|Every individual has a place to fill in the world, and is important, in some respect, whether he chooses to be so or not. - Nathaniel Hawthorne|
No. 177, 16 September 1994
RUSSIA ENLARGING VERSUS "CONTAINING" NATO. Reacting to US Vice President Albert Gore's and German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe's recent proposals on enlarging NATO, a Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman said at a briefing on 15 September reported by Interfax that the enlargement of membership or responsibility "may lead to a deterioration of the situation in Europe and a crisis of confidence . . . revitalize bloc structures, and provoke a new split in Europe." "Containment of NATO would be more consistent with European security," Interfax quoted him as saying. He reaffirmed Russia's support for NATO's Partnership for Peace program. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. PLAN TO DILUTE NATO ROLE UNPOPULAR AT CSCE MEETING. At a meeting of the CSCE's Committee of Senior Officials, which opened in Prague on 14 September, Russia submitted its previously publicized plan to reorganize the CSCE into a coordinating forum placed above NATO, the Western European Union, and CIS structures in security affairs. The plan's main feature is the creation within the CSCE of an executive council of 10 countries, five of whom, including Russia, would be permanent members with a veto power. They would oversee major security decisions by those three organizations, of which only NATO is a military reality at this time and is seen as the plan's actual target. As expected, delegations from both NATO and non-NATO countries have opposed the proposal, which would, in their view, enable Russia to influence NATO decisions. The meeting's chairman, Paolo Bruni of Italy, saw "no chance" of approval, RFE/RL's correspondent reported on 15 September. (See the CIS section below for further Russian proposals at the CSCE meeting.) Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. MARTIAL LAW INTRODUCED IN CHECHNYA. Two television transmitters near Grozny were blown up by a magnetic mine during the night of 14-15 September, temporarily disrupting government programs, Western and Russian agencies reported; Interfax cited Chechen Prosecutor-General Usman Imaev as claiming that the perpetrators were supporters of the former chairman of the Russian parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov. On 15 September President Dzhokhar Dudaev signed a decree introducing martial law and a curfew throughout Chechnya beginning on 16 September, for an indefinite period. Also on 15 September, Khasbulatov issued an appeal to the Chechen population to reject confrontation and embark on negotiations aimed at defusing the situation peacefully, according to ITAR-TASS. Interfax cited opposition spokesmen as claiming that Dudaev's troops were preparing to attack forces loyal to Provisional Council Chairman Umar Avturkhanov in Nadterechnyi Raion and Khasbulatov's headquarters in Tolstoi-Yurt. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. GAIDAR LOSES LIBEL SUIT TO ZHIRINOVSKY, ANDRONOV SUES YELTSIN. Egor Gaidar, father of Russia's market reforms and the leader of Russia's Democratic Choice, has lost the libel suit brought against him by a hard-line fellow-deputy of the State Duma--Vladimir Zhirinovsky, head of the Liberal Democratic Party--ITAR-TASS reported on 15 September. In an article published in the proreform daily Izvestiya earlier this year, Gaidar had termed Zhirinovsky a "fascist." On 15 September a Moscow district court ruled this term libelous and instructed Gaidar and Izvestiya to pay Zhirinovsky 500,000 rubles (approximately $ 240) each. On the same day, Russian Television's "Vesti" newscast reported, another Moscow court had to hear a similar case brought against President Boris Yeltsin himself. The journalist Iona Andronov, a member of the parliament dissolved by Yeltsin's decree in September 1993, had sued Yeltsin for libel for having branded him a "fascist" in the English-language edition of his memoirs. According to "Vesti," Yeltsin neglected to attend the first hearing in Kuntsevo district court. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. PROSECUTOR'S OFFICE PROTESTS VARENNIKOV'S ACQUITTAL. The Office of the Russian Prosecutor-General has lodged a formal protest against the verdict of the Military Collegium of the Russian Supreme Court in the trial of General Valentin Varennikov, Radio Rossii reported on 14 September. On 11 August the court had ruled that in August 1991 Varennikov, at that time a Soviet deputy minister of defense, had not committed any crime in taking an active part in the attempted coup against USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev--thus acceding to the request of the prosecutor at the trial, who had urged that Varennikov be acquitted. Verdicts of the Supreme Court are not subject to appeal; so the Russian Prosecutor's Office is here exercising its right of "surveillance," requesting that the case be reviewed by the Presidium of the Russian Supreme Court, which has the power to initiate a new trial by other judges of the Military Collegium. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. OPPOSITION PREPARES FOR ANNIVERSARY OF OCTOBER EVENTS. The leaders of the nationalist and communist opposition said that they would like to mark the anniversary of the anti-Yeltsin parliamentary revolt of 1993 by major demonstrations and meetings in Moscow, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 September. The demonstrations are planned for the period from 21 September to 4 October in the city center as well as near the Ostankino television center and the building of the former Supreme Soviet, which is currently the residence of the Russian government. The opposition also stated that it had begun to collect signatures to a petition calling for preterm presidential elections. Such elections are also on the agenda of the congress of the "irreconcilable" opposition that is taking place in Kaliningrad, behind closed doors. It is to elect a leader for the anti-Yeltsin alliance; former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi and the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Gennadii Zyuganov, are considered to be the main candidates. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc. CALL TO CLOSE DOWN OPPOSITION WEEKLY ZAVTRA. The Judicial Chamber on Information Disputes has urged the Russian State Committee on the Press to initiate proceedings to close down the opposition weekly newspaper Zavtra (Tomorrow), Russian news agencies reported on 15 September. Edited by the ultranationalist writer Aleksandr Prokhanov, Zavtra is the successor to the similarly militant newspaper Den (Day), which was closed down by the authorities in the aftermath of the October 1993 confrontation between Yeltsin and the Russian parliament. Zavtra is on record as having advocated military rebellion against the Yeltsin regime, as well as the execution without trial of certain leading democratic politicians. If the Press Committee agrees to the request, it is required by law to submit the matter for judicial review. In the past, however, the courts have tended to reject requests to close down opposition newspapers. The Judicial Chamber was set up last fall by presidential decree; it is composed of lawyers and journalists appointed to it by the president. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. LEBED ATTACKS ALBRIGHT, THANKS MEDIA. Lieutenant General Aleksandr Lebed, the commander of Russia's 14th Army, described as "boorish" a recent call by US Permanent Representative to the UN Madeleine Albright for the withdrawal of that army from Moldova. In an interview with the liberal Nezavisimaya gazeta on 15 September he urged "sending all unwanted 'advisers' away and starting to live by our own wits." He had previously attacked Albright in the progovernment Rossiiskaya gazeta of 7 September. Mindful of the recent buildup of his image by liberal and progovernment media, Lebed told Nezavisimaya gazeta that he wanted once more to "express gratitude publicly to the press for the support rendered." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GRACHEV ON RUSSIAN TROOP PRESENCE IN TAJIKISTAN, ABKHAZIA. Speaking at a press briefing in Voronezh on 14 September, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev proposed that the Russian border troops currently deployed along the Tajik-Afghan border should be replaced by regular army troops. He said that if the Tajik leadership assented, Russia would "significantly strengthen the troops in the region" in order to resist "a real external provocation," Interfax reported on 15 September. Grachev likewise argued that the Russian peacekeeping troops that had been deployed in Abkhazia in June for an initial period of six months might have to remain there longer, given that friendship between the Abkhaz and Georgians "cannot be restored quickly," according to a Reuters report of 15 September citing ITAR-TASS. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. TURKEY READY TO PROVIDE KARABAKH PEACEKEEPERS. Turkey is prepared to provide a contingent of troops to form part of an international peacekeeping force in Nagorno-Karabakh, the head of the Turkish delegation to the CSCE told an RFE/RL correspondent in Prague on 15 September. The Turkish leadership has consistently opposed Russian efforts to gain a monopoly on peacekeeping in the Transcaucasus, and it announced in June that it would set up a logistical center in Erzerum to serve as a supply base for such a CSCE force. Roland Eggleston & Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. CIS RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPING SCHEME SHELVED AT CSCE . . . At the meeting of the CSCE's Committee of Senior Officials (see the Russia section above), Russia has replaced its earlier plan for a CSCE framework for its "peacekeeping" operations in the CIS with a new proposal minimizing the CSCE's role. Bruni, the meeting's chairman, said that there was "nothing to debate" in the new Russian proposal, RFE/RL's correspondent reported on 15 September. The previous Russian plan contained some ground rules and time limitations for Russian "peacekeeping" and left room for the CSCE to monitor those operations and actively participate in the negotiations to settle local conflicts, in exchange for political endorsement and financial support for Russian operations. The new proposal, however, is far less specific and involves only a loose link to the CSCE, leaving broad scope for unilateral Russian action, according to delegates from both NATO and neutral countries. They regard the new proposal as reflecting a growing Russian assertiveness in Europe and the CIS, the correspondent reported. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. . . . BUT RECAST FOR UN. A Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman said at the above mentioned briefing on 15 September, reported by Interfax, that President Yeltsin and Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev would submit proposals to the session of the UN General Assembly that will be held shortly; these will be concerned with Russia-UN "interaction" and "concrete cooperation" in maintaining "peace and stability" and settling conflicts on "CIS territory." The spokesman indicated that Russia would seek UN acceptance of the CIS as a framework for "regional" peacekeeping and "an optimum balance of political and financial responsibility" with the UN for its peacekeeping operations. Somewhat incongruously, on the financial issue Russia "will firmly defend the principle of zero real growth in the UN's budget." Russia hopes for coordination with CIS countries during the session, the spokesman said. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CRIMEAN PRIME MINISTER TENDERS RESIGNATION . . . International media reported on 15 September that acting Crimean Prime Minister Yevgeny Saburov had offered his resignation to President Yuri Meshkov, saying he was unable to work amid the region's constitutional crisis. The crisis started on 11 September when Meshkov disbanded parliament and imposed presidential rule after the parliament passed an amendment curbing his powers. Saburov said Meshkov was opposed to his departure. Saburov also addressed the parliament, which had been allowed to reconvene on 13 September but continues to be locked in a power struggle with Meshkov. In his speech to the parliament, Saburov hinted that he intended to step down, saying that he could stay only if specific conditions were met and observed. "I do not think these conditions can be fulfilled," he said. The Saburov's appointment was one of the Crimean parliament's chief complaints in its dispute with Meshkov. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. . . . AND CRIMEAN PARLIAMENT PASSES NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE. On 15 September the Crimean parliament passed a motion of no-confidence in the Crimean government by a vote of fifty-eight to twenty-four with three abstentions. The deputies asked Crimean President Yuri Meshkov to approve the resignation of the government within seven days. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. SIMFEROPOL COUNCIL AGAINST FURTHER CONFRONTATION. ITAR-TASS reported on 15 September that the city council of Simferopol, the Crimean capital, had urged the Crimean parliament and the president to avoid further confrontation. A statement adopted by the council said that continued confrontation between the executive and legislative branches of power in Crimea might lead to acts of civil disobedience, a situation that would be "fraught with unpredictable consequences." According to ITAR-TASS, similar sessions, also called to discuss the Crimean constitutional conflict, were held by local councils in many other towns and districts of Crimea. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT ACTS ON SEVASTOPOL. Ukraine's new parliament opened its fall session in Kiev on 15 September, acting immediately to rescind a decision by local authorities in the Crimean city of Sevastopol proclaiming the city Russian territory. Reuters reports that deputies voted by 303 to five to declare the August proclamation by Sevastopol city council null and void. During the debate, some nationalist deputies proposed that the autonomous status that Crimea was granted by Ukraine after the collapse of the Soviet Union be abolished. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. UKRAINE STALLS ON NUCLEAR TREATY. Interfax of 15 September reported the comments of three high Ukrainian officials, all of whom indicated that Ukraine was not planning to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in the near future. President Leonid Kravchuk signed a Trilateral Statement with Presidents Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin on 14 January 1994 pledging that Ukraine would accede to the treaty as a nonnuclear-weapons state in the shortest possible time, but the Ukrainian parliament has balked at carrying out this pledge. On 15 September Alexander Moroz, the speaker of the parliament, has called for an international conference on the NPT to be held in Kiev at the beginning of next year to help Ukraine decide whether to join the NPT. Vladimir Mukhin, chairman of the parliament's defense and security commission, told a Moscow briefing that Ukraine was not ready to join the treaty before the end of this year. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. SERBIAN RADICAL PARTY ON MONITORING OF SANCTIONS. Reacting to news that international sanctions monitors would be placed along the Drina River--Serbia's border with Bosnia--the party's leader, Vojislav Seselj, implied that he and his followers would work to undermine the sanctions, saying that "if it's necessary, we'll just drink the whole Drina dry" to outwit the observers. The first contingent of sanctions observers will probably take up their posts on 16 September. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. BOSNIAN COMMANDER SAYS TOO EARLY TO LIFT SANCTIONS. On 15 September AFP reported that General Rasim Delic had said, after a five-day visit to Washington, that it was too early for the international community to suggest that sanctions against the rump Yugoslavia could be eased or lifted, because Belgrade was still supplying the Bosnian Serb forces. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. FIGHTING IN BOSNIA INTENSIFIES. On 15 September agencies reported that fighting had been intensifying around Brcko in northeastern Bosnia. On the same day Hina reported that fighting involving Serb and Bosnian Muslim forces in the area of Konjic, some fifty miles southwest of the Bosnian capital Sarajevo, had been "fierce." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. NEW CABINET FOR RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. On 16 September Borba and Politika gave details of the new cabinet, announced the previous day, and headed by Prime Minister Radoje Kontic. Several of the most important offices continue to be held by people loyal to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. They include Vladislav Jovanovic, who retains his foreign affairs port-folio, and Pavle Bulatovic, who continues as defense minister. Among the new faces is minister of internal affairs Vukasin Jokanovic. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. CLASSES RESUME IN CROATIAN SCHOOLS. On 15 September Hina reported that classes in some 90% of the country's primary schools and 67% of the secondary schools had resumed. A representative of the School Teachers' Union, however, said that teachers would continue the strike over their wages and working conditions Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. POLISH SEJM APPROVES GOVERNMENT'S AGRICULTURAL POLICY. The Sejm approved on 15 September a policy paper containing the outlines of a six-year plan to modernize Polish agriculture. The plan, which is part of the government's "Strategy for Poland" economic program, posits the survival of only some 700,000-800,000 private farms, which will manage to modernize and increase production to a level enabling their owners to live off the land. The remaining, inefficient farmers will be able to retain their farms for their private needs but should seek a living in other professions. To this end, the government intends to provide means and incentives for the creation of jobs in the agricultural and local infrastructure. The opposition parties criticized the paper, claiming that the plans were based on incorrect or insufficient data, and lacked proper estimates of the costs involved. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. POLISH BANK CHIEF ASSERTS INDEPENDENCE. Polish National Bank Chairman Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, appearing at question time in the Sejm on 15 September, defended her decision to reduce the rate of devaluation of the zloty, against criticism from Finance Minister Grzegorz Kolodko. She expressed concern at attempts to undermine her sphere of jurisdiction, which, she said, was an essential criterion of the central bank's independence of political pressure. President Lech Walesa sat in on the session in a gesture of support for Gronkiewicz-Waltz whom he had recommended for the post in 1982. He later told journalists that he was "on her side" in the conflict and that she enjoyed his full confidence, PAP reports. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. "WEIMAR TRIANGLE" IN BAMBERG. The Polish, French, and German foreign ministers, Andrzej Olechowski, Alain Jupp~, and Klaus Kinkel, held the fourth meeting of the "Weimar Triangle" in Bamberg on 14 and 15 September. They discussed European integration, cooperation between the EU and its associate member states in the areas of internal affairs and security, and arms control within the framework of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. The three ministers drafted a joint declaration on conventional arms control in Europe in preparation for the forthcoming CSCE meeting in Budapest. Referring to recent Russian suggestions on changes in the status of the CSCE, Kinkel said that he could not conceive that the CSCE would exercise supremacy with regard to NATO. On his return to Warsaw, Olechowski told PAP that he had discerned signs of "a new atmosphere that was to Poland's advantage" among top Western leaders. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. CZECH REPUBLIC SIGNS AGREEMENT WITH EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK. Czech Finance Minister Ivan Kocarnik and the vice chairman of the European Investment Bank, Wolfgang Roth, signed an agreement in Prague on 15 September under which the Czech Republic will be eligible for the bank's credits. The bank was set up by the European Union to provide its members and East European countries with loans necessary for financing long-term projects. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. CSCE MEETING IN PRAGUE. A three-day meeting of representatives from member countries of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) started in Prague on 14 September. The meeting's chairman, Paolo Bruni, told a press conference on 14 September that the main objective of the meeting was to prepare the December summit of the CSCE. Other themes on the meeting's agenda include conflict prevention, the Balkan crisis, and the armed conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSPORTATION MINISTERS MEET IN SLOVAKIA. The ministers of transportation of Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Austria, Hungary, and Slovenia met in Bratislava on 15 September to discuss the protection of environment, safety in transportation, and other issues. The chief adviser of the European Union Commission for Transportation, Ottakar Hahn, said Slovakia was currently "taking serious steps aimed at harmonizing its transportation policy with recommendations of the European Union" and that Slovakia could become "a key country in connecting the North and the South as well as the East and the West of Europe." Hahn said that the question of border crossings remained the main point of contention, but that the EU was willing to offer financial assistance to solve such problems. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. CONSUMER PRICES IN HUNGARY. According to data released by the Central Statistical Office on 15 September, the Hungarian consumer price index rose by 1.4% in August compared with July, bringing the annual price rise to 19.5%, MTI reports. By comparison, in August 1993 consumer prices rose by 1.8% and the yearly price rise amounted to 22.3%. Prices rose above average in August 1994 as the price of food increased by 24.5%, the cost of services rose by 20.7%, alcoholic beverage and tobacco prices grew by 19.9%, household energy prices rose by 11.3%, and the price of durable consumer goods increased by 12.1%. A four-member household now needs 53,800 forint (about $580) a month to meet the minimum standard of living, compared to 45,000 forint in 1993. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL Inc. HUNGARY'S COMPENSATION PROGRAM. According to the Office of Compensation, 1,507,438 Hungarians received some form of compensation under the country's compensation program for victims of property expropriation and political oppression, MTI reports. The value of the compensation vouchers the office issued thus far exceeds 110 billion forint. Under the first law on compensation over 817,000 people received vouchers and an average of 67,000 forint pro person. The law on property compensation granted some 75,000 people vouchers worth 10.5 billion forint with each person receiving an average of 139,000 forint. Vouchers in the value of 44 billion forint were issued to 177,482 persons who had been deprived of their freedom under communism with each person receiving an average of 247,000 forint. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL Inc. CHANGES AT HUNGARIAN RADIO. Radio chief Janos Sziranyi told a press conference on 15 September that in the past two months the 129 radio employees who had been fired by the previous management had been rehired, MTI reports. He announced that the radio will institute program changes effective 3 October. At that time, several programs terminated by the previous management will be restarted, and the number of programs dealing with everyday problems and sociological studies increased. Radio Kossuth will continue to serve as the major news station, Radio Petofi will continue to focus on entertainment, and Radio Bartok on classical music programs. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIAN PRESIDENT REJECTS SELF-RULE FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES. In an apparent reference to Romania's large Hungarian minority, President Ion Iliescu said on 15 September that territorial autonomy for ethnic groups in Romania could threaten national and regional security. He added that the "adventurous projects to create enclaves and autonomous regions . . . could only aggravate inter-ethnic problems." Iliescu's remarks came in his address to a two-day international conference devoted to "Central Europe and Its National Minorities" held in Bucharest. The conference is attended by high-ranking Romanian officials, including Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu, Chamber of Deputies Chairman Adrian Nastase and Senate Chairman Oliviu Gherman, as well as by parliamentarians from European countries and representatives of the Council of Europe. Last month, leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania called again for a special status for the regions of Covasna and Harghita, where compact Magyar populations live. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. SECOND CHOLERA CASE REPORTED IN ROMANIA. A second case of cholera was reported on 15 September. The sick person is a 64-year-old man from the town of Medgidia, in the Dobrudja region. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. BULGARIAN SOCIALIST PARTY DECLINES TO FORM GOVERNMENT. On 14 September AFP quoted BSP spokesperson Nora Ananyeva as saying: "We are not afraid of governing the country. However, Bulgaria needs a strong and resolute government, which would be impossible with the current parliament." Zhelev will now meet with other party leaders about forming a government. The resignation of Premier Lyuben Berov's cabinet was accepted by the Bulgarian National Assembly on 8 September. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. ESTONIAN PRESIDENT MEETS THE POPE. Pope John Paul II received Estonian President Lennart Meri in a private audience on 15 September, BNS reported; they discussed developments in, and regarding, eastern Europe, and other topics. Meri thanked the Pope for his support for the Baltic states. The Pope said that the Catholic Church in Estonia wished to work closely with all sectors of the society for the strengthening of freedom and peace and that Estonia was "an important point of passage between eastern and western Europe." Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. NEW GOVERNMENT IN LATVIA. On 15 September the Saeima approved the government proposed by Prime Minister designate Maris Gailis. Like the previous government, most members of the Gailis's team come from Latvia's Way and many of them held posts in the cabinet of outgoing Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs, who has now become Foreign Minister as well as one of the three deputy premiers. Gailis indicated that there would be no major changes from the program that was earlier hammered out by Latvia's Way and followed by the previous government. Serving as his other deputies will be Minister of Finance Andris Piebalgs and Minister of Education and Science Janis Vaivods. Heading the others ministries are Janis Zvanitajs (economics); Janis Trapans, formerly of the RFE/RL Research Institute (defense); Girts Kristovskis (interior); Juris Iesalnieks (environmental protection and regional development); Romans Apsitis (justice); Janis Dripe (culture); Arijs Udris (agriculture); Andris Berzins (welfare); and Andris Gutmanis (transportation). Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. LITHUANIA SIGNS ECONOMIC ACCORDS WITH KAZAKHSTAN. Lithuanian Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius and his Kazakh counterpart Sergei Tereshchenko signed an agreement on the protections and promotion of investments in Kazakstan's capital Alma Ata on 14 September. The prime ministers and the heads of central banks also signed an agreement on settlements between Lithuanian and Kazakh enterprises. Slezevicius told the press that Kazakhstan accounted for about 3 percent of Lithuania's trade turnover, a figure which could be increased. He said that bilateral trade was hampered by the discriminatory railway tariffs established by Russia. Tereshchenko said Kazakhstan was interested in broadening trade with Lithuania, especially in the processing of Kazakh raw materials, such as Kazakh oil, and in the joint utilization of the port of Klaipeda and Kazakhstan's Caspian ports. He attached priority to the establishment of joint electronics, light-industry, and food processing enterprises, BNS reported on 15 September. Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Eileen Downing and Maggie Evling The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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