|One must learn by doing the thing; though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. - Sophocles|
No. 179, 20 September 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIAN AND GERMAN SECURITY SERVICES DISCUSS NUCLEAR SMUGGLING. ITAR-TASS reported on 19 September that the director of the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK), Sergei Stepashin, had begun talks in Bonn with the German security services coordinator, Bernd Schmidbauer, and the chiefs of the German secret services. The main topic of discussion was the prevention of the smuggling of nuclear materials from CIS states. Stepashin and other Russian officials have repeatedly denied that the plutonium confiscated in Germany in recent months originated in Russia, but Stepashin agreed to cooperate with the Germans in investigating these cases. Joint measures against international criminal networks involved in drug trafficking, smuggling, and illegal immigration were discussed. According to Aleksandr Lopushinsky, an official at the German Department of the Russian Foreign Ministry, the two countries will soon sign a document on cooperation on various aspects of national security. The Russian side also expressed a desire to cooperate with the newly formed European Police Agency, Europol. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc. NEW COMPOSITION OF PRESIDENTIAL COUNCIL. President Boris Yeltsin has approved the new membership of the Presidential Council, a major consultative body attached to the Office of the President, according to an ITAR-TASS report of 17 September. There are almost no changes in the 28-member council, which includes former Prime Minister Egor Gaidar; Yeltsin's military adviser General Dmitrii Volkogonov; acting Moscow Major Yurii Luzhkov; St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii Sobchak; the scientists Sergei Karaganov, Andrannik Migranyan, and Emil Pain; and the intellectuals Daniil Granin, Yurii Karyakin, and Mikhail Zakharov. The role of the Presidential Council, which has no clearly defined functions, has diminished recently, following Yeltsin's establishment of several parallel bodies, including the Expert Council and the Public Chamber. The body that exerts the greatest influence over the president's policies is the Coordinating Analytical Council, which is headed by the chief of the Presidential Administration, Sergei Filatov, and includes Yeltsin's inner circle of administrators. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc. STARS OF GORBACHEV ERA FORM NEW SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY. On 15 September a group of prominent Russian politicians announced at the Ostankino TV center their decision to set up a new Social Democratic Party. The list of members of the new party's organizing committee, topped by its chairman, Aleksandr Yakovlev--the father of the glasnost policy of the late 1980s and now chairman of the Ostankino Radio and Television Company--reads like a "Who's Who" of the Gorbachev era, including the last Soviet defense minister, Evgenii Shaposhnikov; former Moscow Mayor Gavriil Popov; the economists Stanislav Shatalin and Nikolai Shmelev; and other celebrities of the perestroika period. The first Social Democratic Party to emerge in postcommunist Russia was set up in 1990, soon after Article 6 of the USSR Constitution, the mainstay of the communist dictatorship, was removed, but it later split because of disagreements over Yeltsin's reforms. The new party will embrace at least one of the Social Democratic groupings that remained after the rupture--that headed by Aleksandr Golov. Whether it will be able to attract other prominent politicians who have announced plans to form Social Democratic parties--namely, Mikhail Gorbachev, Grigorii Yavlinsky, and Vasilii Lipitsky--remains to be seen. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. OFFICERS' UNION PICKETS PROSECUTOR. Interfax reported on 19 September that supporters of the Officers' Union had picketed the Russian Military Prosecutor's Offices that day. They were demanding that criminal proceedings against the leader of the radical nationalist Union, Lt. Col. Stanislav Terekhov, be stopped. Terekhov was dismissed from the armed forces in 1993 because of his political activities and arrested for his role in the attack on the headquarters of the CIS Joint Armed Forces in September 1993, in which a policeman and an elderly woman were killed. The protesters maintained that Terekhov should not be tried, because of the amnesty for those who took part in the 1993 Moscow events approved by the State Duma on 23 February 1994. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA TO SEND OBSERVERS TO HAITI. A political adviser to the Russian foreign minister told ITAR-TASS on 19 September that Russia would send several observers to Haiti as part of a UN force. She stressed that Russia would only participate in what she called the second stage of Haitian operations: the deployment of an international police contingent to help restore public order; the first stage was the military operations undertaken by the United States. Vladimir Lukin, chairman of the State Duma's international affairs committee, charged that the government's "exotic" idea of sending Russian troops to participate in an international police force in Haiti was unconstitutional. Only the Federation Council, he said, could make such a decision. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSO-FINNISH MILITARY AGREEMENT. Col. Gen. Mikhail Kolesnikov, chief of the Russian General Staff, and Admiral Jan Klenberg, commander in chief of Finland's armed forces, signed an agreement on cooperation between their two defense ministries in Moscow on 19 September. According to ITAR-TASS, the agreement calls for joint activities to develop contacts between the Russian and Finnish armed forces over the next two years. When asked whether Finland was concerned about the growing number of Russian troops in the Leningrad military district as a result of the withdrawals from Eastern Europe and the Baltic States, Admiral Klenberg said: "We do not feel any threat in this respect." Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN DECLARES 12 DECEMBER "CONSTITUTION DAY." On 19 September, according to Russian TV newscasts, President Yeltsin decreed a new state holiday--12 December--to be celebrated as Constitution Day to mark the new constitution approved by a referendum on 12 December 1993. Three constitutions were adopted in Russia during the Soviet era, and the present (fourth) one is widely regarded as a transitory document from the communist regime to a true democracy. Both hard-core and liberal critics claim that Yeltsin has already violated some provisions of the new constitution, most important those on human-rights guarantees (in his decree on combating organized crime). Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. Iran's President Hashemi Rafsanjani has called on both Tajikistan's government and the Tajik opposition to observe the cease-fire that was agreed between the two sides, with Iranian, Russian and UN mediation, on 17 September, Reuters, quoting the official Iranian news agency IRNA, reported on 19 September. Russian Foreign Ministry officials have made the same plea, Interfax reported the same day, and added an appeal for the cease-fire to go into effect immediately rather than waiting for UN observers to be deployed. Also on 19 September Radio Dushanbe reported that fighting had ended in the strategically important Tavildara region east of Dushanbe, with opposition units retreating toward Gorno-Badakhshan. Tajik government troops have been fighting sporadically in the region for more than a year to gain and keep control of a major highway to Badakhshan. Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc. COMPROMISE OVER RETURN OF GEORGIAN REFUGEES TO ABKHAZIA. On 16 September Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev flew to Abkhazia for talks in Novyi Afon with Abkhaz parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba and Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze aimed at defusing tension over the planned return to Gali Raion of thousands of Georgian refugees. A second round of talks on 17 September, at which Georgia was represented by Defense Minister Varden Nadibaidze, culminated in an agreement whereby Abkhazia would not hinder the return of Georgian refugees provided Georgia withdrew all remaining military equipment from the Kodori gorge, according to Interfax, which also quoted Shevardnadze as affirming, without any clarification, that the repatriation agreement was also linked to Abkhazia's future political status. (On 9 September, the commander of the Russian peacekeeping forces in Abkhazia told Interfax that local Svans were opposing the removal of military equipment from the Kodori gorge on the grounds that this would leave them vulnerable to an Abkhaz attack.) On 19 September Shevardnadze and Ardzinba met separately in Sochi with Russian President Yeltsin to discuss the Abkhaz situation, ITAR-TASS reported. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. CIS CSCE REACTS TO RUSSIAN STANCE ON KARABAKH . . . According to an RFE/RL correspondent's report of 17 September, at a meeting in Prague the CSCE's Committee of Senior Officials objected to unilateral Russian actions vis-a-vis Karabakh. Committee members from NATO and neutral countries complained that Russia had recently initiated an Armenian-Azerbaijani summit in Moscow without informing the CSCE, that it had snubbed a meeting organized by the CSCE's Minsk group (to which Russia itself belongs), and had pressed for a Russian/CIS peacekeeping force to be deployed in Karabakh rather than a CSCE-sponsored multinational force, including Russia, as the Minsk group seeks. Delegates pointed to the apparent contradiction in Russia's policy of seeking to make the CSCE superior in status to regional security organizations while simultaneously undercutting it by unilateral action in the East. The committee issued a statement calling for "direct contacts" among the parties to the conflict, the "harmonization" and "coordination" of mediation activities, the deployment of 600 unarmed CSCE monitors in Karabakh, and "active exploration" of the idea of sending a multinational CSCE peacekeeping force to the area. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. . . . AND MOLDOVA. Also at the Prague meeting, the Committee of Senior Officials issued a statement on the agreement between Russia and Moldova, initialed but not signed on 10 August, on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Moldova within three years. The committee called for the agreement to be brought into effect "as early as possible" and for the withdrawal of the 14th Army and the search for a political settlement of the Transdniester issue to be conducted as "parallel processes that will not hamper each other." It urged greater efforts, "with the continued assistance of the CSCE Mission and the representative of the Russian Federation," to define Transdniester's status on the basis of CSCE principles, "particularly the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of Moldova." The statement follows indications that Russia may be backtracking on the agreement and attempting to make its implementation conditional upon a Transdniester settlement that would tacitly condone the area's secession from Moldova. The committee also called for the implementation of the December 1993 and July 1994 agreements on giving the CSCE Mission in Moldova unrestricted access to the cease-fire control commission's meetings and the security zone; Russia has been hindering the implementation of these accords. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. NAZARBAEV ELABORATES ON EURASIAN UNION PLAN. Interviewed on Ostankino TV on 17 September, Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev linked his Eurasian Union plan to the Russian ideology of Eurasianism (which advocates that Russia develop separately from the West). Denying any attempt to restore the Soviet Union and referring to the "independence and sovereignty" of CIS states, Nazarbaev called for an integrated "cultural and spiritual space," a common market, "common borders," a coordinated foreign policy, and a common parliament to rectify a situation in which "each state is going its own legislative way." The Eurasian Union "would benefit the multinational people of the area [formerly] known as the Soviet Union," he argued. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WANTS GENERAL ROSE TO GO. The BBC reported on 20 September that the mainly Muslim and Croat government of Bosnia wants the UN forces commander there, General Sir Michael Rose, to be replaced. Bosnia-Herzegovina's ambassador to the UN, Muhamed Sacirbey, said that Rose had proved incapable of carrying out the basic provisions of his mandate to ensure the safety and security of Sarajevo. Reuters noted on 19 September that Rose had accused the Muslims of starting the latest round of fighting the previous day in order to provoke the Serbs and thereby provide grounds for calling in NATO air strikes against Serbian positions. Other UN sources, however, said that the Muslims' "attack had a genuine military objective" in trying to cut a Serbian supply route in response to the Serbs' shutting off the city's water, gas, and power supplies, a move now in its sixth day. UN personnel have previously charged Rose with having a pro-Serbian bias, most notably in his assessment of the situation in Gorazde last spring. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. "THE LARGEST INCIDENT OF ETHNIC CLEANSING IN BOSNIA IN ALMOST TWO YEARS." This is how The New York Times of 20 September described the latest Serb expulsions of Muslims from the Bijeljina area that began on 18 September. The paper said that the total of people driven from Serbian-held territory in Bosnia since mid-July had reached 10,000, and news agencies quoted UN spokesman Ron Redmond on 19 September as saying that the Serbs had expelled more than 100,000 non-Serbs from their homes over the past two years. It has been just over a week since Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic promised to halt "ethnic cleansing." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. BOSNIAN SERB LEADER WARNS RUSSIA THAT IT MUST HELP SERBS. ITAR-TASS reported from Bosnian Serb headquarters in Pale on 19 September that Radovan Karadzic had told its correspondent that Russia must openly help the Serbs to oppose "Western strategic interests." He added that Russia stood to lose influence in the Balkans "forever" if it failed to use the Serbs in support of its own "strategic interests." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. MEETING BETWEEN POLISH PRESIDENT AND PRIME MINISTER CALLED OFF. A planned meeting between Lech Walesa and Waldemar Pawlak, which was to have been the first of regular Monday morning consultations, came to naught on 19 September, Polish Television reported. They were to have sought a way out of the impasse over the appointment of a new police chief. Instead, the two leaders exchanged remarks over the telephone, each reasserting his preference for his own candidate. Pawlak insisted that any decision be suspended pending the outcome of a new health examination for his candidate, Leszek Lamparski, who retired from the force in 1991 after being certified unfit for duty. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. POLISH PRESIDENT AT CONCLUSION OF PARTNERSHIP MANEUVERS. Lech Walesa took part in the closing ceremony of Cooperative Bridge '94, the first multinational maneuvers to be held within the framework of NATO's Partnership for Peace program, in Biedrusko near Poznan from 12 to 16 September. According to PAP, he said that Poland regarded NATO as the principal guarantor of security on the European continent and appreciated the need for a US military presence in Europe. He added that Poland expected from NATO an understanding of and support for its security aspirations and deplored the fact that it still had no clear prospects of when it might hope to attain full NATO membership. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. THE POLISH ECONOMY IN AUGUST. Poland's Main Statistical Office announced on 15 September that domestic prices had risen by an average of 1.7% in August, in comparison with July, and by 32.2% in comparison with August 1993. There was a slight drop in the number of unemployed: 0.6% over the previous month. Unemployment also fell by 0.6% over July; but the overall unemployment total of 2,965,400 still is a 9.1% increase over August 1993. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. CZECH DEFENSE MINISTER TO BE RECALLED. On 19 September the leadership of the Christian and Democratic Union/People's Party asked Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus to recall Defense Minister Antonin Baudys from his post. Baudys is a member of that party. CTK reported that President Vaclav Havel had accepted the news of the CDU/PP's proposal "with full understanding, because for some time he has been alarmed by the public's diminishing trust in the army." In recent months the minister has been criticized for political mistakes. Baudys told CTK on 19 September that he disagreed with his removal, arguing that such a step could "adversely influence the transformation of the Czech Army." CDU/PP Chairman Josef Lux told CTK that Vilem Holan, the director of a foreign ministry department, was the party's new candidate for the post. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. SLOVAK CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS AT ODDS WITH GOVERNMENT. Speaking at a press conference in Bratislava on 19 September, Jan Carnogursky, the chairman of the Christian Democratic Movement (CDM), said that his party disagreed with the government's plan to privatize five major Slovak companies before the forthcoming elections by means of direct sales to specific owners because they resemble the practice of Vladimir Meciar's government, which was ousted in March. In anticipation of its ouster, the Meciar government approved a number of questionable privatization projects in its final days. Carnogursky stressed that the CDM agreed with speeding up privatization but that the process should be limited to voucher privatization and direct sales should be avoided from ten days before the elections. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. MECIAR AT THE CENTER OF ASSASSINATION SPECULATION. On 19 September Narodna obroda and other Slovak media discussed speculation that former Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar had been preparing to feign an assassination attempt on himself, to boost his election chances. The speculation was apparently partly triggered by Meciar's recent mention of a "coming decisive break in the election campaign." The latest opinion polls suggest that Meciar will win the elections but will not be able to form a government on his own. Dusan Kleiman, a press spokesman for Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (MDS), told journalists on 19 September that the speculation was "a provocation of the highest caliber" and that such a move on Meciar's part would be unnecessary, because 94% of his supporters were convinced that he would win the election Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. HUNGARIAN OPPOSITION PARTY REJECTS DRAFT SUPPLEMENTARY BUDGET. Zoltan Pokorni, deputy head of the parliamentary faction of the Alliance of Young Democrats (AYD), told MTI on 19 September that his party was rejecting the government's draft supplementary budget. According to the AYD, the draft in its present form was not even suitable for parliamentary debate as it lacked the measures needed to improve Hungary's economy and contradicted in some areas the government's own policy. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL Inc. SWISS AND SPANISH MILITARY OFFICIALS VISIT HUNGARY. Army Corps General Arthur Liener, the Swiss Army's chief of staff, arrived in Hungary at the invitation of Hungarian Army Commander and Chief of Staff Colonel General Janos Deak, MTI reported. Liener will visit the Miklos Zrinyi Military Academy and an artillery unit and view the joint Hungarian-British peace-keeping training exercise in eastern Hungary. Lieutenant General Jose Maura Martin, chief of staff of the Spanish Army's Ground Forces, arrived in Hungary on 18 September for a five-day visit during which he will view several Hungarian Army units. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL Inc. AIRPORT STRIKE LAUNCHED IN ROMANIA. Romanian airport workers launched an indefinite strike on 19 September to back demands for higher pay and a reorganization of the sector, Radio Bucharest has reported. According to the leader of the Federation of Airport Trade Unions, nine of the sixteen airports affiliated to his organization were participating in the work stoppage. The strike did not affect Bucharest's international Otopeni Airport but disrupted flights to and from the airports in Timisoara and Constanta, used by both domestic and international airlines. It also affects the airports in Oradea, Satu Mare, Baia Mare, Suceava, Cluj, Targu Mures and Bucharest-Baneasa. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIA'S HUNGARIANS WANT FULL TUITION IN MOTHER TONGUE. Radio Bucharest reported that on 19 September the country's ethnic Hungarians reiterated their demand for education at all levels in their mother tongue. Leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania, the minority's main political party, presented an eight-page document to the Senate asking for full tuition in Hungarian and the return of Church properties seized by the Communists. The petition had been signed by 492,000 people over the past three weeks. The signatures were collected in reaction to a new education bill limiting ethnic education rights, which already passed the Chamber of Deputies and will soon be voted on in the Senate. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. BULGARIAN PRESIDENT ASKS UDF TO FORM GOVERNMENT. Radio Sofia reported on 19 September that Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev had asked the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), the second largest parliamentary group, to form a government. The nonparty government of Lyuben Berov resigned in the middle of September. The Socialist Party, the strongest political group in the country, has refused to form a new government, calling instead for early elections. The UDF is divided on the issue of new elections; its deputies will decide on 20 September whether to accept Zhelev's offer. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. TENSION BETWEEN TIRANA AND ATHENS CONTINUES. International media reported on 17 September that President Sali Berisha had visited Albania's southern region, where most of the Greek minority live. He wanted to express "respect and appreciation" for those Greeks and urged Athens to overcome the differences between the two Balkan neighbors through dialogue. Tension nonetheless mounted as the two countries exchanged mutual accusations at the CSCE meeting in Prague on 16 September, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. On 17 September, moreover, Berisha imposed a visa requirement for Greek visitors following Greece's decision to cancel some visas it had already issued to Albanians. Greeks have been able to travel visa-free to Albania for over four years. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. CRIMEAN PRESIDENT REJECTS GOVERNMENT'S RESIGNATION. Interfax reported on 19 September that Crimean President Yuri Meshkov had refused to accept the resignation of the government headed by Deputy Prime Minister Yevgeny Saburov. Meshkov also denied reports that he had instructed his deputy, Volodymyr Korpov, to form a new government. The Crimean parliament, which is locked in a power struggle with Meshkov, passed a vote of no-confidence in the government on 15 September. Crimean Justice Minister Lyubov Yeliseyeva-Bora told Interfax that the constitution allowed parliament to hold votes of no-confidence in the government but that it did not say when the president had to propose a new candidate for head of government. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. MOLDOVAN PLEAS TO INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. In an appeal to international governmental and human rights organizations, reported by Basapress on 17 September, Moldova's Helsinki Committee called attention to the "Dniester" Russian authorities' "forced denationalization" of Moldovans and Ukrainians. Although Transdniester's population is 40% Moldovan, 28% Ukrainian, and 25.5% Russian, only 20% of schools teach in "Moldovan" and 0.5% in Ukrainian, while 77% teach in Russian, according to the committee. Meanwhile, parents and teachers at the three Moldovan schools that still use the Latin alphabet--in Tiraspol, Bendery, and Rabnita--continue picketing and other forms of protest against the "Dniester" authorities' orders to switch to the Russian alphabet; they have also appealed in recent days to the CSCE, the UN, and the USA for support. A delegation of the protesters was received by the US Ambassador to Chisinau, Mary Pendleton. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. MOLDOVA CLOSER TO ADMISSION TO COUNCIL OF EUROPE. A delegation of the Council of Europe, headed by its new secretary-general, Daniel Tarschys (Sweden), and the chairman of its Committee of Ministers, Stanislav Daskalov (Bulgaria), conferred in Chisinau on 19 September with Moldovan President Mircea Snegur, Parliament Chairman Petru Lucinschi, and the leaders of parliamentary parties, Moldpres, Basapress, and RFE's correspondent reported the same day. The delegates reiterated the Council of Europe's satisfaction with Moldova's parliamentary elections and new constitution and predicting that their own findings would speed up Moldova's admission to the organization as a full member. They also said the "Dniester Republic" was "absolutely illegitimate." The Moldovan officials asked that Russia's admission to the council be linked to the withdrawal of its troops from Moldova. They insisted that the massive Russian arsenal and ammunition stores be removed lest they fall into the hands of "Dniester" leaders. Snegur and Lucinschi refuted Romania's recent attacks on Moldova's constitution and deplored Romania's open support for the minority in Chisinau, which calls for Moldova's merger with Romania. Unlike the opposition "in any other country," the opposition in Chisinau resists the notion of Moldovan statehood, they said. Moldova had earlier lodged similar complaints at the Council of Europe. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. SPLIT IN ESTONIA'S RULING COALITION. Baltic media reported on 19 September that at their meeting on 18 September the Social Democratic Party of Estonia (SDPE) had decided to leave the coalition and withdraw from the cabinet its minister for social affairs, Marju Lauristin, if the parliament did not dismiss the cabinet of ministers by the end of September. The reasons given for the decision were insufficient support from the coalition for the social reform proposed by the SDPE, the refusal of the cabinet to approve an increase in unemployment benefits, the intention of the Isamaa (Pro Patria) political party to create a right-wing bloc with the Union of Tax-Payers, and the position of the government and Prime Minister Mart Laar on the so-called "ruble scandal," dating from the monetary reform in Estonia in 1992 when some two billion rubles were not transferred to Russia but were supposedly sold to Chechnya. While it does not appear that the SDPE will join the parliamentary opposition, the SDPE decision clearly weakens the position of Laar's government as well as the that of the ruling parliamentary coalition. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. DISPUTE OVER RUSSIA'S MARKING OF BORDER WITH ESTONIA. At the meeting of CSCE officials in Prague, Russia's decision to mark unilaterally what it considers its border with Estonia was discussed on September 16, according to RFE/RL's correspondent in Prague. Tallinn has asked for the CSCE's help in settling the dispute, which stems from Moscow's view that the Estonian territory annexed by the RSFSR after World War II belongs to Russia. The Russian delegation rejected the need for outside mediation and insisted that Estonia, when it declared its independence in 1991, had inherited its former Soviet borders. Swedish representatives, however, stressed that there was a "clear and urgent need to decide this issue at the negotiating table" and suggested that if Russia and Estonia could not resolve the matter bilaterally, the CSCE could act as a mediator. BNS reported on 16 September that Russia had installed a total of 139 border posts in the period from 11 August to 15 September on the temporary borderline with Estonia and that workers had also dug 227 holes for other border posts and cleared a 26.5-kilometer strip of land of trees. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. LITHUANIA PROTESTS AIR SPACE VIOLATIONS BY BELARUS. On 19 September Lithuanian Deputy Foreign Minister Rimantas Sidlauskas presented a formal protest note to Belarusian Ambassador to Lithuania Yevgeni Voitovich over violations of Lithuanian airspace by Belarusian aircraft, BNS reported. According to the note, Belarusian military planes violated Lithuania's air space thirty-one times on 16 September. Unsanctioned flights were conducted over Adutiskis, which is a Lithuanian town, while a nearby railroad station is claimed by both Lithuania and Belarus. Lithuania has already protested violations of its air space by Belarus four times this year. In a related development, Lithuanian and Belarusian representatives continued consultations on 16 September on ways to resolve the Adutiskis railroad station dispute and reported that they were "approaching a mutually beneficial agreement." Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Penny Morvant and Maggie Evling by Penny Morvant and Maggie Evling) The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. 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