|A man seldom thinks with more earnestness of anything than he does of his dinner. - Samuel Johnson|
No. 180, 21 September 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIAN MVD WILL JOIN INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN HAITI. Russia is completely satisfied with the peaceful solution of the Haitian crisis and the prospects for a restoration of democracy there, First Deputy Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov told Russian TV on 20 September. In the second stage of the settlement, when US troops are to be replaced by international peacekeepers with a UN mandate, Russia will send several MVD officers to join the mission, Ivanov said. The chairman of the State Duma foreign affairs committee, Vladimir Lukin, said, however, that he was opposed to the US intervention in Haiti. Although the military regime in Haiti has committed serious violations of human rights, one must not impose one's own standards of democracy on a "foreign civilization," the former Russian ambassador to the US said. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN PREPARES FOR RUSSIAN-US SUMMIT. ITAR-TASS reported on 21 September that President Boris Yeltsin had returned to Moscow from his extended vacation in Sochi. Next week Yeltsin will take part in the opening session of the UN General Assembly and hold a summit meeting with President Bill Clinton on 26-27 September. On his way to the United States, Yeltsin will make a stopover in England for negotiations with British Prime Minister John Major. In his speech to the UN, Yeltsin will present Russian proposals for the system of global security, Yeltsin's national security aide, Yurii Baturin, said. Yeltsin's proposals will concentrate on peacekeeping strategies in conflicts on CIS territory and on the problem of proliferation of nuclear and chemical weapons, Baturin added. -- Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc. KHASBULATOV REQUESTS RUSSIA TO INTERVENE MILITARILY. At a news conference in Moscow on 20 September, Chechen opposition leader Ruslan Khasbulatov argued that Russia should provide the opposition with military aid in order to oust Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev. According to Khasbulatov, there is no popular support for Dudaev's regime in Chechnya and the president is entirely reliant upon force. Khasbulatov claimed that even the Chechen religious leader, the mufti, once Dudaev's strongest supporter, had withdrawn his support, resigning when Dudaev's actions resulted in casualties among his fellow countrymen. Khasbulatov's visit to Moscow comes after the battle in his native village of Tolstoi-Yurt, in which pro-Dudaev forces used tanks and military artillery to suppress the opponents of the republic's drive for independence from Russia. The aim of the visit, Khasbulatov disclosed, was to meet with a number of top Russian leaders. In a report on the news conference, Russian TV commentators pointed out that Khasbulatov has refrained from criticizing Russian leaders throughout his stay in Chechnya. In fact, while in Moscow Khasbulatov expressed his willingness to be reconciled with the Yeltsin team. This statement comes on the eve of the first anniversary of Yeltsin's decree of 21 September 1993 dissolving the Russian parliament, of which Khasbulatov was the speaker. Should Khasbulatov maintain this stance, the position of the Russian opposition to Yeltsin will be weakened in its commemoration of the victims of the events of 4 October 1993, when Yeltsin sent in tanks to fire on the Russian parliament building. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. YAVLINSKY ON ELECTIONS AND PRIVATIZATION IN MOSCOW. Interviewed by Interfax on 20 September, Grigorii Yavlinsky, the leader of the Yabloko parliamentary faction, said that the various democratic factions should back a single candidate in the next presidential elections, scheduled for June 1996. Whether Yavlinsky, believed by many to be the second strongest candidate for the post, had in mind Yeltsin or himself, remains a mystery. On the timing of the elections, Yavlinsky certainly disagrees with most of Yeltsin's team. He told Interfax that he opposes holding the elections for seats in the parliament's lower house, the State Duma, and for the heads of regional and local administrations on the same day as the presidential elections--i.e., on 12 June 1996. The timing of the parliamentary elections, Yavlinsky added, must be in accordance with the constitution--i.e., in December 1995. In another development, Yavlinsky featured in a Russian TV newscast on 20 September as the author of Moscow's privatization program--a politically significant event demonstrating the emergence of an alliance with one of Russia's most influential politicians, Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov. Earlier this year, Luzhkov had opposed the implementation in the Russian capital of laws drawn up by the deputy Russian prime minister in charge of privatization, Anatolii Chubais; Luzhkov won his battle against Chubais, Yeltsin decreeing that Moscow be exempted from the federal privatization program, obligatory in the rest of Russia. -- Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. GRACHEV FINDS RANKS RESTIVE. On a tour of inspection of the Moscow Military District, focusing on units withdrawn from Germany, Central Europe, and the Baltic states, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev found "extreme bitterness" among servicemen over poor accommodation, "the fall in their social status, and chronic impecuniousness," Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 20 September. Many feel humiliated by the "precipitate" withdrawal from Europe and some are in "a strongly revanchist mood" and are allegedly even "prepared to return with tanks to defend their compatriots" in the Baltic states. "When referring to Russia's political and military leaders . . . many officers use non-regulation vocabulary." Grachev ordered divisional commanders to forbid contacts between servicemen and representatives of the political opposition. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. ARMY: EXERCISES NOT CONNECTED WITH CHECHEN TROUBLES. While the exercises in the North Caucasus military district are being held close to the Chechen borders, they are totally divorced from the situation there, an officer of the Defense Ministry's information department told Interfax on 20 September. The current exercises are "command post" exercises, meaning that they involve headquarters' staffs rather than troops in the field. The press officer said that similar exercises would soon be held in other Russian military districts. Speaking on the Defense Ministry's "Radio Slavyanka" program, officers of the North Caucasus were quoted as repeating denials that there was any connection with the Chechen troubles. One said that one of the tasks was "rebuffing a nuclear strike by an imaginary enemy." -- Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. LEBED "MILITARY'S IDOL." According to the same report in Nezavisimaya gazeta, Grachev found that Lt.-General Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, "enjoys universal respect" in the ranks. Lebed, who has challenged Grachev for the position of defense minister and has presidential aspirations, was termed "the military's idol" by Aleksandr Sterligov, the former KGB general who heads the ultranationalist Russian National Assembly, in an interview with Argumenty i fakty (no. 37/14 September). "What's wrong with a military dictator?" Lebed asked during an interview with the Financial Times of 8 September. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIAN ENVOY ON FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES. Outlining to Interfax on 19 September his agenda as Russia's new ambassador to Britain and previewing President Yeltsin's upcoming visit there, Anatolii Adamishin put at the top of his list of priorities "the Russian government's wish for London to understand Russia's foreign policy priorities, such as the organization of the post-Soviet space, the settlement of conflicts on former Soviet borders, and Russian peacekeeping." Adamishin also said Britain and the West in general should abandon their "fear of an inflow of people from Russia" and not erect "a new iron curtain" to stem it. "The difference between the rights of Britons in Russia and of Russians in Britain cannot continue much longer, no country can tolerate such discrimination," he complained. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN OIL DEAL SIGNED. On 20 September Azerbaijan and a consortium of oil companies from the US, Britain, Norway, and Turkey have signed a deal to develop three oil fields on Azerbaijan's Caspian Sea shelf, Russian and Western agencies reported. The Western firms will own the majority share in the project, in which they expect to invest billions of dollars. The Russian oil company Lukoil is to have a 10% share. About 80% of the earnings from the project are to go to Azerbaijan; at the signing ceremony in Baku Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev said his country expects to gain $34 billion from the project over a 30-year period. Transport of the oil out of Azerbaijan has yet to be resolved as there is presently no secure overland pipeline. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA REFUSES TO RECOGNIZE CASPIAN OIL DEAL. Western and Russian sources reported on 20 September that Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin had announced that the ministry would not officially recognize the Caspian shelf development deal signed by Azerbaijan and a consortium of Western oil firms. Karasin asserted that the refusal was motivated by concern over the ecological impact of any development project in the Caspian Sea. He said that international agreements signed in 1921 and 1940 on the use of Caspian Sea resources should be reexamined, but did not say what Russia might do about the Caspian shelf development plan signed that same day. -- Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc. CIS RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE CALLS FOR REINTEGRATION OF CIS. On the eve of President Boris Yeltsin's visit to the United States, the Russian Foreign Intelligence service (SVR) made public an analytical report dealing with the reintegration of Russia and other CIS states, ITAR-TASS reported on 20 September. The report, entitled "Russia-CIS: Does the Western Position Need Correction?" states that at present all the major political forces in Russia and the other countries belonging to the CIS are in favor of a reintegration of the post-Soviet "Eurasian space." Some circles in the West and the Islamic world, however, see this "natural, historical trend" as a manifestation of Russian neo-imperialist ambitions, the document continues. The SVR's report argues that the sovereignty of former Soviet states does not guarantee the implementation of reforms or the democratic character of power in this region of Eurasia. The lack of integration between Russia and the other former Soviet republics also benefits nationalist and "neo-isolationist" forces in Russia and the CIS, the report says. According to Tatyana Samolis, the spokeswoman for SVR Director Evgenii Primakov, the report intends to make clear the Russian position on the eve of the US-Russian summit in Washington next week. -- Victor Yasmann and Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA BALKS AT PLEDGE ON UKRAINE'S INTEGRITY. No date has yet been set for a visit by Yeltsin to Ukraine, because Russia is unwilling to renounce territorial claims on Ukraine in the planned bilateral treaty, a senior Ukrainian diplomat told international media on 20 September. Russia proposes instead to pledge respect for Ukraine's integrity within the framework of the CSCE Final Act; but Kiev considers that document as open to interpretation, the official said (it includes provisions for peaceful, negotiated border revisions). Some prominent Russian politicians, including centrists and liberals, have publicly reserved the right to call for revisions of Russia's borders with Ukraine and other newly independent states. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE THE US, UN, AND NATO CALL FOR TOUGHNESS AGAINST BOSNIAN SERBS. Reuters reported on 21 September that the American delegation to the five-country Contact Group visiting Zagreb had said that "isolating the Bosnian Serb leadership, the only party rejecting the [peace] plan, must be our highest priority." The Americans also urged Belgrade to prove it was sincere in wanting peace by recognizing Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia in their internationally accepted borders. Meanwhile, in Sarajevo the UN threatened the Serbs with air strikes unless they completed the withdrawal of heavy weapons from that city's exclusion zone by midnight local time. Finally, in Brussels NATO appealed on 20 September to UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros Ghali for firmness against Serbian violations of exclusion zones throughout Bosnia. A spokesman said that the credibility of both the UN and NATO were at stake. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. "MYSTERIOUS DEATHS OF KARADZIC SUPPORTERS." Similar sentiments to those of the American delegation were expressed by Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic to news agencies. He said that only toughness toward the Serbs would bring peace, and he urged the lifting of the arms embargo against his government as the way to bring the Serbs to terms. The Serbs, for their part, shelled Mostar in what an EU spokesman said was the heaviest bombardment of Herzegovina's main city for four months. They also continued their blockade of water, power, and gas to Sarajevo. Finally, Die Welt reported from Zagreb on what it called "the mysterious deaths" of supporters of Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic. It noted that recent weeks had seen the deaths under strange circumstances of the director of Pale Television, of the deputy chief of the Bosnian Serb secret police, and in Serbia proper of the security chief of the nationalist Serbian Radical Party. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. SERBIAN RADICAL PARTY LEADERS GET SUSPENDED SENTENCES. International media reported from Belgrade on 19 September that five members of the nationalist Serbian Radical Party had received suspended sentences ranging from four to eight months. These included party leader Vojislav Seselj, an internationally-wanted war criminal and former ally of President Slobodan Milosevic, who had long broken with his one-time patron. The trial was the result of a brawl in the federal parliament in May. -- Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. MACEDONIAN ELECTION CAMPAIGN BEGINS. More than sixty parties have now started their campaigns for the parliamentary and presidential elections that will be held between 16 and 30 October, Rilindja reported on 16 September. The 120 members of parliament will be elected according to a law passed by the Communists before the first multiparty elections in 1990. The present legislature failed to pass a new law in time, because the ethnic Albanian parties boycotted parliament earlier this year and thereby paralyzed its activities and thus the work of the ruling coalition of President Kiro Gligorov. That coalition--made up of Social Democrats, Liberals, and Socialists--will remain in force, while the two ethnic Albanian parties originally part of the coalition are also expected to stay in it. After a split in April, there are now two ethnic Albanian parties called the Party of Democratic Prosperity; but the radical wing that is unwilling to remain in Gligorov's coalition will have to compete in the elections under a different name. The ethnic Macedonian radical-nationalist VMRO-DPMNE has refused to join any coalition; the Democratic Party said it would join anyone. -- Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL Inc. POLISH GOVERNMENT APPROVES TAX PACKAGE. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak's government has approved a legislative package that will increase taxes and raises questions about the viability of Finance Minister Grzegorz Kolodko's "Strategy for Poland" economic program, Polish media reported on 20 September. Contrary to earlier pledges of tax cuts, the tax rates of 21%, 33%, and 45% will not be lowered to 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, although the tax-free quota and tax brackets will be raised by 36.6% to compensate for inflation and there will be more scope for tax relief. Kolodko claimed that the government's recent decision not to peg pensions to cost of living increases but to retain the current system of indexing pensions to wage increases had added some 8 trillion zloty ($360 million) to anticipated budget expenditure in 1995 and that the only way to finance it was by giving up the planned tax cuts. The tax package also includes a highly controversial tax on stock exchange operations. The tax will be levied on all sales of shares, regardless of whether they are sold at a profit or a loss. The new tax has been strongly criticized by Poland's Securities Commission, the privatization ministry, and the Warsaw stock exchange, as well as by opposition leaders as detrimental to Poland's capital market and investment prospects. In an attempt to mitigate public criticism, the government lowered the new tax rate from the proposed 1% to 0.5% and empowered the finance minister to suspend the tax or change its rate if market conditions were right. Excise duties on spirits, tobacco, and fuel were raised. The lower limit of turnover on which value added tax is levied was reduced, in order to gain some 200,000 new VAT payers. The tax package has to be approved by the parliament and the president before it can take effect. -- Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. CZECH CITIZENSHIP LAW CRITICIZED. On 20 September, at a meeting in Warsaw, representatives of the Council of Europe and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) sharply criticized the Czech citizenship law. RFE/RL's correspondent reports that the officials described the law as "discriminatory." CSCE's commissioner for minority problems, Max van der Stoel, said the law had made some 100,000 Gypsies foreigners in their own country. The law, approved in 1993, imposes conditions for citizenship that many Gypsies, mostly migrants from Slovakia prior to the split of Czechoslovakia, cannot meet; most important, it demands that the applicant has no criminal record in the five years prior to applying for Czech citizenship. On 13 September the Czech Constitutional Court rejected a suit by forty-six leftist deputies who demanded that this article, which has come to be known as the "Gypsy clause," be abolished. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. CZECH REPUBLIC INTERESTED IN BELGIAN F-16s. On 19 September Reuters reported a Belgian defense ministry spokesman as saying that the Czech Republic had expressed interest in buying twenty-four second-hand F-16 fighter aircraft from Belgium. The spokesman said the deal would probably be worth between two and three billion Belgian francs ($93 million). Czech defense ministry officials told CTK on 20 September that the ministry was currently deciding between buying F-16s or modernizing its MiG-21s. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. SLOVAK PRESIDENT WORRIED ABOUT POSTELECTION SLOVAKIA. Speaking in Humene, Slovak President Michal Kovac said he was worried about the possibility of "confrontational developments" in Slovakia after the coming elections. Without naming former Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar, Kovac criticized those who "for several months, have been leading a merciless, ruthless campaign" against him. Slovak media report Kovac as saying that he is alarmed by what has been happening in Slovakia and warning that the country's citizens should not be divided by fearing one another but should work together to overcome the legacy of communism. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. EU PERMANENT MISSION TO BE ESTABLISHED IN SLOVAKIA. Guenther Burghardt, the director of external political relations of the European Union's Commission, and Slovak Foreign Minister Eduard Kukan signed an agreement in Bratislava on 16 September under which the EU will establish a permanent mission in Slovakia at the beginning of 1995. Until now, relations with Slovakia were mainly conducted by the EU's mission in Prague. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. SLOVAKIA'S HUNGARIANS WANT SLOVAK GOVERNMENT POSTS. Speaking at a press conference in Bratislava on 20 September, Vojtech Bugar, the chairman of the Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement, and other ethnic Hungarian leaders said that they were ready to accept posts in the next Slovak government, provided that the government was not formed by Vladimir Meciar. Bugar also ruled out cooperation with the Slovak National Party. The ethnic Hungarian parties support the current government of Jozef Moravcik but do not hold any government posts. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. HUNGARIAN FOREIGN TRADE RESULTS. MTI reported on 20 September that, according to the Central Statistical Office, Hungarian exports in the first seven months of 1994 had risen by 12% in volume and 27% in value compared with the same period of last year. The value of exports reached 561.5 billion forint and that of imports 780.6 billion, resulting in a deficit of 219 billion forint (about $2.1 billion). Exports to and imports from the European Union countries rose by 36% and 37%, respectively. -- Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL Inc. ARMENIAN PRESIDENT IN ROMANIA. Levon Ter-Petrosyan paid an official visit to Romania on 19 and 20 September. He was accompanied by a high-ranking delegation, including Foreign Minister Vahan Papazyan and Economy Minister Armen Eghiazaryan. Petrosyan had talks with Romania's President Ion Iliescu and Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu and was received by Patriarch Teoctist, the head of the Romanian Orthodox Church. He also delivered a speech to the parliament on 20 September and met leaders of the Armenian community in Romania. Also on 20 September, Romania and Armenia signed a bilateral friendship and cooperation treaty, as well as a series of bilateral agreements on the economy, science, culture, sports, and the media. Radio Bucharest offered extensive coverage to the visit, the first ever by an Armenian head of state to Romania. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. FORMER COMMUNIST BOSSES RELEASED IN ROMANIA. Reuters reported on 20 September that the last two former communist officials jailed in connection with the December 1989 events had been freed on parole the same day. The two, former Deputy Prime Minister Ion Dinca and Ludovic Fazekas, a top official in the defunct Romanian Communist Party, spent almost five years in prison on charges related to the killing of demonstrators in the 1989 revolt. No appeals against the court's decision to release the two have been filed so far. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIA HOSTS RUSSIAN-INITIATED INDUSTRIALISTS' CONGRESS. The International Congress of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, launched in 1992 by Arkadii Volsky's Russian military-industrial lobby and headed by him since, opened a plenary meeting in Bucharest on 20 September with speeches by Volsky and Romanian President Ion Iliescu, carried live by Radio Bucharest. Attending are delegations from most countries of the former Council for Mutual Economic Cooperation bloc and most former Soviet republics--twenty-two countries in all. The organization generally urges fiscal and tariff policies and government investment to sustain state industry in the former communist states, their integration into a common market sheltered from international competition, and autarchic policies within that extended area using the old specialization in production; and it disputes the recommendations of Western financial organizations on economic reforms. -- Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIAN AIRPORT WORKERS END STRIKE. On 20 September workers at several Romanian airports ended a strike after winning concessions from the government. The announcement came in a statement released by the Federation of Airport Trade Unions through Radio Bucharest. The strike had been launched the previous day to back demands for higher pay and a reorganization of the sector. -- Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. BULGARIAN OPPOSITION REFUSES TO FORM NEW GOVERNMENT. Bulgarian dailies report on 21 September that the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) had rejected an offer to try to form a new government. The response came just one day after President Zhelyu Zhelev had asked the UDF to form a cabinet that would replace that of Lyuben Berov, who resigned on 8 September. Since the Bulgarian Socialist Party has already also refused to try to form a government, the constitution prescribes that one of the smaller parliamentary caucuses is now approached. Yet, most observers agree that early general elections have become inevitable. 24 Chasa cites UDF politicians as suggesting that 4 or 11 December might be feasible election dates. -- Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc. UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT ASKS FOR CHANGES IN IMF REQUIREMENTS. On 17 September, after a meeting with an International Monetary Fund delegation in Kiev, Ukrainian parliamentary speaker Olexander Moroz said he wanted some changes in the loan requirements proposed by the IMF. Interfax quoted Moroz as saying that Ukraine accepted the IMF requirements in general but that the stipulation that Ukraine reduce its budget deficit by cutting subsidies for energy prices and spending less on social services could be dangerous. Moroz also said that ending government controls on Ukraine's currency, the karbovanets, would lead to unlimited exports of Ukraine's raw materials. -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT ON RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA. In an interview published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung on 20 September, Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka says Belarus has no intention of giving up political or economic sovereignty to Russia. According to Lukashenka, his country wants to work with Russia on the same basis it works with Western countries. He says this means that its national political and economic interests come first. This, however, "does not mean halting talks with Russia over a common currency." -- Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. ESTONIA'S OPPOSITION DISCUSSES PRIME MINISTERIAL CANDIDATES. On 20 September leaders of Estonian parliamentary factions not belonging to the ruling coalition discussed possible members of a new cabinet of ministers and mentioned Andres Tarand and Andres Lipstok as possible candidates to replace Prime Minister Mart Laar. That same day Laar named Liberal Democrat Toomas Vilosius, the chancellor of the Ministry of Social Affairs, to replace Marju Lauristin of the Social Democratic Party of Estonia as social affairs minister. Laurisitin resigned earlier that day following her party's decision to leave the ruling coalition. According to Ivar Raig of the Rural Centrist Party, further splintering of the ruling coalition may take place if his party decides at its next meeting, scheduled later this week, to leave the coalition. On 6 September the Rural Centrists and the Social Democrats had jointly called for the resignation of Prime Minister Mart Laar. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. NEW LATVIAN CABINET HOLDS ITS FIRST MEETING. On 20 September the cabinet of Prime Minister Maris Gailis convened for its first meeting since it was endorsed by the parliament on 15 September, BNS reported. The new cabinet was congratulated by President Guntis Ulmanis, who wished them success not only in developing Latvia's foreign relations but urged the new cabinet to focus more attention on internal affairs, especially rural problems. Gailis said the government's key task was to achieve positive changes in the attitude of people toward the state and its institutions. The new ministers discussed organizational issues and appointed committee heads: for foreign and security affairs, Valdis Birkavs; for economics and finance, Andris Piebalgs; and for state and social affairs, Janis Vaivads. -- Dzinta Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT VISITS GERMANY. While on a three-day working visit to Germany that began on 19 September, Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas met President Roman Herzog and other leading German officials. At a meeting with Herzog, Brauzauskas praised Germany for granting its people strong social guarantees and creating a social market economy, which he called "a postwar miracle that impressed the whole world," German and Baltic agencies reported on 20 September. Brazauskas also praised Germany for acting as "an attorney" of the Baltic States in their integration into European structures. Herzog reaffirmed Germany's intention to continue supporting Lithuania and the other two Baltic States on their way toward a market economy and more secure independence. -- Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. 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