|There is always one moment in childhood when the door opens and lets the future in. - Graham Greene|
No. 189, 5 October 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIAN ASSESSMENTS OF WASHINGTON SUMMIT. Russian commentators from the reformist and liberal camp are generally taking a sanguine view of President Boris Yeltsin's US visit in terms of gaining a greater measure of international acceptance for Russia's "special role" in the former USSR. According to the daily Segodnya, the talks demonstrated that "the sphere of Russia's economic, political, and humanitarian interests extends to the entire post-Soviet space. . . . No one except Russia would take any steps to prevent ethnocratic trends in the Baltic countries. Of all the great powers only Russia, with its vital national interests in the [ex-Soviet] regions--even if it defends those interests in often clumsy and contradictory ways--remains a real presence throughout the entire post-Soviet space" (30 September). Russian TV's "Itogi" program concluded that "Russian peacekeeping met with understanding from the US administration, while the [US] press saw this unambiguously as a division of spheres of influence along 'Georgia-Haiti' lines." The program claimed that the two presidents had agreed that the US role regarding Nagorno-Karabakh would be confined to sending observers and partially financing the peacekeeping operation (2 October). Yeltsin himself told Ostankino and Russian TVs that "we fully agreed about Karabakh that the Americans would send observers only. And they will partially finance [the peacekeeping operation] themselves. And that is all; their involvement ends there; the main share falls to us" (29 September). -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN CLAIMS WORLD DIARCHY WITH US. In the same television interview Yeltsin appeared to fall back on Moscow's traditional perspective of international security as best ensured by a condominium with the US. "We do not acknowledge and I do not acknowledge that the US should, as it were, be the leader and the world's number one. No. Let us tackle things on an equal footing and jointly. . . . We are two great powers and we must consult each other, and then either present [the issue] to the UN or else take action. And we reached agreement on this." -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN ON MINISTERS, ELECTIONS. On 4 October Yeltsin held a news conference marking the first anniversary of his victory over the Russian parliament. Despite an earlier announcement, the event was not broadcast live on TV; a tape of it was shown a few hours later. The most important revelation by Yeltsin, according to the Russian media, was his confirmation of the probable inclusion in the government of some opposition figures, albeit not in the key ministerial posts. At the same time, Yeltsin said that the market reforms would continue, "at least until the next presidential elections, in 1996." He also confirmed the rumors about forthcoming changes in his immediate entourage but insisted that Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin would keep his post. Yeltsin said that the presidential elections would be held on schedule--on 12 June 1996. Asked whether he was willing "to unite the democratic forces" around himself, Yeltsin said "Yes," thus implying that he would run for a second term in office. He refused, however, to pronounce judgment on the question of the parliamentary elections, saying that these were the parliament's business. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. SHUMEIKO PROPOSES NEW STATE IDEOLOGY. Vladimir Shumeiko, speaker of the Council of the Federation, held a widely publicized news conference on 4 October. He said that he was still opposed to holding new parliamentary elections when the term of the current parliament expires in December 1995, and he suggested instead that the term should be extended until strong political parties had emerged in Russia. Shumeiko went on to say that Russia would never agree to a single-power world, led by the United States, adding that a new Russian state ideology was necessary to right the imbalance. He suggested three basic principles of his own that, he said, could serve as fundamentals for such a new Russian philosophy. They were the priority of the spiritual over the material; the priority of a normal income over riches; and--"however paradoxical it may be," in Shumeiko's words--the "prevailing of good over evil." A former factory director, Shumeiko is widely believed to be one of the five most powerful men in Russia. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. BURBULIS: YELTSIN SHOULD NOT SEEK REELECTION. In an interview with Interfax of 4 October, Gennadii Burbulis, a former close associate of Yeltsin who is widely believed to have been the strategist behind the latter's victory in Russia's first presidential elections in 1991, reiterated his earlier statement that Yeltsin should not run for a second term in office. Burbulis told Interfax that he had come to this conclusion after analyzing certain of the president's "weak points" that had become evident in the past few months. According to the news agency, Burbulis declined to specify what these "weak points" were. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. OPPOSITION DOWN CHECHEN GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT. A Chechen government aircraft was shot down on 4 October by opposition forces as it attempted to fly over Nadterechnyi Raion, ITAR-TASS reported. Two crew members were killed. Interfax quoted the head of the Chechen armed forces as stating that Chechnya had the military capability to create an air shield to prevent further such incidents. Izvestiya of 5 October cited several Russian air force and Defense Ministry officials as denying allegations by the Chechen leadership that combat helicopters deployed on the side of the opposition were based in Stavropol and manned by Russian crews. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. MILITARY WANTS 115 TRILLION RUBLES FOR 1995. The Defense Ministry intends to request 115 trillion rubles in the 1995 budget, according to an announcement by State Duma Budget Committee Chairman Mikhail Zadurnov broadcast on 4 October on the military's "Slavyanka" program. The parliament will examine the budget when the session resumes on 5 October. The Finance Ministry had allocated 60.2 trillion rubles to the military in its draft 1995 budget. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. WORK HALTED ON AIRLINERS, BOMBERS. The Gorbunov Aircraft Production Association in Kazan has halted work on Tu-204 airliners and strategic bombers because it does not have the money to buy engines and other components. Interfax reported on 4 October that the general director of the association, Yurii Litvinov, had told the agency that it needed 24 billion rubles to buy the necessary parts and material but had received only 5 billion from the government. Gorbunov was the sole producer of the Tu-160 "Blackjack" and Tu-22M "Backfire" strategic bombers. Production of the Tu-160s was said to have ended this year, but Litvinov said the plant had a "50% reduced government order for strategic bombers"--presumably "Backfires" or a follow-on model. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. BORDER TROOPS TO REMAIN INDEPENDENT. Yeltsin has turned down Defense Minister Pavel Grachev's proposal to incorporate the Border Forces into the regular armed forces, according to an Interfax report on 10 October. The president was said to have issued a statement confirming that the protection of Russia's frontiers was to remain the task of the Federal Border Guard Service, which had a unique role in protecting the political and economic interests of the state as well as fighting organized crime and dealing with illegal immigration. The military had complained that there were some 800,000 people in uniform in various paramilitary organizations but not serving under the Ministry of Defense. Grachev particularly singled out the Border Forces, noting that it was a paradox that they protected the land and sea borders of Russia while his department was responsible for the air and underwater frontiers. While there are various estimates as to the size of the Border Forces, their commander, General Andrei Nikolayev, indicated in a 28 May interview in Komsomolskaya pravda that he would have more than 250,000 men under his command when the current stage of development was completed. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ATTEMPTED COUP IN AZERBAIJAN? The standoff in Baku between government troops and rebel OMON units under Deputy Interior Minister Rovshan Dzhavadov continued on 4 October, Russian and Western agencies reported; a meeting between Dzhavadov and President Heidar Aliev failed to resolve the situation. A session of the parliament to debate the declaration by Aliev of a state of emergency in Baku was twice postponed, but is now expected to convene on 5 October. The opposition Democratic Congress issued a statement blaming the Azerbaijani leadership for aggravating the situation by its "erroneous and negligent" policies, according to Interfax. Twenty people were injured when two grenades exploded in central Baku in the late afternoon. In two live TV addresses, one in the late evening of 4 October and one in the early morning of 5 October, Aliev claimed first that military units, including forces loyal to Prime Minister Suret Huseinov, who had played a leading role in the 1993 coup that culminated in Aliev's return to power, had seized the airport and administrative buildings in Gyandzha; Aliev called on the population to take to the streets to defend Azerbaijan's sovereignty. In the second broadcast, Aliev claimed that the coup in Gyandzha had been thwarted and that Dzhavadov had come to the presidential palace to pledge his loyalty to Aliev. -- Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. TURKMEN DISSIDENT ASSAULTED IN MOSCOW. RL's Turkmen service learned on 4 October that Turkmen dissident Murat Esenov had been so badly beaten by unknown assailants on a Moscow street that he had had to be hospitalized. The information about the attack on Esenov was passed on by the Turkmenistan Fund, a private group headquartered in Moscow. Esenov is the group's director as well as a regular contributor to the RL Turkmen-language program. Esenov's associates linked the attack to a meeting between Turkmen President Saparmurad Niyazov and the heads of Turkmenistan's security agencies, in which the president called on the security agencies to deal more strictly with critics outside the country. -- Zarif Nazar/Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SECURITY COUNCIL PREPARES TO EASE SANCTIONS AGAINST RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. International media report on 5 October that sanctions are expected to be suspended later the same day in the areas of culture, sport, ferry traffic, and air transport. The suspension will apply for 100 days. Borba says a special Aeroflot flight with Russian special envoy Vitaly Churkin on board is due from Moscow on 5 October to mark the reopening of Belgrade airport. A Serbian JAT airlines flight to the Russian capital the following day is already sold out. The New York Times, however, reports that the Clinton administration is studying secret intelligence reports suggesting that Belgrade has not fully lived up to its promise to block military shipments to the Bosnian Serbs. Secretary of Defense William Perry said on 30 September that the Bosnian Serbs are still receiving weapons or other equipment from across the River Drina. News agencies on 4 October reported mixed views from the EU foreign ministers' meeting in Luxembourg, with Germany's Klaus Kinkel saying "we feel that the border could be more effectively sealed." Britain's Douglas Hurd called for "active and imaginative diplomacy," while EU External Affairs Commissioner Hans van den Broek said: "Quite frankly, so far so good." -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. OTHER NEWS FROM AROUND THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. News agencies reported from Bosnia on 4 October that the Serbs continue to block relief convoys bound for Gorazde and that they are demanding payment for the reopening of Sarajevo airport. Croatian newspapers on 5 October devote much space to that country's labor problems, which are a function of the overall bleak economic picture, as described by Handelsblatt on 29 September. President Franjo Tudjman had to intervene personally to settle a recent taxi strike. Macedonia is preoccupied with national elections, which take place on 16 October. A key story in Slovenia continues to be the Alpine republic's delicate relations with Italy, which is blocking Slovenia's progress toward closer ties with the EU. The Serbian dailies on 5 October focus on the economy and the sanctions, but Borba also runs an article on the spread of Satanic cults in Serbia, especially in northern Vojvodina. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. SERBIAN OFFICIALS DEFEND ECONOMIC PROGRAM. Politika reports on 5 October that Serbian Premier Mirko Marjanovic has said once again that the Serbian government is committed to an anti-inflationary policy and stable currency. National Bank Governor Dragoslav Avramovic defended on 4 October rump Yugoslavia's financial and economic policies against charges that the government is attempting to conceal "a leap in inflation" and the truth about a resurgent black market contributing to the currency's devaluation, Reuters reported. Rump Yugoslavia's program of so-called economic recovery was launched by Avramovic on 24 January with the introduction of a new currency--the "super dinar"--which was pegged to the German mark at a time when inflation was running at an estimated 315 million percent. Reuters, however, stresses that Avramovic's plan may be encountering insurmountable difficulties, as a black market does appear to be resurfacing and because a German mark currently buys 1.4 dinar. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. CLOSER TIES BETWEEN EASTERN EUROPE AND THE EU. The European Union foreign ministers on 4 October accepted in principle a plan to bolster ties with East European countries that may join the union by the end of the decade. The plan foresees regular consultative meetings with ministers from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania on such matters as agriculture, foreign affairs, finance, and transportation. It also envisages annual summit meetings of leaders of the union and the six East European countries. The Warsaw daily Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 5 October that the plan was accepted despite misgivings expressed by Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain. These countries were reportedly worried that other states might demand similar contacts. The newspaper said the timetable for the expansion of ties would be decided by a special EU commission. It also asserted that the acceptance of the plan signified a major step toward the East Europeans' eventual membership in the European Union. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL Inc. POLISH GOVERNMENT FAILS TO ACT ON PRIVATIZATION. Meeting in an executive session on 4 October, the Polish government failed to act on the long-awaited mass privatization of industrial enterprises. Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 5 October that there were sharp exchanges and that Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak merely listened. Pawlak promised in a nationwide television address on 2 October that the issue of privatization would be resolved "soon." He has delayed implementing the privatization program for several months, apparently for political and ideological reasons. His party, which represents a predominantly rural electorate, has been opposed to the privatization of industry because it fears that rural interests will be endangered. By stalling on privatization, Pawlak apparently hopes to bolster his popularity. In fact, he has consistently scored high marks in recent opinion polls. But in the meantime, the uncertainty surrounding privatization appears to have had a negative economic impact on Polish industry. -- Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL Inc. CZECH PRIME MINISTER ON ASIAN TOUR. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus began a week-long tour of Asia on 3 October. He is to visit Indonesia, South Korea, and China. Representatives from some 40 Czech companies are accompanying the prime minister. CTK reports that on 4 October Klaus signed a double taxation agreement in Indonesia and called for more bilateral cooperation in the industrial sector. Talking to reporters in Jakarta, Klaus said the Czech republic wants to offer Indonesia technology in the cement and automotive industries and for generating hydroelectric power. Earlier the same day, Klaus met with Indonesian President Suharto. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. MECIAR WANTS SLOVAK PRESIDENT TO RESIGN. At a meeting on 4 October with the chairmen of the seven parties elected to the new parliament, President Michal Kovac was asked to resign by representatives of Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. Meciar refused to attend the talks and has decided to send MDS representatives to all coalition discussions until the final stages. Ivan Lexa and Olga Keltosova, who went in his place, criticized Kovac for calling a meeting rather than immediately naming Meciar, the chairman of the party that won the most votes in the 30 September and 1 October elections, as the new prime minister. Keltosova said the MDS will no longer consult the president on the composition of the new cabinet. When Kovac interrupted Lexa, the two MDS representatives stormed out of the room. According to the constitution, the president is required to appoint a premier after elections and approve a new government, but it does not state that he must choose the chairman of the biggest party. Presidential spokesman Anton Balaz said the leaders of all other parliamentary parties criticized Lexa's behavior. Association of Slovak Workers Chairman Jan Luptak said the president must be respected since he was legally elected. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc. KOVAC ASKS MECIAR TO FORM NEW GOVERNMENT. Following the 4 October meeting, Kovac gave Meciar until 18 October to report on the status of coalition talks. The MDS and its former coalition partner, the Slovak National Party, fell short of a parliamentary majority and need to find support among other parliamentary parties to form a government. It is still unclear whether Meciar will receive this support from the Association of Slovak Workers or possibly from the Common Choice coalition. Another possibility is a broad coalition between the MDS, Common Choice, the Christian Democratic Movement, and the Democratic Union, but such a grouping seems highly unlikely. If Meciar fails to form a government within 30 days, the president can ask someone else to try. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc. SLOVAK CABINET CREATES AGENCY TO FIGHT RACISM. The cabinet of Jozef Moravcik agreed on 4 October to set up a government agency tasked with combating racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism, and intolerance. The move follows a recommendation by the Council of Europe during its October 1993 session. The cabinet also approved measures proposed by the Finance Ministry to limit budget spending in order not to exceed the planned budget deficit of 14 billion koruny, TASR reports. -- Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc. IMF DISSATISFIED WITH HUNGARIAN ECONOMIC RECOVERY. International Monetary Fund officials have told Hungarian Finance Minister Laszlo Bekesi that they are dissatisfied with Hungary's economic recovery. Bekesi was taking part on 4 October in the opening ceremony of the 50th annual meeting of the IMF and World Bank in Madrid, The Wall Street Journal reports Bekesi was told that further belt-tightening was needed to reduce the widening state budget deficit and to control wages and social spending. The IMF expects further devaluation of the forint in 1995 to help offset the growing trade deficit. Bekesi says the IMF will not discuss Hungary's request to reschedule an 18-month standby loan worth $490 million until the budget deficit is brought down from 9 percent to 4-5 percent of GDP. -- Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc. HEAD OF STATE HOLDING COMPANY DISMISSED. Lajos Csepi, head of the Hungarian State Holding Company, and seven other members of the company's board were dismissed by Prime Minister Gyula Horn on 3 October, MTI reports. Horn appointed new board members the next day. The new head of the company will be named later. Csepi and the other heads of the State Holding Company were appointed under the previous administration. Their dismissal is a further sign that Horn intends to replace managers with appointees close to his own party. The State Holding Company has been responsible over the past four years for privatizing public assets. Horn claims that some state-owned enterprises have been sold at below-value prices and that funds have been diverted. An independent investigation under the Horn administration, however, has failed to substantiate these charges. -- Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc. ILIESCU IN STRASBOURG. Addressing the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg on 4 October, President Ion Iliescu reviewed his country's progress toward democratization, a market economy, and integration into European structures and the CSCE. He acknowledged there were still difficulties but said they existed in all areas undergoing rapid transition. Romania's most difficult times were over, he said, and its progress toward democratization and a market economy irreversible. Although some of the questions addressed to Iliescu by the council's members had critical overtones, particularly in connection with the treatment of national minorities, RFE/RL's correspondent in Strasbourg reported that the Romanian president was warmly received. Iliescu also said Romania supported the early admission of Russia and other former communist countries into the Council of Europe. His speech marked the first anniversary of Romania's admission as the council's 32nd member. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc. BRITISH-ROMANIAN MILITARY COOPERATION. Sir Charles Guthrie, chief of the British General Staff, was quoted by Romanian and international media on 4 October as saying his country and Romania are looking toward military cooperation, particularly in peacekeeping. General Guthrie arrived in Romania on 2 October for a three-day visit. After meeting with Romanian Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca, he said Britain and Romania see opportunities for cooperation in training, peacekeeping operations, and equipment procurement. A senior British Defense Ministry official accompanying Guthrie said Britain was ready to help Romania organize its Defense Ministry. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIA GRANTED PREFERENTIAL TRADE STATUS WITH RUSSIA. A spokesman for the Trade Ministry said Russia has included Romania on its list of developing countries, Radio Bucharest reported on 4 October. Romania will thus receive preferential trade status from Russia, and custom duties on most Romanian goods will be reduced by 50 percent. -- Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc. BULGARIAN ARMS EXPORTS HAVE QUADRUPLED. Bulgaria exported arms worth $300 million in the first eight months of this year, compared with $70 million worth in all of 1993. Maj. Gen. Stoyan Andreev, former presidential adviser on national security and armed forces affairs and now a Defense Ministry adviser, was quoted by Reuters on 4 October as saying "there are no limits for Bulgarian arms exports to the arms markets of Africa, Latin America, and Asia." He credited Bulgaria's resurgent arms trade to the restoration of ties with Russia's defense industry. Bulgaria produces many Russian systems under license and is dependent on Russia for a large number of components. -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. PRESIDENT DECREES REFERENDUM ON ALBANIAN CONSTITUTION. President Sali Berisha has issued a decree calling for a referendum on the new Albanian Constitution. Western agencies quote him as saying on 3 October that "according to the draft of the constitution, Albania will be a parliamentary republic." The drafting of the country's first democratic constitution began in March 1992, when the Democrats came to power, and has since been a source of political controversy, with the opposition accusing Berisha of seeking too many powers. The president said in July that he would prefer the constitution to be approved by a Constitutional Assembly, but the opposition, together with some coalition partners, criticized this option. Approval could also be obtained through a two-thirds parliamentary vote, which the ruling Democrats are apparently unable to muster. -- Louis Zanga, RFE/RL Inc. KIEV TO CLOSE CHERNOBYL. French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe, preempting a planned statement by his Ukrainian counterpart, Hennady Udovenko, announced that Kiev has accepted an international plan for the closure of the Chernobyl nuclear plant, AFP reported on 4 October. An accident at the Chernobyl reactor in 1986 caused radiation to spread over much of the European continent. Also on 4 October, Ukrainian parliamentary leader Oleksandr Moroz told reporters in Washington he was confident Ukraine would endorse the nuclear nonproliferation treaty and implement economic reforms. He also stressed that Ukraine would seek greater security guarantees before the treaty was ratified. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. BELARUS OFFERED "PROSPECT" OF PARTNERSHIP ACCORD. European Union foreign ministers, at their meeting in Luxembourg, agreed that Belarus ought to be offered "the prospect" of a partnership and cooperation accord, Reuters reported on 4 October. Similar accords have already been inked with Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. The EU said in a statement issued after the ministers' meeting that its offer of a possible accord with Belarus is intended to acknowledge and encourage that country's economic and political reforms. -- Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. LITHUANIAN-BELARUSIAN RAILWAY AGREEMENT. Deputy Chief of Belarusian Railroads Genadii Pankov said Belarus and Lithuania have agreed as of 1 October to transfer railways located on the territory of one country but subordinated to the rail authorities of the other country. However, they were unable to solve the problem of the Adutiskis station, which is the main stumbling block in settling the border between the two countries. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN AGREEMENT ON MILITARY TRANSIT. At a press conference on 4 October, President Algirdas Brazauskas said an agreement with Russia on military transit through Lithuania should be completed soon. He said it would not be a treaty or an accord on military cooperation but a technical agreement signed by relatively low-ranking officials. A resolution passed by a conference of the Homeland Union on 1 October denounced the military transit agreement as dangerous, commenting that it would drag Lithuania into military cooperation with Russia. Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys, however, noted that the US officials and ten ambassadors he met with in Washington had said signing the agreement would not affect Lithuania's integration into Western political, economic, and defense structures. -- Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. LATVIA AND BRITAIN TO COOPERATE IN DEFENSE AND SECURITY. British Defense Secretary Malcolm Rifkind and Latvian Defense Minister Jan Trapans concluded on 4 October a memorandum-agreement on cooperation and contacts in defense and security, Interfax and BNS reported. The agreement provides for exchange cadet training programs, exchange visits of experts, sharing information, and other measures. Rifkind also met with Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis and Prime Minister Maris Gailis. Rifkind told Gailis that Britain would train Latvian servicemen and teach them English. Over the last 18 months, Latvia has concluded military cooperation agreements with Poland, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ukraine, and Germany. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN ON RELATIONS WITH THE BALTICS. Russian President Boris Yeltsin said at a press conference in Moscow on 4 October that the Russian troop withdrawal from the Baltic States had not been premature. He commented that "if there are certain complications in our relations, they must be resolved without troops. Other countries that do not keep troops on one another's territory manage to settle their disputes somehow. We must learn to live in peace and political accord." Noting that he had discussed the question of Russian military pensioners in the Baltic States with US President Bill Clinton, British Prime Minister John Major, and at the UN, Yeltsin said "all partners must be persuaded that the Baltic countries are wrong on that issue," but he offered no further explanation. He added that the withdrawal of troops would not limit Russia's "political activities" in the Baltic region, Germany, or elsewhere. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. [As of 1200 CET] (Compiled by Jan Cleave and Eileen Downing) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG and will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL DAILY REPORT. Inquiries about specific news items or subscriptions to RFE/RL publications should be directed as follows (please include your full postal address when inquiring about subscriptions): In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2632 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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