Самое трудное - познать самого себя, самое легкое - давать советы другим. - Фалес
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 173, 12 September 1994


CHECHNYA QUIET? In an interview with Interfax on 9 September,
Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev called on the Russian leadership
to cease financing and arming the Chechen opposition. On 10
September, Umar Avturkhanov, the chairman of the opposition
Provisional Council, told Interfax that a non-violent outcome to
the conflict was still possible if Dudaev agreed to free elections
and a nationwide referendum on the state system. After a meeting
later that day, however, between Avturkhanov and former Russian
parliament speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov (who the previous day had
characterized the situation in Chechnya as "white-hot" and alleged
that "we are being hunted by terrorists"), a Provisional Council
spokesman told ITAR-TASS that Khasbulatov's peace mission had
failed and that the two men had come to an agreement on measures
to oust Dudaev. The situation in Chechnya on 11 September was
described by the Chechen Interior Ministry as "absolutely normal."
Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

Ivan Rybkin told Interfax on 11 September that Chechnya must be
regarded as a constituent part of the Russian Federation, but that
he supported "the appropriate broad rights" and the holding of
democratic elections, after which Chechnya should conclude an
agreement on powersharing with Russia similar to those with
Tatarstan and Bashkortostan. Gadis Gadzhiev, a judge of the
Russian Constitutional Court, argued that although Chechnya has
not signed the Federation Treaty it is still a constituent part of
the Russian Federation under the terms of the Russian Federation
Constitution. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai told
Interfax on 10 September that he anticipated a further
intensification of the Chechen situation in the coming weeks, but
was confident that in the long term ongoing economic collapse
would produce a political solution; according to Russian Deputy
Labor Minister Vladimir Varov, industrial output in Chechnya
declined by 60% over the past year and half of Chechnya's industry
is at a standstill.  Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

Acting Russian Prosecutor-General Aleksei Ilyushenko called on the
government of the Russian Federation to restore federal
jurisdiction over the breakaway Chechen republic immediately,
ITAR-TASS reported on 11 September. A further delay in the
restoration of law and order in Chechnya could pose a serious
threat to the constitutional order and national security of Russia
as well as represent a severe violation of the human rights of
Russian citizens, Ilyushenko said. According to Moskovskie novosti
(no. 35), Ilyushenko's statement is in line with the analysis of
the situation in Chechnya prepared by President Boris Yeltsin's
adviser for ethnic relations, Emil Pain. In Pain's opinion,
Russian policy toward Chechnya must be based on the assumption
that the regime of Chechen President Dudaev is on the verge of
collapse.  Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.

Ostankino TV devoted its "Man of the Week" program to the Moscow
prosecutor, Gennadii Ponomarev, who is currently under fire from
acting Russian Prosecutor-General Ilyushenko, ostensibly because
of his failure to deal adequately with Moscow's crime problem. The
Ostankino report echoed those in other Russian media, such as
Izvestiya of 3 September, accusing Ilyushenko of actually trying
to dismiss Ponomarev because of his professional integrity in
refusing to imprison former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi on
trumped-up charges. Last year, in his capacity as chief of the
presidential Commission on Combating Crime and Corruption,
Ilyushenko and three other top Russian officials accused Rutskoi
of grave financial violations by accumulating illegally obtained
money in a Swiss bank account and turned the case over to the
Moscow Prosecutor's Office for investigation. A few months later,
a detective responsible for Rutskoi's case said that the charges
of financial abuse leveled against the former vice president were
unfounded and that Rutskoi's signature on the copy of the Swiss
account, which had been shown on both channels of Russian TV by
members of Ilyushenko's commission, was a forgery. Today, the
media accuse Ilyushenko of using Moscow's crime problem as a
pretext to fire Ponomarev and thus get revenge for the latter's
refusal to imprison Rutskoi.  Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIA TO WORK WITH NATO, BUT . . . During his visit to Denmark,
Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said that Russia intended
to sign an individual program for cooperation with NATO under the
auspices of the Partnership for Peace program. On 11 September
Interfax indicated that this document would be signed in October.
The previous day the same agency carried an interview with Russian
Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev in which he debunked "the moods
reigning in several states of the Central and Eastern Europe which
view the Partnership for Peace program as a kind of preparatory
training for joining NATO." He noted that Partnership for Peace
was open to all members of the CSCE and repeated Russia's
preference for this latter organization, saying that what was
needed was "a truly European security system for which the CSCE
grants quite an appropriate ground." Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.

MAVRODI MAY RUN FOR PARLIAMENT. Shareholders in the MMM investment
company have launched a campaign to elect MMM President Sergei
Mavrodi to a vacant seat in the lower house of the Russian
parliament, the State Duma, Izvestiya reported on 10 September.
The vote is scheduled for 30 October. Mavrodi is currently in
Matrosskaya Tishina prison on charges of tax evasion and
obstructing the work of the tax authorities. If elected, Mavrodi
would be immune from prosecution. MMM shareholders have managed to
establish a strong political movement; and Russia's two largest
non-communist political parties--Democratic Russia, which helped
bring Yeltsin to power, and Vladimir Zhirinovsky's Liberal
Democrats--are currently wooing Mavrodi's supporters.  Julia
Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

latest signal that Russia is reconsidering the troop withdrawal
agreement with Moldova, initialed on 10 August but not yet signed,
Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Krylov told Interfax on 7 September
that Moldova "should decide for itself whether it wants a foreign
army or not" on its territory (an issue on which Chisinau's views
could hardly have been made more clear). Krylov's comment follows
other Russian statements hinting that the 14th Army could stay in
Moldova "by mutual consent." Krylov argued that because a
withdrawal had been agreed in principle and linked to a political
solution of the Dniester conflict, "the 14th Army's presence in
Moldova is thereby legitimate." He went on to praise the 14th Army
and Lebed personally for "stabilizing" the region. Lieutenant
General Aleksandr Lebed, for his part, predicted in an interview
with Kommersant of 3 September that Moldova would eventually
concede basing rights to units of the 14th Army. In an interview
with Der Spiegel (no. 36), Lebed termed the withdrawal agreement
(negotiated by one of his rivals in the Defense Ministry)
"idiotic." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

Television Academy was set up in Moscow on 7 September. The new
body was founded by the state-controlled Ostankino and Russian
Television companies; the independent companies NTV, TV-6, and "2
x 2"; and some other bodies. At its opening meeting, the academy
elected 12 members, including the director of Russian TV, Anatolii
Lysenko; the popular commentator Vladimir Pozner was elected
chairman of the body, and a program presenter, Vladislav Listev,
deputy president. A Foundation for Television Development, chaired
by Ostankino First Deputy Chairman Grigorii Shevelev, was also
established on 7 September.  Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.


TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. An official of Tajikistan's Ministry of Defense
told Interfax on 10 September that Tajik opposition units had
captured the town of Tavil-Dara east of Dushanbe the previous day,
blocking a main road from the capital to the southern and eastern
parts of the country. The official said that government troops had
sustained major losses and were retreating toward the town of
Kulyab. On 11 September, Minister of Security Saidamir Zukhurov
told Interfax that Dushanbe had lost communication with government
troops in the Tavil-Dara area and refused to confirm the earlier
report of a retreat. An opposition source told Interfax that
government troops were offering little resistance because they
were short of fuel and ammunition and that they had little air
support because the government has no aircraft fuel. Russian
troops are reported to be staying out of the fighting inside
Tajikistan; they consider their only task to be protection of the
Tajik-Afghan border.  Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

KARABAKH TALKS. Despite hints by Russian Foreign Minister Kozyrev
on 9 September of a "breakthrough" in the talks in Moscow between
Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan and his Azerbaijani
counterpart Heidar Aliev, a further round of talks on 10 September
failed to resolve "fundamental disagreements," according to
Reuters quoting Armenian presidential spokesman Levon Zurabyan. On
11 September, the opposition Dashnaktsyutyun released a statement
in Erevan arguing that no draft Karabakh settlement document can
be considered acceptable unless it recognizes the self-proclaimed
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic as an independent entity, according to
Interfax. Meeting in Baku on 10 September with members of the
Azerbaijani leadership, Turkish Foreign Minister Mumtaz Soysal
affirmed his country's readiness to extend "help and support" to
Azerbaijan.  Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

the opposition Azerbaijan Popular Front were injured and 77
people, including former Interior Minister Iskender Hamidov, were
arrested on 10 September when police forcibly prevented a
demonstration in Baku to protest the Azerbaijani leadership's
Karabakh policy and the possible deployment of Russian
peacekeeping troops in Azerbaijan, Western news agencies reported.
Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.


At a meeting in Moscow on 9 September, the Council of Heads of
Government of the CIS member states approved in principle the
formation of the CIS Interstate Economic Committee (IEC) as the
first supranational body of the CIS, vested with executive and
managerial powers (as detailed in RFE/RL Daily Report, 9
September). According to initial reports in the Russian media, IEC
decisions will be made by consensus on "important" matters that
involve "substantial" expenditures and by a majority of 80% of the
votes, of which Russia will be entitled to cast 50% (in proportion
to its share of the IEC's expenditures), on the other issues. The
IEC will have a standing executive Presidium and a Collegium, both
to be based in Moscow. The meeting did not conclusively define the
extent of sovereign powers to be delegated by states to the IEC,
nor the precise mechanism for delegating them. These matters are
to be discussed by the presidents of the CIS member states at a
meeting scheduled for early October. Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan
declined to sign the documents, reserving their position until the
summit. Ukraine voiced reservations regarding the idea of
supranational powers.  Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

President Yurii Meshkov issued a decree suspending the Crimean
parliament and local councils. He also assumed all powers in the
republic, various agencies report. Meshkov justified the move by
saying the current parliament "does not deserve" to conduct
legislative work because it has been "seized by a corrupt group."
According to the decree, a draft constitution is to be drawn up by
9 December and put to a referendum on 9 April 1995. New elections
to the Crimean legislature are to be scheduled within three months
of the referendum and new local bodies created. The decree
followed the parliament's decision on 7 September to curtail the
president's powers. Following Meshkov's announcement, the
parliament building was cordoned off and law enforcement units
loyal to Meshkov were reported to have seized the Crimean
television center. Crimean Prosecutor-General Valentyn Kuptsov
said Meshkov's action contravened the law on the president,
according to which the president does not have the right to
dissolve or suspend the parliament. Parliamentary speaker Serhii
Tsekov and Refat Chubarov, the head of the Crimean Tatar
parliamentary faction, were reported as saying that Meshkov's
moves contravened the constitution. Interfax, however, reported
that Crimean Minister of State Affairs Viktor Minin took a neutral
stand after meeting with Meshkov later that day. Minin said some
60% of the heads of the peninsula's local administrations
supported Meshkov.  Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

KUCHMA ON SITUATION IN CRIMEA. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma
reacted by calling for calm and urging that the Crimean parliament
and Meshkov find a "civilized" solution. Crimean Minister of State
Affairs Viktor Minin told Russian radio that Kuchma had spoken
with parliamentary chairman Tsekov and asked Meshkov to receive
him so that the two could discuss normalizing the situation. Minin
also implied that Kuchma had prior knowledge of Meshkov's plans to
suspend the parliament, citing telephone conversations between the
two leaders since the Crimean parliament's 7 September decision.
Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

POPE VISITS CROATIA. On 10 September Pope John Paul II arrived in
Zagreb for his first visit to a republic of the former Yugoslavia.
The visit, which lasted some 24 hours, coincided with the 900th
anniversary of the founding of the Zagreb archdiocese. An outdoor
mass on the morning of 11 September attracted an estimated 1
million worshippers, Hina reported. Before leaving Croatia, the
pontiff called for an end to the hostilities in the former
Yugoslavia and urged Croatians to forgive the transgressions by
neighboring nations. He remarked: "You have the courage to forgive
and accept your neighbor." The main message of the Pope's visit
was one of peace, with the pontiff observing that amicable
relations between the peoples of the former Yugoslavia were not a
distant dream but a realizable objective. The pope had planned to
visit Sarajevo on 8 September, but the visit was postponed when
the pontiff's safety could not be guaranteed.  Stan Markotich,
RFE/RL, Inc.

was fired into the hotel room of European Administrator for Mostar
Hans Koschnik in what Hina describes as "an assassination
attempt." Koschnik was not in his room at the time of the attack.
The next day Croatian President Franjo Tudjman's office reported
that Tudjman had promised German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel he
would use his influence with the Bosnian Croats to guarantee
Koschnik and his associates' safety.  Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

European Union to mediate in the Greek-Albanian dispute over the
conviction of five minority Greeks on espionage charges, the
steady stream of accusations and counteraccusations continues,
Western agencies report. At a press conference on 10 September,
Albanian Foreign Minister Alfred Serreqi accused Athens of
supplying arms to ethnic Greeks and thereby trying to undermine
Albanian sovereignty. The Foreign Ministry also complained that
Greece had virtually sealed its border with Albania and closed
down its consulate in the town of Gjirokastra. On 11 September
Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou said Tirana was seeking to
wipe out the Greek minority in Albania. The same day German
Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel revealed that EU mediation efforts
"did not even get close" to solving the dispute. Athens claims the
trial, which ended on 7 September with jail sentences of up to
eight years for the five Greeks, was politically motivated and
fraught with human rights abuses. The Helsinki Federation for
Human Rights supports this view.  Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

have founded the Albanian Society for the Welfare of Prisoners,
whose main objective is to improve prison conditions in Albania,
Gazeta Shqiptare reports on 3 September. Albania has seven prisons
(two in Tirana) with a total capacity of 1,550; some 880 people
are currently serving prison sentences. In its first report, the
society notes that living conditions are poor, the treatment of
prisoners harsh, and food and drinking water supplies
insufficient. It concludes that the Albanian prison system is
incompatible with a truly democratic society. The group wants the
prisoners' rights to be guaranteed and provisions to be made for
the rehabilitation of released prisoners.  Louis Zanga, RFE/RL,

PARTNERSHIP MANEUVERS IN POLAND. Some 920 soldiers from 13
countries are taking part in the "Cooperative Bridge 94"
maneuvers, which began in Biedrusk, near Poznan, on 12 September,
PAP reports. American, British, Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch,
German, Italian, Lithuanian, Polish, Slovakian, Romanian, and
Ukrainian units are participating. These are the first such
maneuvers to be held within the framework of NATO's Partnership
for Peace. The aim is to train military units for international
peacekeeping missions. The troops are divided into five
multinational companies under Polish-American command. The Russian
military initially failed to respond to an invitation to take part
but ultimately sent observers, according to Polish TV. Polish
Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk said on 9 September that he
"deeply regretted" the fact that his Russian counterpart, Pavel
Grachev, had not found time for "a few hours' serious
conversation" in Warsaw. The same day Interfax quoted a
high-ranking official in the Russian Foreign Ministry as
criticizing Kolodziejczyk's idea, first voiced in Bratislava on 5
September, of "a club of active NATO partners" that would include
some of the Central and East European countries. The Russian
official described the idea as returning to "a bloc mentality."
Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc.

CHERNOMYRDIN VISITS KATYN. Russian Prime Minister Viktor
Chernomyrdin, on a visit to the Smolensk district on 9 September,
spoke with the Polish government's team of experts who are
examining the Katyn forest graves of Polish officers murdered on
Stalin's orders in 1940. The Poles have met with a lack of
cooperation on the part of the Smolensk authorities, despite the
fact that their work is based on a Polish-Russian government
agreement. Chernomyrdin reassured the Poles that the local
authorities would provide the promised support. He declined,
however, to answer Polish reporters who pressed him for a more
detailed commitment. The team was able to allay fears that the
bodies of the Polish officers had been moved from the graves
during excavations in 1943 or 1944, Gazeta Wyborcza writes.  Anna
Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc.

COUP IN SELF-DEFENSE FARMERS' UNION? Taking advantage of the fact
that incumbent chairman of the radical Self-Defense Farmers' Union
Andrzej Lepper has been in custody since 13 August, union members
elected Janusz Bryczkowski--head of the self-styled Polish
National Front and, until his expulsion in 1993, a deputy chairman
of Self-Defense--as chairman at a breakaway congress convened by
Bryczkowski on 10 September in Warsaw, PAP reports. Bryczkowski
and his supporters dissociated themselves from Lepper and
dismissed the union's statutory authority, the National Council. A
few streets away, 72 of the 98 members of that body denounced the
breakaway congress as illegal and upheld the claims of Lepper,
whom they described as "the first political prisoner of the Third
Republic." Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc.

CZECH PREMIER ON WESTERN EUROPE. In the current issue of The
Economist, Vaclav Klaus argues that Western Europe is burdened
with over-regulation and over-control. "The welfare state, with
its generous transfer of payments unconnected to achievement,
undermines the basic work ethic and thus individual
responsibility," writes Klaus. He also criticizes West European
states for protectionist trade policies and heavy bureaucracy.
"The visible manifestations of Western Europe's failure to
reform," he argues, "include a wasteful and socially explosive
rate of unemployment--and one which seems, moreover, to respond
little to changes in the rate of economic growth and in the
business cycle." Klaus distinguishes between European economic
integration, of which he approves, and European political
unification, which he criticizes. He also expresses reservations
about the idea of a two-speed Europe.  Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

PRAVDA ON SLOVAK ELECTIONS. The 10 September issue of the Slovak
leftist daily Pravda criticizes the decision of the Slovak
authorities not to invite foreign observers to monitor the
upcoming elections. Pravda argues that the decision is a "mistake"
and could be misinterpreted as "intentional." The daily says it is
paradoxical that "the parliamentary elections, which are not only
the first in independent Slovakia but are also being held early,
will take place without representatives of international
organizations." It notes that in some quarters doubts have already
been cast on the fairness of the elections and that some groups
may thus question the election results. "Given this possibility,
concern that the presence of foreign observers would demean
Slovakia is unfounded," wrote the daily.  Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

ceremonies on 9 and 10 September, Hungary and Germany celebrated
the opening five years ago of the Hungarian border to East Germans
fleeing communism, MTI and Western news agencies report. The mass
exodus of East German citizens led to the fall of the Berlin Wall
in November 1989. On 9 September Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula
Horn, who at the time was foreign minister in the reform communist
government of Miklos Nemeth, attended a ceremony in Bonn marking
the event. German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel paid tribute to
the Hungarian gesture, praising it as "the first step on the way
to German unity and a new Europe." At a ceremony in Budapest on 10
September, German President Roman Herzog expressed Germany's
gratitude to Hungary and pledged to help that country reach its
goal of joining the European Union and NATO.  Edith Oltay, RFE/RL,

Assembly on 10 and 11 September, the Hungarian Democratic
Forum--the largest ruling party in Hungary's first democratically
elected government following the collapse of communism--analyzed
the reasons for its defeat in the May 1994 elections and reelected
Lajos Fur as its chairman, MTI reports. While citing the
difficulties of the transition to a market economy as one of the
main reasons for the party's poor showing, Fur acknowledged that
"we were not adequately acquainted with Hungarian reality and did
not properly evaluate public opinion." A statement issued by the
assembly noted that the HDF's biggest mistake had been its failure
to establish "an effective dialogue with society." While many
delegates stressed the need for changes within the HDF, Fur
pledged to follow the course set by its late chairman Jozsef
Antall. Delegates also criticized the Horn government for deciding
not to host the 1996 World Expo and accused it of conducting
"political purges" at media, government, and state institutions.
Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.

arrived in Bucharest for a four-day official visit. He met with
his Romanian counterpart, Gheorghe Tinca, to discuss ways of
increasing military cooperation between the two countries. Golhan
is scheduled to meet with Romanian President Ion Iliescu and other
high-ranking officials. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

Minister Chernomyrdin has ruled out monetary union with Belarus in
the near future, various agencies reported on 10 September.
Chernomyrdin, who was attending the CIS meeting the previous day
in Moscow, said Belarus must reach Russia's economic level before
such a union is feasible. The average Belarusian income is
currently less than one-tenth of the Russian average. Although
Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka was an ardent supporter
of monetary union during the recent election campaign, he has
since questioned a number of key points in the draft agreement--in
particular, handing over control of monetary emission and policy
to the Russian Central Bank. Russia, however, considers it
unacceptable to have two monetary policies and currency emission
centers within the ruble zone.  Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

said Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka is planning to
assume control over the country's border guards, Interfax reported
on 8 September. The reason for the move is the border guards' poor
performance in stemming illegal immigration across the
Belarusian-Polish border. Many of the illegal immigrants are
Africans or Asians who arrive in Belarus from Russia and then
attempt to enter the West through Poland. On 30 August Lukashenka
dismissed the commander of the border forces, Yeuhen Bocherau, who
is a close associate of former Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich.
Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

establishment of a Baltic peacekeeping battalion was signed by the
defense ministers of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark,
Norway, Finland, and Britain on 11 September in Copenhagen, Baltic
and Western agencies report. The Swedish government had announced
earlier that Nordic and British officers would train their Baltic
counterparts at the military base in Adazi, Latvia, and that the
Nordic countries would also be in charge of training for
peacekeeping operations and supplying equipment. British officers
would be responsible for basic training and education in English,
the common language of the Baltic battalion. The US has pledged
materiel support for the battalion.  Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

fact-finding trip to the Baltics, CSCE High Commissioner for
Minorities Max van der Stoel met with representatives of national
minorities and government officials in Latvia, Interfax reported
on 9 September. He told Latvian Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs that
he did not see why Latvia should not be admitted to the Council of
Europe. Van der Stoel expressed the hope that a decision on the
admission of Latvia would be made at the council's fall session.
He added that the Latvian Citizenship Act, passed by the
parliament in July, largely followed the advice of the CSCE, the
Council of Europe and other international organizations. On 8
September ,UN representative John Hendra submitted to Birkavs a
report prepared by the UN mission on the draft of the national
program on human rights, LETA reported. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL,

Latvia's Way endorsed the ministerial candidates named by Prime
Minister-designate Maris Gailis, Latvian media report. Many of the
incumbent ministers and deputy ministers will retain their
positions, especially those from LW. The incumbent prime minister
and LW party chairman, Valdis Birkavs, is to become foreign
minister. Gailis nominated new candidates for the following
positions: justice (Romans Apsitis), defense (Janis Trapans),
environment and regional development (Juris Iesalnieks),
agriculture (Arijs Udris), welfare (Andris Berzins), finance
(Andris Piebalgs), and economics (Janis Zvanitajs). Janis Tupesis
was named as candidate for state (deputy) minister for human
rights. It is not clear if the LW nominee for finance minister has
the full approval of the deputies of the Economists Political
Association, with which LW has decided to cooperate in the
parliament. The parliament is to vote on the new government on 15
September.  Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

  [As of 1200 CET]

  Compiled by Penny Morvant and Jan Cleave
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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