|В наименьшей степени следует изменять то, что постоянно толковалось в определенном смысле. - Юстиниан|
No. 164, 30 August 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIAN VIEW ON POLICY ON EUROPE. Arguing in an interview with Segodnya of 26 August for the creation of a 1,500 kilometer-wide buffer zone between Russia and Western Europe, Sergei Karaganov, a prominent Russian foreign policy expert and member of President Boris Yeltsin's Presidential Council, said that Russian resistance was not the only obstacle to NATO's enlargement eastward. "Many in NATO are not interested in its enlargement, viewing this as a stick with two ends; and they are using our resistance to it to foil the [enlargement] process." He added that NATO's "bureaucracy fears the new, even if it understands that it needs the new for its own survival." Karaganov proposed a minimal Russian program of "not permitting NATO's enlargement" and a more ambitious program of creating in all Europe "a security system with Russia as a full member." Recommending "extreme caution" in the effort to reintegrate Ukraine into a military-political alliance with Russia, lest it alarm the West, Karaganov argued: "Belarus is an absolutely crucial country for us . . . Once we are in close alliance with Belarus, the problem of Ukraine will virtually be solved." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN BUSINESSMEN ASK YELTSIN TO STOP PRESSURE FROM LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES. A group of Russian businessmen and commercial banks have appealed to President Yeltsin to halt a campaign of harassment against entrepreneurs and bankers, Konstantin Borovoi, the leader of the Party of Economic Freedom, told Russian television on 26 August. The business community, Borovoi explained, has recently come under double pressure: first, from corrupt state officials, who extort bribes from bankers and entrepreneurs; and second, from law enforcement agencies, which persecute businessmen for "illegal" practices. As examples, Borovoi mentioned the arrest of prominent businessman Lev Vainberg and the cases of the financial groups MMM, Russian Home Selenga, and Tibet. Borovoi said that the businessmen had asked Yeltsin to ensure that businesses could operate under normal conditions and to put an end to "the double blackmail" they were subjected to from state officials and law enforcement agencies. Meanwhile, the Russian government has canceled the licenses of three more commercial banks, including Moscow's Investbiznessbank, Russian television reported on 29 August. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. WRITER SELYUNIN DIES AT 66. Vasilii Selyunin, a State Duma deputy belonging to the radical Russia's Choice party, died in Moscow on 27 August, according to Russian TV's "Vesti" and ITAR-TASS. Selyunin, who had suffered from cancer, was 66. Selyunin gained nationwide prominence in Russia in the early days of the Gorbachev era as a journalist advocating market-oriented economic reform. In his articles Selyunin argued that reform should begin with the liberalization of prices; some five years later, in January 1992, Egor Gaidar, then deputy Russian Prime Minister and now leader of the Russia's Choice party, pursued precisely such a policy. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. AVTURKHANOV, KHASBULATOV TO JOIN FORCES. At a meeting on 29 August at the headquarters of the opposition Chechen Provisional Council in Nadterechnyi Raion, Provisional Council Chairman Umar Avturkhanov and former Russian parliament chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov agreed to join forces in an attempt to remove Chechen President Dudaev without violence, Interfax reported. In an interview given to ITAR-TASS, the head of the Russian Presidential Administration, Sergei Filatov, had called for such a consolidation of opposition forces in order to preclude an eventual power struggle following Dudaev's ouster; Interfax quoted Filatov as expressing sympathy for Avturkhanov whom he termed "morally untainted . . . he has not discredited himself with any political steps against his people." Also on 29 August the Russian Federal Counter-Intelligence Service (FSK) accused Dudaev of abducting one of the Service's agents and demanded his immediate release. In a TV broadcast on 28 August Dudaev claimed that he had been informed by a senior source within the FSK that Moscow had allocated 150 billion rubles to destabilize the situation in Chechnya and that Moscow intended to use the situation there as a pretext to test "nerve weapons." Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV OVERRULED BY YELTSIN, BOWS TO LEBED AS POSSIBLE SUCCESSOR. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev's orders to downsize the 14th Army and deprive his critic Aleksandr Lebed of his command were rescinded after Grachev had met with Yeltsin in Sochi, a Defense Ministry spokesman told Ekho Moskvy on 26 August. Appearing on Novosti Television that day, Grachev claimed that he had merely "invited Lebed to a working meeting," "assured" all concerned that there had been no intention of replacing Lebed, conceded that his proposal to send Lebed to Tajikistan "was not accepted," and announced that he had "come to an agreement" with Lebed--his subordinate--whom he addressed respectfully as "Aleksandr Ivanovich." Grachev concluded that Lebed "may even replace me in the near future." Lebed, for his part, told the government-controlled Russian TV station the same day that he was "satisfied" with the outcome and had "found a common language" with his superior. The outcome of the affair shows that Lebed can continue to violate military discipline with impunity and that he retains Yeltsin's support despite his attacks on the president. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE POSTMORTEMS ON DNIESTER WAR. The intense debate in Russia about Lebed's political prospects, by now only tangentially related to Moldova, continues to produce evidence of the involvement of Russia's 14th Army in military operations against Moldova in 1992. In the latest (no. 7) issue of Zhurnalist, the correspondent who covered that war for Moskovskie novosti describes several actions undertaken by Lebed that he now says he left out of his reports at the time, including the bombardment of right-bank Moldova by the 14th Army's long-range artillery from the left bank. In Rossiiskie vesti of 23 August the "Dniester republic's" defense minister, Lieutenant General Stanislav Khazheev, recounts that "entire units" of the 14th Army were transferred to the "Dniester" forces both during and after the fighting and that they still form part of those forces, having been given "Dniester" flags and designation numbers in place of their Russian ones. On 15 August Yeltsin praised Lebed and the 14th Army for bringing peace to Moldova. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. MEDICAL INSURANCE WORTH $8 FOR EACH RUSSIAN CITIZEN? In a commentary on 29 August on the new system of medical insurance introduced in the Russian Federation this year, Ostankino TV news disclosed that the national medical foundation spends a mere $8 per capita on health annually. (The previous Russian system and the Soviet one were financed from the state budget.) Moreover, even this small sum is distributed unequally, since the system of privileged in- and out-patient hospitals for members of the leadership continues to exist in postcommunist Russia, as do great differences in health spending from region to region. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. TATAR RADICALS ACCUSE STATE LEADERS OF BETRAYING SOVEREIGNTY. 30 August is the fourth anniversary of Tatarstan's declaration of sovereignty. Interfax reported on 29 August that on the eve of this anniversary the All-Tatar Public Center had accused the leadership of Tatarstan of deviating from the policy of sovereignty. In an address in Kazan to the Tatar people, the Center referred to the bilateral treaty as well as twelve intergovernmental agreements concluded with the Russian Federation as examples of what they consider deviations. Authors of the address said that the democratization of society in Tatarstan was being hampered and that a political and economic crisis was developing there. The Center proposes a democratic alternative to the official course, including elections for a two-house parliament with representatives from districts and political parties and the adoption of a national security concept on the basis of neutrality; it also recommends that Tatarstan join international organizations to assure that it will receive recognition for complying with international law. Charles Carlson, RFE/RL, Inc. AUSHEV ADDRESSES CONGRESS OF INGUSH PEOPLE. On 27 August the president of Ingushetia, Ruslan Aushev, addressed the congress of the Ingush people. Aushev accused the leadership of neighboring North Ossetia of failing to comply with provisions of the peace agreement between the two North Caucasian nations, particularly one giving Ingush who had fled from North Ossetia in the course of the armed conflict last fall the right to return to their homes. Aushev also commented on developments in another North Caucasian republic, Chechnya, warning against Russian interference in Chechen affairs. He tacitly supported Chechen President Dzhokar Dudaev's struggle for independence, saying that "the Chechen people have never agreed [with the Soviet propaganda allegation] that they joined Russia voluntarily." Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. MILITARY AIRCRAFT TO BE DISPLAYED IN ENGLAND. Russian aircraft manufacturers plan to display some of their most modern fighters at the upcoming Farnborough international air fair in England. Alex Didenko, a senior official from Aviaexport, told Interfax on 29 August that the Sukhoi would demonstrate the SU-30MK and the Su-35 at the show, while Mikoyan would be represented by the MiG-29M and MiG-29-CE. Several models of military helicopters would also be on display as well as several new civilian passenger liners. Didenko said he was optimistic about the prospects of Russian products on the world aircraft market. Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA UNCONTESTED PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN TAJIKISTAN? Chairman of Tajikistan's Central Election Commission Kadriddin Giesov told Interfax on 29 August that the registration documents of one of the two candidates for the post of president had disappeared, so the election on 25 September may be uncontested. Former Prime Minister Abdumalik Abdullozhonov submitted his documents to the Commission on 25 August; Giesov promised that an attempt would be made to investigate the loss of Abdullozhonov's documentation and that he would be registered as a candidate if it could be found. But, in Giesov's view, the election would still be democratic even if the candidacy of the current head of state, Imomali Rakhmonov, is uncontested. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MILOSEVIC WANTS A BETTER DEAL ON SANCTIONS. Reuters reported on 29 August that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic wanted a substantial lifting of sanctions against rump Yugoslavia before he allowed monitors to check his self-declared blockade against the Bosnian Serbs. His recent visitor, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, called for the immediate lifting of "at least some sanctions . . . to reward Belgrade for its courageous approach" in endorsing the Bosnian partition plan, the New York Times said on 30 August. Meanwhile, RFE/RL's South Slavic Language Service said on 29 August that Milosevic was continuing to reimpose his control over the Politika media empire. A few weeks ago he changed editors at the Politika daily and now has turned his attention to Radio-TV Politika. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBRIGHT ON ARMS EMBARGO IN BOSNIA. Speaking to journalists in Prague on 29 August, during her three-day visit to the Czech Republic, US Ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright said that the UN was prepared to lift the embargo on arms deliveries to the Bosnian government if the Bosnian Serbs rejected the latest peace plan. According to Albright, the US was prepared to pursue such a policy as a member of the international community and believed that the lifting of the embargo would be supported by other members. In the event that such support was not forthcoming, the US would consider unilaterally lifting the embargo. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBIAN PARLIAMENT TO RE-OPEN PEACE PLAN DEBATE? Borba reports on 30 August that several opposition parties, including the ultranationalist Serbian Radical Party and Vuk Draskovic's Serbian Renewal Movement, are pressing for another special parliamentary session to discuss the "contact group's" peace plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina. The calls come after a special session of parliament on 26 August at which a government-backed resolution endorsing the peace plan received the support of a majority of 126 deputies. At the same session, many opposition deputies boycotted the vote and filed out of the chamber in protest at the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia's alleged improper conduct. Democratic Party leader Zoran Djindjic has said that a new session to discuss the peace plan at this juncture seems a particularly frivolous exercise. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. KARADZIC PREDICTS TOTAL VICTORY. Der Spiegel on 29 August ran an interview with Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, who said he would gladly resign his office if a greater Serbia were established. Karadzic predicted that not only the rump Yugoslav army but also "Russian troops would hurry to our aid if the [Bosnian] Serb people truly landed in trouble." He threatened to take UN peacekeepers hostage if the arms embargo against the Bosnian government were lifted. And he also predicted that an escalation of the war would lead to a total Serbian victory, with the Muslims receiving "a certain autonomy around Tuzla, as the Croats would at Zenica." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. "SERBS DRIVE 2,000 MUSLIMS FROM THEIR HOMES" is a headline in the 30 August New York Times, which describes the intensified "ethnic cleansing" around Bijeljina, Rogatica, and Banja Luka. Particularly active are Bijeljina warlord Vojkan Djurkovic and the internationally wanted war criminal Zeljko "Arkan" Raznjatovic. Meanwhile, in the "Bihac pocket" in northwestern Bosnia, US Ambassador to Croatia Peter Galbraith told Reuters on 29 August that a "safe zone" would be set up in that area to provide "absolute security" for the 25,000 refugees who had fled across Serb-held territory to Croatia following the defeat of local warlord Fikret Abdic by Bosnian government troops. The Serbs would not let the refugees stay on their territory; the Croats would not let them enter theirs; but Abdic continued to stir up fears and hysteria among his people in broadcasts from Serb-held areas, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports. Galbraith and the UN, however, now intend a "media blitz" to convince the refugees to return to the Bihac area. Finally, Borba on 30 August reports on one of the more neglected aspects of the Wars of the Yugoslav Succession--namely, the ecological disasters in and around Serb-held territories in Croatia. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ROUNDUP OF NEWS FROM THE YUGOSLAV AREA. Vjesnik reported on 29 August that Croatian President Franjo Tudjman told Croatian TV on 27 August he still demanded that Serbia recognize Croatia in its Tito-era borders. He also said that autonomy for Serbs in any future arrangement would be limited to the Knin and Glina districts, which are the only two where Serbs constituted a majority before they began the "ethnic cleansing" of other areas. He added, however, that Serbs everywhere would enjoy full civil rights and that Croatia intended to solve the Krajina question by peaceful means. The Sueddeutsche Zeitung noted on 29 August that German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel had just visited Tudjman and reminded him of the importance of observing minority rights and freedom of the press, as well as of the need to avoid a war in Krajina. Turning to Macedonia, Politika reported from Skopje that officials there was willing to begin talks with Greece as soon as possible rather than wait until after the autumn elections, as some sources had suggested. Elsewhere, international media said that Hungary has now recognized Macedonia. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CALL FOR KOSOVAR INFORMATION CENTER IN BELGRADE. Kosovar President Ibrahim Rugova has again called for a Kosovar information center to be opened in Belgrade, Rilindja of 27 August reports. Rugova first made such a request on 19 August. He said that this "act of good will" had found a great echo in the mass media but that Belgrade had yet to respond. The main objective of the bureau would be to promote a dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina. The self-proclaimed Kosovar Republic has an information center in Tirana, which has been given a quasi-diplomatic status. Serbian newspapers have termed Rugova's initiative a clever but provocative move, arguing that Belgrade's acquiescence would be tantamount to recognizing Kosovo's independence. Serbian commentators say that Rugova is trying to make political capital out of his initiative by maintaining he favors an Albanian-Serbian dialogue but the other side opposes it. Louis Zanga, RFE/RL, Inc. AFTERMATH OF NATURAL DISASTERS IN MOLDOVA. Moldova is "on the brink of economic catastrophe," ITAR-TASS reported on 29 August from Chisinau. Damage caused by recent natural disasters is currently estimated at $200 million, Interfax reported the same day. State leaders, who are supervising relief operations, have sent urgent appeals to international organizations and Western governments for emergency relief. Most needed are construction materials, medicines, and food. A summer-long drought and a hurricane accompanied by the worst floods in the country's recorded history on the weekend have devastated all crops and decimated livestock. The hurricane and floods destroyed or severely damaged thousands of homes, most dikes, 49 bridges, and other structures. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN PREMIER VISITS DISASTER AREA. On 29 August Romanian Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu visited an area in Vaslui County that had been devastated by floods three days earlier, Radio Bucharest reports. Vacaroiu, who was accompanied by Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca, Environment Minister Aurel Constantin Ilie, and other high-ranking officials, informed local authorities that the government would grant financial aid worth 5 billion lei (some $3 million) to the regions affected by floods, including Timis and Vaslui Counties. He also pledged aid deliveries to the neighboring Republic of Moldova, where hurricanes and floods wreaked havoc on 26 and 27 August. According to local media reports, the floods killed two people and destroyed dozens of houses in Vaslui County alone. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH BISHOPS CALL FOR "POLITICAL WILL" ON CONCORDAT. At a press conference on 29 August, representatives of the Polish Bishops' Conference said that the Catholic Church in Poland was intent on breaking the impasse caused by the Sejm's July decision to put off indefinitely the ratification of the concordat signed by the Polish government and the Holy See one year earlier. The bishops, adopting a more conciliatory tone than in the past, proposed "extinguishing flash points of conflict, putting away the swords, and opening dialogue." They pledged to seek ways to overcome prejudice and appealed to politicians of the ruling postcommunist coalition to find the necessary "political will," PAP reports. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. PIRATE TV STATIONS CLOSED. PAP reported on 29 August that representatives of the Prosecutor's Office, the police, and radio communications authorities raided six of the 12 local television stations belonging to Nicola Grauso's Polonia 1 network, which have been operating illegally for more than a year. The six stations have been using restricted military frequencies and broadcasting without a license. A Justice Ministry spokesman said action would be taken against the remaining "pirates" but refused to give details. Grauso, who flew immediately to Warsaw, accused former National Broadcasting Council Chairman Marek Markiewicz of having it in for him. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. SEJM OVERRULES SUGAR VETO. The Sejm overruled President Lech Walesa's veto of the sugar law on 27 August, PAP reports. Walesa had criticized the law as a relict of the command economy, saying that it protected the interests of the sugar lobby and neglected those of the consumer. The deputies ignored Walesa's request that the veto vote, which was added to the agenda at short notice, be postponed until the next Sejm session so that the president's representative could meet with the relevant commission. The Sejm also passed a landmark law on economic crime, providing long prison terms for money laundering, embezzlement, and fraud. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH OFFICIAL VISITS FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. CTK reported on 29 August that Czech First Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Vondra had left Prague for a five-day trip to Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, and Macedonia. A spokesman for the Foreign Ministry said Vondra's trip was not a peace-making mission; rather, he would be gathering information on peace-making efforts. On the first stop of his tour, Vondra held talks with Croatian officials, discussing, among other things, the possible reopening of the Adria gas pipeline. CTK quotes Vondra as telling the Croats that the Czech Republic considers it "necessary" to extend the mandate of UNPROFOR units in Krajina beyond 30 September, when they are due to leave. Vondra will visit Czech troops under UN command in Croatia and meet with the UN military commander in Zagreb. He is also scheduled to discuss possible Czech participation in a UN-sponsored project to rebuild Sarajevo. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK BUSINESS DELEGATION EN ROUTE TO CANADA. TASR reported on 28 August that Slovak Economy Minister Peter Magvasi was on his way to Canada with a delegation of businessmen and company directors. According to a spokesman for the Slovak Economy Ministry, the purpose of the visit is to generate interest in trade and investment and to offer Canadian firms an opportunity to do business in Slovakia as that country proceeds with privatization. The delegation will meet with Canadian government officials and leading Canadian business executives. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA'S WORSENING CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS. Most Bulgarian dailies on 30 August report the looming conflict between Bulgaria's Defense Ministry and the General Staff over the retirement of 285 colonels. Chief of the General Staff Gen. Lyuben Petrov, who is currently on an official visit to Germany, maintains that the army cannot spare the colonels and has announced a press conference on his return to make his views known. The Defense Ministry, however, immediately canceled the conference, noting that Petrov would need the written approval of the minister to address duty-related issues in public. Whereas the socialist Duma--which strongly supports Gen. Petrov--claims that virtually the entire officers corps opposes retiring the colonels, the opposition Demokratsiya says younger and lower-ranking officers feel the Defense Ministry is doing the right thing. But a commentator for the military organ Balgarska armiya remarks that politicians tend to "either ignore the army or hold it in front of the cannon's muzzle." Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA, IRAQ DISCUSS RESTORING TRADE TIES. On 29 August the Iraqi ambassador to Sofia and Bulgarian Trade Minister Kiril Tsochev informed journalists of their discussions on restoring bilateral trade as soon as the UN embargo against Iraq was lifted. Describing present bilateral relations as excellent, Ambassador Mohammed Amin Ahmed said his government particularly appreciated the fact that Bulgaria was the first country to have called a meeting of a joint trade commission. Tsochev nevertheless demanded assurances from Baghdad that Bulgaria in the future would receive preferential treatment, BTA reports. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. UNEMPLOYMENT IN UKRAINE. At the end of July, almost 100,000 people were officially registered as unemployed in Ukraine, Ukrainian Radio reported on 27 August. This is a 20% increase over the same period last year. According to the Ministry of Statistics, the highest levels of unemployment were registered in Volyn, Vinnytsya, Kharkiv, and Luhansk Oblasts. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT CALLS FOR SLAVIC UNIFICATION. Belarusian President, Alyaksandr Lukashenka, appearing on national television on 28 August, said he favored Belarusian unification with Russia and all Slavic countries, Interfax reported the next day. During the election campaign, Lukashenka had spoken out in favor of the unification of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. He was the only Belarusian deputy to vote against the Belavezha agreement of 1991, which created the CIS and formally abolished the USSR. Since his election, however, Lukashenka has said that it would be unrealistic to recreate the USSR and that a new arrangement would have to be reached between the former Soviet republics based on respect for independent statehood. Lukashenka is well known for his frequently contradictory statements. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. A "ROMANIAN MINORITY" IN MOLDOVA? The Moldovan public and press are currently discussing a proposal--first made on 28 July in Literatura si Arta, the weekly of the Writers' Union and the pro-Romanian opposition's Congress of the Intelligentsia--that the relatively few Moldovans who consider themselves Romanians form an organization and defend their ethnic minority rights as Romanians. The "Romanian minority" would, according to the proposal, seek the same cultural and other rights that Moldova grants its Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian minorities. The proposal reflects frustration among pro-Romanian circles over what appears to be the recent increased awareness of Moldovan, as distinct from Romanian, ethnic and cultural identity among the native population. The Popular Front, the other pro-Romanian opposition movement, rejects the proposal on the grounds that it would lead to "ethnic laissez-faire" and "tries to convey the view that man is 'free' to choose his nationality," Popular Front Chairman Iurie Rosca wrote in the movement's weekly Tara of 23 August. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM ESTONIA. The official withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia should be completed by the 31 August deadline. On 29 August the last train carrying Russian military equipment left Estonia, Reuters reports. The last transport ship with army trucks left Paldiski on 30 August. A small number of troops remain to complete the handover of Russian bases. Estonian Foreign Minister Juri Luik said that the list of 10,517 military pensioners who wished to remain in the country would be scrutinized. He said that the recent retirement of 400 naval officers was "against the letter and meaning" of the withdrawal agreement. Estonia is allowing the 200 officers who each received US government vouchers worth $25,000 for new housing in Russia to remain until 12 July 1995. The Russian military, remaining at the Paldiski submarine base until its two nuclear reactors have been dismantled by 30 September 1995, are not counted in the withdrawal since the base will be under civilian control. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW GOVERNMENT IN LATVIA BY MID-SEPTEMBER? After meeting with President Guntis Ulmanis on 29 August, Prime Minister-designate Maris Gailis said he aimed to have the nominees for the Council of Ministers lined up by 10 September and present them for consideration to the Saeima five days later. Though it appears that most members of the current government are unlikely to be nominees, Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs may be nominated as minister of foreign affairs, Latvian media reported. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. WORLD BANK CREDITS FOR LITHUANIAN AGRICULTURE. On 26 August World Bank experts said that credits worth $25-30 million for long-term investments in Lithuanian agriculture would be available in the fall, RFE/RL's Lithuanian Service reports. The bank's representative in the Baltic States, Lars Jeurling, noted that the World Bank was opposed to state subsidies to agriculture and low energy prices because they had a negative influence on the republic's economy. The credits would be given to private farmers and cooperatives as well as agriculture servicing and food-processing enterprises whose capital was at least 51% privately owned. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Penny Morvant and Jan Cleave The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. 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