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RFE/RL Daily Report
No. 176, 15 September 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN CREATING RING OF LOYAL ELITE TROOPS. The newspaper Nezavisimaya gazeta said on 14 September that Russian President Boris Yeltsin was creating a ring of elite military units around Moscow that might be used to protect the government from revolts by dissatisfied units returning from Germany and the Baltic States. As reported by ITAR-TASS, military loyalty to the president was also to be ensured by the new Department of Military Politics in the presidential chief of staff's office. This office would assume the sort of political screening function once performed by the administrative bodies of the communist party and would select all command personnel from division command on up. They would be judged on their loyalty and readiness to carry out any order issued by the supreme commander in chief, the president. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. LEBED ON MILITARY DISCONTENT, PULLOUT FROM GERMANY. Interviewed in Nezavisimaya gazeta of 15 September, Lieutenant General Aleksandr Lebed, the commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, rated the chances of "a rebellion of the discontented" in the Russian armed forces as "fifty-fifty." "If the government provides for a normal existence for the armed forces, then there won't be a rebellion," he said. While deploring the conditions surrounding the Russian forces' pullout from Germany, Lebed gave German Chancellor Helmut Kohl the maximum possible credit as "a wise person both as a theoretician and as a man of action: in our country only Lenin was as capable as Kohl." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. HOUSING WOES OF RETURNING TROOPS. Petr Shirshov, chairman of the Federation Council's Security and Defense Committee, told visiting French parliamentarians on 13 September that 40% of the officers and warrant officers returning from Germany "still remain under the open sky," while 43,000 officers' families were without homes of their own. As reported by Interfax the next day, he joined the many recent critics of the hurried withdrawal, saying that "politics came before good sense." Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. CHECHNYA. Chechen opposition forces commanded by Ruslan Labazanov attacked government forces and temporarily gained control of Chervlen bridge 40 km north of Grozny during the evening of 13 September, Interfax and Western agencies reported. On 14 September former Grozny Mayor Beslan Gantemirov was named military commander of the combined forces of the opposition Provisional Council, according to Reuters and ITAR-TASS. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow, Russian Minister for Nationalities Nikolai Egorov characterized the situation in Chechnya as "a stalemate," in that neither President Dzhokhar Dudaev nor the opposition was strong enough to assert total control over the country; Egorov excluded the possibility that the Chechen conflict might spill over into neighboring regions of Russia. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. CONGRESS OF ANTI-YELTSIN OPPOSITION IN KALININGRAD. The first united congress of communist and nationalist forces, chaired by former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, will open on 16 September in Kaliningrad, according to an RFE/RL correspondent in Vilnius. The congress is to be attended by practically all the leaders of the "irreconcilable opposition": these include the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Gennadii Zyuganov; former Chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet Anatolii Lukyanov; former Chairman of the Supreme Court Valerii Zorkin; and the generals Valentin Varennikov, Albert Makashov, and Vladislav Achalov. The congress will be held under the slogan "A Russian Frontier from Kaliningrad to the Kuril Islands." According to Zyuganov, the goal of the congress is to "unite all anti-Yeltsin forces" and to demand preterm presidential elections in the spring of 1995. The leader of the ultranationalist Liberal Democratic Party, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, is not expected to attend the congress. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN SUPPORTERS OPPOSE POSTPONEMENT OF ELECTIONS. Holding elections promptly when the terms of the current president and parliament are due to expire is a top priority for Egor Gaidar, the leader of the proreform party Russia's Democratic Choice. In an interview with RFE/RL on 14 September Gaidar said that, throughout his travels across the whole of Russia, he had never met anyone in favor of either postponing the elections or calling them off entirely. (Such measures had been suggested by an influential State Duma deputy, Mikhail Poltoranin, and later by the chairman of the Council of the Federation, Vladimir Shumeiko; both had been elected on the ticket of Democratic Choice.) Also on 14 September Interfax cited two liberal Yeltsin aides, Georgii Satarov and Mark Urnov, as saying that they favored holding simultaneous elections to the parliament and the Presidency. The parliamentary elections are currently scheduled for December 1995 and the presidential ones for June 1996. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA WILLING TO REEXAMINE SWEDISH SUB CHARGES. Yurii Baturin, Yeltsin's national security adviser, said that Russian and Swedish experts would reexamine all the data connected with Swedish charges that Soviet and Russian submarines have been secretly entering Swedish waters for years. In comments published by ITAR-TASS on 14 September Baturin said that, according to the data available so far, Soviet and Russian submarines had not been involved, other than the notorious 1981 "Whiskey-on-the-rocks" incident. He also said that Russian experts had agreed that underwater sounds recorded by the Swedes in 1982 and 1992 had been caused by submarines, but that additional in-depth analysis of all the data would be required to determine their nationality. In August a former Swedish naval commander had said that he believed many of the sounds had been caused by animals, possibly seals or otters. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. GRACHEV WANTS TO PUSH ARMS EXPORTS. In an interview published by Interfax on 14 September, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said that Russia must regain its "traditional arms markets" in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and India and gain new ones in South-East Asia, Africa, and Latin America. He said that Russian arms were often superior to their Western counterparts and suggested that the substantial reduction in Russian arms sales in the past three years had been politically motivated. He charged that the United States and Western Europe had stepped in to take Russia's place. In the minister's view, inadequate financing of the Russian defense industry was the biggest hurdle to overcome. The Defense Ministry's information department said that the defense industry had not received 2.1 trillion rubles due to it under the 1994 national budget. Speaking to journalists at the Farnborough air show in England, the director-general of Rosvooruzheniye--Russia's arms exporter--said that the returns from arms sales in 1994 might be double the $2.2 billion 1993 total. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc. CLAIMANT TO RUSSIAN THRONE TO ENROLL IN ST. PETERSBURG NAVAL COLLEGE. Count Georgii Romanov, who is considered a possible candidate for the Russian throne, is to be enrolled in St. Petersburg's Nachimov Naval College, according to Moskovskie novosti (no. 37). Romanov, the 12-year-old grandson of Grand Count Vladimir Kirillovich, lives with his mother in Madrid and is currently studying at a private school in the United Kingdom. Several prominent Russian politicians have proposed the restoration of a constitutional monarchy in Russia with Georgii as tsar and Yeltsin acting as regent. If Count Georgii does enter the naval college, he will acquire Russian citizenship, which will enhance his supporters' chances of achieving a constitutional monarchy. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ADVERTISEMENTS SET UP. The Chamber of Trade and Industry of the Russian Federation, the Russian Union of Journalists, and the International Confederation for the Defense of Consumers' Rights have founded the National Council on Advertisements, Russian Television newscasts reported on 14 September. The idea of setting up such a body came in response to government moves against certain firms, such as MMM and Tibet, whose shares have been extensively advertised in Russia's broadcast and print media; in the course of this campaign the government prepared a draft law on advertising, making the production of "indecent" or "untruthful" advertisements a criminal offense. According to the Russian TV reports, the draft legislation has aroused concern among the managers of major Russian advertising agencies and other businessmen. The head of the Chamber of Trade and Industry, Sergei Smirnov, told Ostankino TV that the aim of the new council would be to establish order in the sphere of commercials "not by punitive measures but by creating a balance of interests" between the producers, distributors, and consumers of advertisements. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TENSIONS OVER REPATRIATION OF GEORGIANS TO ABKHAZIA. An Interfax report of 14 September quoted Abkhaz parliament Chairman Vladislav Ardzinba as claiming that Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Georgii Kondratev had initiated the mass repatriation of Georgian refugees to Abkhazia's Gali Raion beginning on that same day. The Abkhaz leadership termed Kondratev's move a provocation and violation of the existing agreement on repatriation, and it put troops on the alert to prevent a mass influx of refugees; spontaneous demonstrations took place in several Abkhaz towns to protest the anticipated return of the Georgian refugees. ITAR-TASS quoted a spokesman for the Russian Foreign Ministry as denying reports that Georgia and Russia had reached a separate agreement on the repatriation of refugees from Abkhazia on 12 September. Meanwhile a representative of the UNHCR told Reuters in Tbilisi that adequate measures had still not been taken to ensure the safety of Georgian refugees returning to Abkhazia. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KIEV SENDS MEDIATOR TO CRIMEA, THREATENS ACTION . . . Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma appointed Deputy Prime Minister Yevgenii Marchuk as special representative charged with ending the political crisis in Crimea, ITAR-TASS reported on 14 September. An aide to Kuchma said Crimean President Yurii Meshkov had agreed to Marchuk's appointment. The Crimean parliament's response is not known. The crisis in Crimea began on 11 September, when Meskov suspended the parliament after deputies voted to curb his powers. On 14 September, Kuchma renewed his "zero option" proposal, whereby the parliament would rescind its amendment on limiting Meshkov's powers and Meshkov would revoke decrees disbanding the parliament and imposing presidential rule. Meshkov has said he is agreed to Kuchma's proposal but the parliament has so far rejected it. Ukrainian National Security Service Secretary Volodymyr Gabulin said Kiev did not want the power struggle in Crimea to take a violent turn. He added that the Ukrainian authorities were prepared to take "serious measures" to prevent such a scenario. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. . . . WHILE CRIMEAN PARLIAMENT WANTS GOVERNMENT REPORT. The Crimean parliament has asked for a report by acting Prime Minister Yevgenii Saburov on the government's activities, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Simferopol on 14 September. Parliament leaders warned that if Saburov did not respond on 14 September, the parliament would vote on whether to call for the government's resignation. Government officials have said that until the crisis in Crimea is resolved, the government will not participate in parliament sessions. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. BELGRADE GIVES FORMAL NOD TO OBSERVERS. Rump Yugoslavia has officially consented to the stationing of international observers along Serbia's border with Bosnia, Tanjug reported on 14 September. The civilian monitors will determine whether Belgrade's embargo against the Bosnian Serbs is being observed. Only humanitarian aid is permitted to reach the Bosnian Serbs. Also on 14 September the head of the monitoring mission, former Swedish General Bo Pellnas, arrived in rump Yugoslavia to prepare for the stationing of 135 sanctions monitors. Meanwhile, an RFE/RL correspondent reported the same day that Croatia, at a CSCE meeting, opposed lifting sanctions against rump Yugoslavia, saying such a move would only serve to reward an aggressor. The Croat delegate reportedly took the floor after a Russian counterpart remarked that rump Yugoslavia ought to be rewarded with a lifting of sanctions for blockading Bosnian Serbs and accepting sanctions monitors along the border with Bosnia. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTING CROAT-MUSLIM FEDERATION. "A Big Step Forward" is how Vjesnik of 15 September headlines its coverage of talks between Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, and other Croat and Bosnian officials. The two-day talks, held in Zagreb on 13-14 September, focused on implementing an agreement on a Bosnian Muslim and Croat federation in advance of forming a confederation with Croatia. The original deal was struck in Washington in March 1994. Both Tudjman and Izetbegovic said after the meetings that great strides have been made toward achieving the federation. Izetbegovic observed that agreement was reached on opening roads, establishing joint municipal and other local districts, and creating a Croat-Muslim army under joint command. The Guardian of 14 September reports that the meetings between Izetbegovic and Tudjman have taken place during a nadir in Muslim-Croat relations and speculates that the purpose of the Zagreb meeting was "salvaging a five-month-old rapprochement in Bosnia which is threatening to relapse into warfare." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. BIHAC FIGHTING CONTINUES. International media on 14 September reported continued fighting in Bosnia. The Bihac pocket in northwestern Bosnia remains the scene of reportedly heavy combat. Both AFP and Reuters say that Muslim troops have begun to reclaim territories in Bihac recently lost to Serb forces. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. RUGOVA ADVOCATES CONFEDERATION WITH ALBANIA. Ibrahim Rugova, leader of the Kosovar Albanians, is now advocating Kosovo's union with Albania, the Serbian daily Borba reported on 13 September. Rugova is reportedly demanding that Kosovo reach some sort of confederation deal with Albania--but only if Bosnian Serbs are permitted to enter into a "Greater Serbia" union. The newspaper quotes him as saying that "if confederal relations between the Bosnian Serbs and Serbia are legalized, then we will immediately look for a similar arrangement with Albania." Rilindja of 13 September also reports on Rugova's new position, based on citations from the Serbian news agency Beta and other sources. Stan Markotich and Louis Zanga, RFE/RL Inc. WALESA: SOMEONE SHOULD RESIGN. Summing up his four-day state visit to Canada after returning to Warsaw on 14 September, President Lech Walesa said both sides expected impressive results from long-term plans for mutual cooperation, PAP reports. The Canadian government announced a US $2.8 million technical aid package for Poland and stressed its long-standing support for Poland's membership in NATO. Polish reporters , however, were more interested in Walesa's reactions to the latest twist in the saga of Poland's police chief. The post has been vacant since 12 August when Interior Minister Andrzej Milczanowski finally accepted the incumbent Zenon Smolarek's resignation in connection with press allegations of corruption. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak has the last word on the appointment of a new police chief and is intent on appointing his own candidate. He recently rejected Boguslaw Strzeclecki, who was nominated by Milczanowski and endorsed by the minister's political advisory committee and by Walesa. After Pawlak's own nominees were disqualified either on grounds of insufficient experience or failing health, he proposed on 11 September yet another relatively unknown but already controversial candidate, Krzysztof Dybiec. Walesa said "such obstacles and [political] games" at a time when the country is faced with internal and external security problems warranted the resignation of "someone higher up." He declined to specify whose resignation he had in mind but warned "this game has lasted too long." Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. POLAND SIGNS AGREEMENT WITH LONDON CLUB. Polish Finance Minister Grzegorz Kolodko on 14 September signed an agreement with the London Club, Poland's commercial creditors. He hailed it "the end of 15 years of abnormal financial relations between Poland and the world," PAP reports. The agreement, reached through lengthy negotiations that were described by Bernard Hunter of the Dresdner Bank as "hard but fair, " provides for a 49.2% reduction in Poland's debt to Western commercial banks, which totals almost $14 billion. The agreement enables Poland to buy back one-quarter of the debt incurred in the 1970s at a cost of 41 cents to the dollar for the principal and unpaid interest. The rest of the debt will be converted into 30-year bonds, which the creditors hope to exchange later for shares in the Polish economy. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. BAVARIA ASKS FOR CLARIFICATION OF CZECH SHOOTING INCIDENT. In a letter published on 14 September, Bavarian Internal Affairs Minister Gunther Beckstein asked his Czech counterpart, Jan Ruml, to take all necessary measures to clarify the 11 September incident in which a Czech policeman shot dead a 23-year-old German tourist near Frantiskovy Lazne. The policeman has argued that the tourist, who refused to stop his car when signaled to do so by the police, was suspected of having committed a criminal act. The ongoing investigation has indicated, however, that the policeman did not follow the usual procedures. Beckstein said Czech-Bavarian cooperation will benefit if Ruml informs him about the investigation. He also stressed he will do everything to make sure that the "young friendship" between the neighboring states does not suffer as a result of the incident. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. DLOUHY ON CZECH ECONOMY. Speaking at a Confederation of British Industry conference in London on 12 September, Czech Trade and Industry Minister Vladimir Dlouhy said the Czech Republic has virtually completed its mass privatization program. But he added that painful restructuring of the newly privatized companies lies ahead and the economy requires more foreign direct investment to penetrate new markets. The 13 September issue of the Financial Times reports Dlouhy as saying the Czech government now forecasts a 2-3% rise in GDP in 1994, fueled by rapid growth in service industries and an upturn in industrial output. Dlouhy identified the Czech Republic's high skill/low wage costs and undervalued currency as the economy's main assets. He warned, however, that these short-term advantages will be eroded as living standards rise and the government moves toward the full convertibility of the Czech koruna. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. SLOVAK PRESIDENT WARNS OF MECIAR CULT. Slovak President Michal Kovac has warned voters that Slovakia will be ruled by a dangerous personality cult if former Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar is reelected in the upcoming elections, international and Slovak media reported on 14 September. According to Reuters, Kovac says that a Meciar comeback would represent "an inadmissible revitalization of a cult of personality. The citizens don't wish to see promotion of hate in society." A presidential spokesman told CTK on 14 September that Kovac's statements were prompted, in particular, by an election poster featuring Meciar and the words "Mr. President, Only He Can Do It." Kovac says the poster calls on citizens to opt for "a strong-arm rule rather than partnership and cooperation." He adds that it is "dangerous to rely on one person, regardless of who it is," and he is convinced that even after the upcoming parliamentary elections, "some forces do not intend to respect constitutional institutions or to strive for creating an atmosphere of understanding and tolerance." Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia has protested Kovac's statements. It says the poster was produced by the Association of Citizens for Meciar, which is not part of the MDS. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. SLOVAK-SLOVENIAN AGREEMENT. Slovak Internal Affairs Minister Ladislav Pittner and his Slovenian counterpart, Andrej Ster, signed on 14 September an agreement on cooperatiion in fighting terrorism, organized crime, and narcotics trafficking. An accord was also signed on preventing illegal migration. TASR quotes Ster as saying that although illegal drugs are not a problem in Slovenia, his country is one of the drug smugglers' transit routes from the Balkan states to Western Europe. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. THIRTY SLOVAKS RECEIVE ISRAELI HONORS. On 13 September 30 Slovak citizens received the "Just among the Nations" award from Israeli Ambassador to Slovakia Josef Govrin. The award, Israel's highest, is given to people who distinguished themselves in saving Jews from the Nazis. Slovak media reported that Slovak President Michal Kovac and the chairman of Jewish Communities in Slovakia, Pavol Traubner, attended the ceremony. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIA COMPLETES JOINING PFP PROGRAM. At a ceremony in Brussels on 14 September, Romania became the third country, after Poland and Sweden, to complete the process of joining NATO's Partnership for Peace program. The ceremony was attended by a Romanian delegation that included Virgil Constantinescu of the Foreign Affairs Ministry and Mircea Ioan Pascu, state secretary at the National Defense Ministry. Both officials stressed that Romania sees the PFP program as a preliminary step toward full NATO membership. In January, Romania became the first former communist country to sign an agreement with NATO on the PFP program. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIAN CONSTRUCTION WORKERS STAGE PROTEST. Radio Bucharest reported on 13 September that hundreds of construction workers marched through Bucharest to protest pay arrears, falling living standards, the lack of job security, work conditions, high seasonal unemployment, and inflation. Representatives of trade unions in the construction sector presented the workers' complaints to the government and the two chambers of the parliament. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. MOLDOVA WANTS ROMANIA TO "RESPECT ITS INDEPENDENCE." At a news conference following acrimonious talks in Bucharest, Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu insisted that a bilateral treaty have a "special," even "unconventional" character. He also referred to Moldova as another "Romanian" state. Moldovan Foreign Minister Mihai Popov, speaking at the same news conference, said Romania is not Moldova's "special" partner but only one of a number of partners. He added that Moldova will sign a treaty "when Romania commits itself to respecting Moldova's independence and state sovereignty." Melescanu called for coordinating Romanian-Moldovan positions in the UN and other international bodies, but Popov said Moldova will support "any initiatives that accord with its interests." Popov also dismissed the familiar Romanian calls for "liquidating the consequences of the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact" (implying Romania's right to incorporate most of Moldova). Radio Bucharest, ITAR-TASS, and RFE/RL reported the news conference on 13-14 September. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. UN RESOLUTION ON AID TO MOLDOVA. The United Nations General Assembly on 14 September adopted a resolution on "Emergency Assistance to Moldova," ITAR-TASS reported. Expressing "deep concern over the enormous damage and devastation" wrought by drought, hurricanes, and floods in recent months, the General Assembly noted that the situation may "disrupt the Moldovan government's significant efforts to implement economic reforms." Assessing the damage at $600 million, the assembly called on all governments and international organizations to "urgently provide additional assistance to Moldova." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. ITALIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN ALBANIA. Antonio Martino's one-day visit to Tirana on 13 September has given rise to speculation that Rome will try to mediate in the current Greek-Albanian dispute. He told Corriere della Serra on 13 September that "we have not been asked to mediate, but of course if this is the case, we will be glad to try to help establish stability in the region." In talks on the continued illegal emigration of Albanians to Italy, Martino commented that "international cooperation must be intensified, especially within the European framework, so as to avoid another human exodus," Gazeta Shqiptare reported. He also noted that Albanian-Italian relations are "very good at present and will be better in the future." He identified the main areas of future cooperation as transportation, telecommunications, and culture. Louis Zanga, RFE/RL Inc. CHOLERA SPREADS IN ALBANIA. Some 130 people are reported to be suffering from cholera in the southern city of Kucova and the historical town of Berat, according to Gazeta Shqiptare on 14 September. Final confirmation is expected after analyses of the virus have been carried out in French laboratories. Medical teams from Tirana have been arriving in Kucova to help those stricken by the disease. The city is currently being supplied with water by tankers. The local government in Berat has convened an emergency session attended by medical and government officials from Tirana. Local citizens have been buying up anti-biotics and bottled water, and prices on these items have begun to rise. Preventive measures are being taken along the Albanian-Macedonian border. Louis Zanga, RFE/RL Inc. BALTIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERS SETS UP SECRETARIAT. The Secretariat of the Baltic Council of Ministers was officially opened in Riga on 13 September in the presence of Baltic Assembly President Egidius Bickauskas, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretary General Par Stenback, and the prime ministers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Latvian Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs, who also heads the BCM, said a new stage had begun in relations between the Baltic States. These countries resumed active cooperation at both the legislative and executive levels after regaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIAN OFFICIAL ON BALTIC-RUSSIAN RELATIONS. Sergei Prikhodko, a senior official at the Russian Foreign Ministry, told the RIA news agency on 14 September that his country regards the ratification of troop withdrawal accords with Latvia and Estonia as a priority. Noting that the Russian State Duma and the Latvian Saiema are currently examining those documents, he claimed Estonia's attitude was unclear, especially on account of statements by leading Estonian politicians who question even the need to have those documents ratified. He added that if the Estonian parliament fails to ratify the accords, this will show "Estonia's inconsistency not only toward Russia but also the CSCE." In this context, he noted "it was the CSCE that called on both Russia and Estonia to conclude the agreements and pull out the troops." The text of the relevant CSCE document differs from Prikhodko's account. BNS reported on 14 September that the Estonian Justice Ministry earlier that day received for inspection the texts of the Estonian-Russian agreements. Some of the documents were returned from Moscow to Tallinn only last week. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. ESTONIAN MINISTER TO PRESIDE OVER WHO COMMITTEE. BNS reported on 14 September that Estonian Social Affairs Minister Marju Lauristin was elected president of the World Health Organization's European Committee. In this capacity, she will preside over plenary meetings of the regional committee during the next twelve months. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Eileen Downing and Jan Cleave The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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