 percent and for goods by 1.7 percent (0.8 percent for food and 3.3 percent for manufactured goods). Compared with September 1993, the prices for goods and services have risen by 50.9 percent. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Penny Morvant and Jan Cleave) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU Inquiries about specific news items should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 Fax: (202) 457-6992 Internet: REEDB@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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