|I go to encounter for the millionth time the reality of my existence, and to forge in the smithy of my soul the uncreated conscience of my race. - James Joyce|
No. 172, 9 September 1994
RUSSIA CHECHNYA: DUDAEV RULES OUT TALKS WITH OPPOSITION. Speaking at a press conference in Grozny on 8 September, President Dzhokhar Dudaev rejected talks with the opposition, whom he described as "groups of murderers and rapists," according to Reuters. A spokesman for the opposition Provisional Council told ITAR-TASS that despite the rout of Ruslan Labazanov's forces by government troops, the opposition still did not exclude the possibility of ousting Dudaev by force. In Moscow, the head of the Russian Presidential Administration, Sergei Filatov, told journalists that talks between President Boris Yeltsin and Dudaev "were out of the question"; the deputy chairman of the Federation Council, Ramazan Abdulatipov, similarly asserted that Dudaev had forfeited the moral right to claim a dialogue with the Russian president. ITAR-TASS reported from Stavropol that the number of refugees fleeing Chechnya had tripled in recent days. Interfax, quoting a source within the Russian Ministry of Health, claimed that there were dozens, if not hundreds of cholera cases in Chechnya; Russian Minister of Public Health Eduard Nechaev has called for strict quarantine between Chechnya and neighboring Daghestan, where the cholera outbreak is reported to be waning after claiming at least a dozen lives. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. MILITARY OPINION SURVEY. A survey of political views among Russian officers from all service branches, conducted by the Moscow-based Sinus organization on behalf of the German Social Democratic Party's Friedrich Ebert Foundation and highlighted in the current issue (no. 36) of Der Spiegel, finds growing support for authoritarian rule over society, restiveness in the ranks, and "a trend toward secret organization." Sixty-two percent of the overall sample subscribe to the view that Russia requires "authoritarian rule" to solve its problems; less than half approve of the government's introduction of market reforms and private ownership; and 80% aspire to "Russia's restoration as a great power respected in the entire world." Some individual officers acknowledged participating in the proceedings of secret, self-styled "courts" which passed symbolic death sentences on the commanders of the October 1993 operation that crushed Yeltsin's adversaries. Absolute majorities of the respondents "do not want Yeltsin as president" or Pavel Grachev as defense minister. (A military opinion poll in Moscow in June also found widespread opposition to Grachev). The Sinus pollsters contrasted the politicization of the officer corps with the political apathy of the civilian population. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. LEBED WAITING IN THE WINGS? The survey also found that the officers favored by a wide margin Lieutenant General Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, as the man to introduce "a strong-arm policy" or even "a Bonapartist solution" (understood to entail a quest by Lebed for the Presidency). Lebed has indeed recently signaled interest in the post of defense minister and the Presidency, and has publicly and repeatedly criticized both Yeltsin and Grachev. Interviewed in the same issue of Der Spiegel, Lebed again attacked Grachev for allegedly understating the extent of the armed forces' problems and for failing to introduce the promised military reforms; he also criticized Yeltsin for appointing General Matvei Burlakov as deputy minister of defense despite the scandal involving the sale of military material by Russian forces in Germany under Burlakov's command. At a news conference at his headquarters in Tiraspol on 7 September, reported by an RFE/RL correspondent, Lebed said he would continue his military career but did not rule out political involvement "if the circumstances require it." He told a group of visiting Orthodox clerics from Russia and Serbia: "I am not a believer but will fight for Russian Orthodoxy." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV: RUSSIA WILL NOT JOIN NATO. At a Copenhagen press conference on 8 September the Russian defense minister said that Russian membership in NATO had been ruled out. According to Interfax, he added that Russia would also be "pained" by any expansion of the North Atlantic Alliance. Russia, along with most former members of the Warsaw Pact and successor states of the Soviet Union has joined the NATO-sponsored Partnership for Peace, but has tried to push the CSCE as Europe's primary security organization. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. FILATOV MEETS CHIEFS OF RUSSIAN MEDIA. At a meeting with chief editors of Russian newspapers and managers of Russian radio and television, Yeltsin's head of administration said that the media "simply must support the president" against the opposition when the latter mark the first anniversary of the bloody events of September-October 1993, when Yeltsin dissolved the parliament by decree and sent in tanks to fire on the building, Russian TV reported on 8 September. According to "Vesti," the editors, in turn, complained about the unreasonable financial demands of the Russian Ministry of Communications, which make it difficult for them to survive the current economic crisis. The newscast quoted the chairman of the Moscow Union of Journalists, Pavel Gusev, as saying that the 1996 election campaign is close and that journalists expect Yeltsin to make "a lot of promises" to buy their support, and that thereupon the president "will, of course, deceive us, as he has always done." Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. MOSCOW MARKS ANNIVERSARY OF PRIEST'S ASSASSINATION. An international conference marking the fourth anniversary of the death of Father Aleksandr Men opened in Moscow on 7 September, ITAR-TASS reported the same day. The conference is being supported by an exhibition of Father Aleksandr's books at the Moscow Library of Foreign Literature. Also on 7 September, the library's French Cultural Center hosted a presentation of the book Aleksandr Men: A Witness of His Time by the French author Yves Hamand. A Russian Orthodox priest and prolific writer, Father Aleksandr played a key role in Russia's religious revival during the last decades of the communist regime; he also made an invaluable contribution to the dialogue between the Russian Orthodox Church and other Christian confessions. In the 1980s the authorities repeatedly threatened to arrest Father Aleksandr for publishing abroad. He was killed by an ax blow on 9 September 1990. Both Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin promised to personally take charge of the investigation into his assassination; nonetheless, the murderer has never been identified, and the case was closed a few weeks ago. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. INTERVIEW WITH SHAIMIEV. In an interview with Sevodnya of 3 September, Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev discussed the consequences of the treaty concluded with Russia six months ago on delimiting authority. Shaimiev made the point that the failure of the Russian Federation Council to vote in favor of increasing the defense budget has had an adverse effect on the economy of Kazan, where a very large proportion of the population is employed in the military industrial complex; but overall, he said, there are "more pluses than minuses" with respect to the economy. He indicated that Tatarstan is attracting investment from abroad (without specifying which countries are involved) and that it has also been offered credits. He said the agricultural sector was booming thanks to government support but conceded that there were "problems" within the parliament, adding: "Of course, we have various political movements with varying viewpoints, but I would not say that certain political forces have succeeded in undermining power to the extent that this has happened in Russia." Shaimiev endorsed Yeltsin's candidacy in the next Russian presidential elections despite the fact that relations between them have been somewhat strained and the negotiations that led to the signing of the treaty were not exactly a "bed of roses." Charles Carlson, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIA TO JOIN PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. Armenia, one of the last former Soviet republics not yet to have done so, will sign up for NATO's Partnership for Peace program on 5 October, according to AFP of 8 September quoting a NATO spokesman. Armenian Defense Minister Serzh Sarkisyan had visited Brussels in May 1994 to discuss possible PFP membership, but the Armenian leadership reportedly considered that any military cooperation with Turkey was impossible as long as Ankara continued to support Azerbaijan in the Karabakh conflict. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. TAJIK OPPOSITION TAKES CONTROL OF RAION? According to an ITAR-TASS report from Dushanbe on 8 September, some 150 members of the Tajik opposition seized control of raion administration buildings and local Communist Party headquarters in the Darvaza Raion of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast on the evening of 7 September. There was no independent confirmation of assertions by opposition forces in Badakhshan that the opposition had gained control of the entire raion, and military sources in Dushanbe categorically denied the story, though a source in the security services said that an opposition group had indeed attacked the town of Darvaza. The same day, Tajik opposition leader Otakhon Latifi was quoted by various Russian news agencies as approving of the postponement of the presidential election in Tajikistan and saying that the question of opposition participation was not yet resolved. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CRISIS IN KYRGYZSTAN CONTINUES. On 8 September two leftist political parties and five political movements in Kyrgyzstan issued a statement calling on President Askar Akaev to ensure that the scheduled session of the Kyrgyz Supreme Soviet takes place, ITAR-TASS reported. More than half the deputies have announced that they will not attend if the session is held, so there would be no quorum. The deputies were to set a date for a parliamentary election. The political groups also called on Akaev to ensure that all political parties are represented in the Central Election Commission, and asked him to set up an interim government in which all political forces in Kyrgyzstan would be included. After the government of Prime Minister Apas Dzhumagulov resigned in the wake of the parliamentary crisis, Akaev asked Dzhumagulov to head a caretaker government. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS CIS ECONOMIC INTEGRATION MEASURES. Meeting in Moscow on 7 and 8 September, the CIS Coordinating Consultative Committee (CCC) at deputy prime ministerial level agreed in principle to long-standing Russian proposals to create an Interstate Economic Committee (IEC) as the first supranational body of the CIS, vested with executive and managerial powers and to which the states would transfer certain national prerogatives. According to CIS Executive Secretary Ivan Korotchenya, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin, and Minister for Economic Cooperation with CIS States Vladimir Mashich in interviews with Interfax, the CCC has agreed to make the IEC the standing executive body of the CIS Economic Union; the IEC will control the implementation of decisions and take over jurisdiction of "transnational systems," such as power grids, oil and gas pipelines, transport, and communications, and of "CIS property" or "jointly owned assets of member states," such as industrial and financial corporations. The CCC has agreed that Russia will provide 50% of the financing and have 50% of the votes in the IEC; the remaining 50% are still to be apportioned among the other 11 states. The CCC has further agreed to task the IEC with the transition toward a payments union, meant to evolve into a monetary union, and a CIS-wide free-trade zone, meant to evolve into a customs union and a common market with free movement of commodities, capital, and labor. On this latter bloc of issues, IEC decisions will be made by consensus among the interested parties. The CCC-approved documents are being submitted to a meeting of the Council of Heads of Government on 9 September in Moscow. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS LAUNCH BIHAC OFFENSIVE. On 8 September international agencies reported that Bosnian Serb forces, together with Serb forces from the Serb-occupied territories in Croatia commonly known as Krajina, had launched a major offensive against Bosnian government troops in the Bihac pocket, in northwestern Bosnia. According to Hina, at least 500 soldiers and seven tanks from Krajina may be involved in the offensive. The incident is believed to be the first in which Bosnian Serbs have teamed up with rebel Serbs from Croatia against Bosnian government forces. At least 1,000 Serbian infantry men, along with heavy artillery and tanks, are reportedly involved in the fighting. Meanwhile, Reuters reported that Serb forces fired a surface-to-air missile at two NATO planes on 8 September; neither aircraft was hit. The same day AFP cited as yet "unconfirmed reports" that the Bosnian Serb Army appeared to be waging attacks against strategic targets around Sarajevo in what may prove to be a bid to retake territories won by Bosnian government forces. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. MILOSEVIC PREPARED TO ACCEPT MONITORS? According to AFP on 8 September, French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe said Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic had accepted in principle the idea of stationing monitors along Serbia's border with Bosnia. The monitors would ensure that Serbia's embargo against the Bosnian Serbs is enforced. Juppe's statement was based on information provided by international mediators Lord Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg. Juppe added that Owen and Stoltenberg would be charged with the task of hammering out, with Belgrade, the technical details enabling the monitors to be dispatched. Juppe also observed that the "contact group"--composed of France, Germany, Britain, Russia, and the United States--will encourage the UN to consider lifting at least some sanctions against the rump Yugoslavia, "provided that the [monitoring] shows that the embargo against Bosnian Serbs is effective." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIA'S PENDING CABINET SHUFFLE. Croatian Prime Minister Nikica Valentic has announced several ministers are to be replaced and new ministries created, in an attempt to revamp the cabinet, Reuters reported on 7 September. The new ministries are to focus on economics and infrastructure development. Valentic confirmed rumors that controversial Minister of Culture and Education Vesna Girardi-Jukic would soon quit her post and that the ministry would then be divided into two departments. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. GREECE CLOSES BORDER CROSSINGS TO ALBANIA. Greece reportedly shut down two major border crossings to Albania on 8 September, in retaliation for the conviction of five Greeks by a Tirana court the previous day. Western agencies say long lines formed on each side of the border, and it was unclear how long traffic would not be allowed to pass. Even before the verdict was announced on 7 September, Athens dispatched troops to the border area to tighten controls but denied giving a demonstration of strength. Also on 8 September, Greece again blocked a European Union 35 million ecu ($28 million) loan to Albania. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES GOVERNMENT RESIGNATION. By an overwhelming majority of 219 to 4 with 1 abstention, the Bulgarian National Assembly on 8 September accepted the government's resignation. Most commentators seem to believe that the fall of Prime Minister Lyuben Berov will result in early elections. In accordance with the constitution, President Zhelyu Zhelev must give the parliament three chances to form a new government before calling elections. However, the two largest caucuses say they will not back another cabinet. If elections are scheduled, Zhelev will have to appoint an interim government. In an interview with Trud, Berov says he will not accept an offer to form a new government. For the time being, though, parliament has asked his cabinet to continue pursuing contacts and holding negotiations with foreign governments and international agencies, particularly the IMF and the World Bank. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA'S CONTROVERSIAL ANNIVERSARY. Every year since the collapse of the hard-line communist regime in late 1989, the dispute over the political and historical meaning of the 9 September anniversary of the 1944 communist takeover has been revived. But the ex-communist Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), planning extensive celebrations for this year's 50th anniversary, has triggered a more heated debate than usual. Offering his own view, President Zhelyu Zhelev on 8 September noted that the historic date "does not unite but divides the Bulgarian people." Zhelev said the struggle against interwar fascism and for social justice had been linked to hopes of a better society but that these had been dashed through the wiping out of the Bulgarian opposition during the late 1940s and the "lies, demagoguery and violence" of 45 years of communist dictatorship. In Duma of 9 September, BSP leader Jean Videnov remarks that Zhelev's comments are symptomatic of "political sclerosis." Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH-CZECH AGREEMENT AND DIFFERENCES. Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec, on a two-day official visit to Poland, signed a bilateral agreement on cross-border cooperation with his Polish counterpart, Andrzej Olechowski, PAP reported on 8 September. The agreement will facilitate regional contacts and eliminate legal obstacles to economic cooperation. In response to reporters' questions, Zieleniec stressed that his country was interested in the Visegrad Group as a framework for economic cooperation but that each individual state would have to proceed alone on integration with Europe. The creation of a political institution, Zieleniec said, would simply "sustain the [iron] curtain." In an address to the Polish parliamentary Foreign Affairs Commission, the Czech Foreign Minister denied his country was "turning its back" on its neighbors and said knocking jointly on Brussels' door was no substitute for catching up with the developed Western economies. Polish Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski countered that the problems of integration were similar and that a joint approach would be more effective than four individual ones. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH SECURITIES COMMISSION CHIEF QUITS. Leslaw Paga, one of the founders of Poland's securities market, announced his resignation as chairman of the Securities Commission, a post he had held since the commission was established in May 1991, PAP reported on 8 September. Paga said he had fulfilled his mission: Poland's capital market was doing well and enjoyed both domestic and international confidence. His only regret was that it had not proved possible to set up investment banks or pension trust funds. Paga plans to join a big international accounting firm soon. His resignation has still to be approved by the prime minister, the finance minister, and the head of the Polish National Bank. Gazeta Wyborcza tipped former Finance Minister Marek Borowski to succeed Paga. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW STORM OVER WACHOWSKI. President Lech Walesa's right-hand man, Minister of State Mieczyslaw Wachowski, is once again at the center of a storm at the president's office. The president's media adviser, former television manager Jan Purzycki, resigned in a fit of spleen on 8 September, saying he could not work as long as "the specter of the all-powerful cretin" haunted the place, PAP reports. Zycie Warszawy of 9 September comments that the Purzycki's resignation, coming after the recent removal of Walesa's press spokesman, Andrzej Drzycimski, shows that Wachowski has become a political problem in Poland. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH-GERMAN AGREEMENT ON READMISSION TREATY. Czech Minister of Internal Affairs Jan Ruml and his German counterpart, Manfred Kanther, agreed in Berlin on 8 September that they would sign several bilateral treaties, including one on readmission, at the end of October. Germany will offer the Czech Republic some DM 60 million to assist financially in the repatriation of illegal immigrants returned by Germany under the treaty. Ruml told CTK that the signing of the treaties had been postponed because of the upcoming German parliamentary elections, scheduled for 16 October. One of the accords to be signed is a presidential treaty resolving Czech-German border questions once and for all. The two ministers were taking part in a meeting of 22 internal affairs ministers from the European Union and Eastern Europe. Ruml also met with Hungarian Minister of Internal Affairs Gabor Kuncze. The two ministers agreed the Czech Republic and Hungary would also sign a readmission treaty in October. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. US AGENCY HEAD IN BUCHAREST. During a stopover in Bucharest on 8 September, Brian Atwood, co-leader of the US delegation to the UN Conference on Population in Cairo, was received by Romanian President Ion Iliescu, Radio Bucharest reports. Atwood, who is the head of the US Agency for International Development (USAID), pledged US support for Romania's transition from a command to a free market economy. At a separate meeting with Minister of State Mircea Cosea, who is also chairman of the Council for Economic Coordination, Strategy, and Reform, Atwood was briefed on the Romanian government's mass privatization program. Western agencies also quoted the US official as saying his agency would continue to support family planning services in Romania. The USAID currently maintains 11 family planning centers there, serving 15,000 women. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN EX-KING ON WESTERN "INCOMPREHENSION." Asked in an interview with Evenimentul Zilei of 30 August whether the West had not "abandoned [Romania] to Soviet communism far too easily," former King Michael replied: "Indeed. Unfortunately this situation still persists. . . . Whenever it comes to the atrocities that the Communists committed, the West closes its eyes, says "be careful," and so forth. . . . The Romanian people have suffered and continue to suffer because of the West's incomprehension and inactivity. . . . I see that even now the West shows a complete lack of interest in Romania, it does not understand the Romanian people's aspirations." Also in the interview, the former king, who is currently seeking to regain his throne, continued making political overtures to the Romanian Army. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE'S DEBT TO CIS. On 8 September ITAR-TASS reported that Ukraine had received credits amounting to $3.4 billion from other CIS countries. The bulk of the debt--$2.7 billion--is owed to Russia. Ukraine also owes Turkmenistan $671 million, Moldova $28 million, and Kazakhstan $1.3 million. Aleksii Berezhnoy, head of the department of foreign debts in the Ministry of Finance, said Ukraine had signed bilateral treaties on credit repayment. The debt to Russia is to be repaid in 3-5 years, Moldova in 3 years, Turkmenistan in 2 years; and Kazakhstan in 1 year. The interest on these credits will be that set by the London Exchange. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. CRIMEAN PARLIAMENT ACCEPTS SEVASTOPOL DECISION. On 8 September the Crimean parliament upheld the Sevastopol City Council's resolution of 23 August giving the city Russian status, Ukrinform-TASS reported. The parliament also declared it was unacceptable that Crimea and Sevastopol be left out of negotiations between Russia and Ukraine on bilateral relations and the Black Sea Fleet. The parliament also passed a law on the peninsula's Constitutional Court. This legislation is similar to Russian law, with the exception that in Crimea's Constitutional Court, the three branches of power in Crimea--the Supreme Soviet, the President, and the Supreme Court of Crimea--are to be proportionally represented. The court's main duty is to protect the Crimean Constitution. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. LUKASHENKA APPOINTS MINISTER OF FOREIGN ECONOMIC AFFAIRS. On 7 September Belarusian Television reported that President Alyaksandr Lukashenka signed a decree appointing Mikhail Marynich as minister of foreign economic affairs. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. DISARMAMENT IN BELARUS. In accordance with the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty, a further 14 MIG-25 jets will be dismantled between 7 and 26 September at the Lyasnaya base outside of Baranavichau, Belarusian Radio reported on 7 September. A military inspection group from Germany, which is to include British representatives, will monitor the process. The report noted that NATO financial assistance toward disarmament in Belarus is purely symbolic and that Belarusian taxpayers are actually footing the bill. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVAN POLLS ON UNIFICATION WITH ROMANIA. Nezavisimaya Moldova published on 7 September the results of public opinion surveys conducted by the Moldovan Academy of Sciences on various political and economic issues. Unification with Romania was favored by 9.4% of respondents in 1992, 7.7% in 1993, and 5.6% in 1994. These results are in line with surveys carried out by other organizations since 1991 that found support for unification with Romania consistently in the range of 5-10%. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSDNIESTER MOLDOVANS AGITATE FOR ROMAN SCRIPT. At the beginning of the new school year, hundreds of Moldovan parents in the Transdniester district of Dubasari are applying to have their children transferred to schools in the Chisinau-controlled enclave of that district so that they can study in the Roman script, Basapress reports on 8 September. In the city of Bendery, parents have been picketing one of the two remaining Moldovan schools to have the Roman script reinstated. The mainly Russian authorities of the "Dniester republic" virtually forbid the use of the Roman alphabet for the indigenous language and are perpetuating the Soviet policy of forcing the Russian script on the Romance-speaking Moldovans. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. ANTI-SEMITIC INCIDENT IN TIRASPOL. Moldovan citizen and Tiraspol resident Lev Rozenberg, who is a correspondent in Transdniester for Basapress and several Moscow news agencies, was beaten up in Tiraspol, Basapress reported on 8 September. The incident occurred outside a theater currently hosting a film festival based on "Slavic and Orthodox" themes and attended by nationalist delegations from Russia, Serbia, and other countries. Moreover, the incident took place in the wake of a rally in Tiraspol at which "international Zionism" was attacked, prompting a protest from the Jewish community (see RFE/RL Daily Report, 6 September). The community also demanded that the "Dniester republic" authorities return its main synagogue. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA, LATVIA COMPLAIN ABOUT RUSSIA VIOLATING ACCORDS. On 7 September Baltic representatives to the UN met in New York with counterparts from the EU and Central and Eastern Europe to discuss the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltics and the situation of human rights there, BNS reported on 8 September. Estonian envoy Trivimi Velliste drew attention to Moscow's violations of the troop withdrawal agreements, such as the decommissioning of Russian officers on Estonian soil. Latvian envoy Aivars Baumanis noted that Russia continues to ignore the numerous positive assessments by international organizations of the human rights situation in the Baltics. He also commented that Russia is attempting to take advantage of UN procedures on human rights to further its own political interests. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. CSCE COMMISSIONER: HUMAN RIGHTS OBSERVED IN ESTONIA. At the end of his visit to Estonia, CSCE High Commissioner for Minorities Max van der Stoel said he agreed with the report, issued in June by his colleagues, stating that the CSCE mission had found no evidence of systematic abuse of human rights in Estonia, BNS reported on 8 September. The commissioner also discussed other issues, including CSCE assistance in teaching Estonian to ethnic minorities in Estonia, residence permits for Russian military retirees, and temporary travel documents for Estonia's non-citizens. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN OIL REFINERY RESUMES WORK. On 8 September the Mazeikiai oil refinery resumed normal operations, after a slowdown as of 20 August owing to the failure of Russian suppliers to provide crude oil. Russia's Lukoil resumed deliveries on 5 September, and the Mazeikiai refinery has been contracted by Lukoil to process 300,000 tons of crude oil a month. The main reason for the supply problems was reduced extraction of oil in Russia, BNS reported on 8 September. This was the third time this year that the Mazeikiai refinery had to stand idle. As a result, Mazeikiai's 1994 output is likely to be much smaller than anticipated. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Penny Morvant and Jan Cleave The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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