|To appreciate nonsense requires a serious interest in life. - Gelett Burgess|
No. 161, 25 August 1994
RUSSIA DEFENSE MINISTRY COMPLAINS OF MEDIA DISTORTIONS. The Russian Defense Ministry issued a public statement on 24 August criticizing what it described as "a wave of critical articles" in the media about the situation in the armed forces and alleged tensions among top military leaders and between them and civilian authorities. The statement lamented the fact that Defense Minister Pavel Grachev appears to be a favorite target of such reports, and criticized impressions conveyed by the media that the army is in an "explosive state," is reeling out of control, or that it harbors potential putschists. The statement also deplored reports of corruption among military leaders and denied that military units in the "near abroad" have emerged as autonomous forces whose activities have stirred up interethnic and internal conflicts. The statement, which was published in the main Defense Ministry newspaper, Krasnaya zvezda, suggested that such media reports threatened to politicize the army and to exacerbate the problems that the army inherited from its Soviet predecessor. - Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AS ADDITIONAL RUMORS OF IMPENDING RESHUFFLE ARE REPORTED. As if in defiance of the Defense Ministry statement, Rossiiskiye vesti of 25 August published an article speculating that the commander of the Russian forces in Germany, Col.-Gen. . . . Matvei Burlakov, would be at the center of any planned reshuffle of the military leadership. Quoting unofficial sources, the newspaper said that he had been considered in recent months for a variety of top positions, including General Staff chief, Deputy Defense Minister, commander of the key Moscow Military District, or military advisor to the Russian president. Komsomolskaya pravda of 24 August had also said that Burlakov was in line for a top post (see RFE/RL Daily Report of 24 August). Finally, Rossiiskiye vesti claimed that some observers believe Defense Minister Grachev is himself to be replaced, and they named the current commander of Russia's Border Forces, Col.- Gen. Andrei Nikolaev, as a likely candidate. The newspaper said that the former General Staff first deputy chief has emerged as a well-known and respected media personality. - Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. LOCAL PROTEST AGAINST RUSSIAN-US EXERCISE. Several days after pro-Communist activists in Moscow threatened to disrupt a planned Russian-US peacekeeping exercise (see RFE/RL Daily Report of 22 August), local leaders in the Orenburg region of Russia, where the maneuvers are to commence in early September, have reportedly expressed opposition to the exercises. According to AFP, ITAR-TASS of 24 August quoted Viktor Nefedov, the vice chairman of the Orenburg regional assembly, as saying that the exercise was likely to provoke protests by local residents and that the assembly had approved a resolution declaring the maneuvers undesirable. The assembly also drafted a letter to Boris Yeltsin which calls for canceling the exercises, he said. Radical right- and left-wing leaders have consistently opposed the maneuvers, which are to involve only 500 soldiers altogether, and it is difficult to say if their public statements--or the actions of the assembly--reflect genuine local opposition to the maneuvers. - Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. A SECOND RUSSIAN ARMY IN MOLDOVA. Interviewed in Rossiiskiye vesti of 23 August, the "Dniester republic"'s Defense Minister, Stanislav Khazheev, detailed the structure of the "Dniester" armed forces. The active forces consist of an "army" plus a border guard, a special force battalion of the Internal Affairs Ministry, a spetsnaz battalion of the State Security Ministry, and a Cossack "regiment." Aggregate manpower is "no less than that of the 14th Army" (which currently has 10,000 servicemen, according to Col.-General Eduard Vorobev, first deputy commander-in-chief of Russia's land forces). Some "Dniester" units were taken over in their entirety from the 14th Army, Khazheev said. The"Dniester" forces were the first in the former USSR to switch fully to the contract principle of recruitment as early as 1992, Khazheev said, without specifying who bore the costs. More recently they have resumed conscription to supplement contract recruitment. "Almost all" servicemen have "dual citizenship," "Dniester" and Russian. The regular forces are supplemented by reserve units formed in industrial enterprises, who undergo periodic refresher training and whose members keep weapons and uniforms at home and may not be dismissed from work by their employers. "The "Dniester" military doctrine and legislation, organization, uniforms, "and everything else" is the same as in Russia because "otherwise it would be difficult to reunite with it," Khazheev said. In the same issue of Rossiiskiye vesti, "Dniester republic" Vice-President Aleksandr Karaman termed the region "a western outpost of Russia." - Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. GORBACHEV NOT TO BE PROSECUTED FOR COLLAPSE OF THE USSR. On 24 August Ostankino TV news reported a statement of the Moscow prosecutor's office saying that no criminal charges will be filed in connection with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. This statement was a response to a formal request to the Russian Prosecutor-General by General Valentin Varennikov, an organizer of the August 1991 attempted coup against former USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev. Varennikov was recently found not guilty of high treason. In his request to the Prosecutor-General, Varennikov claimed that Gorbachev should be prosecuted because his negligence had brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union. - Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA APPEALS TO MMM SHAREHOLDERS? The co-chairmen of Democratic Russia, Galina Starovoitova and Lev Ponomarev, were quoted by Russian TV newscasts on 24 August as having asked Acting Russian Prosecutor-General Aleksei Ilyushenko to release on bail Sergei Mavrodi, the president of the MMM pyramid stock company. Mavrodi is currently in jail charged with non-payment of taxes, while thousands of MMM shareholders stage rallies in front of various government offices in Moscow, demanding Mavrodi's release and reimbursement for the cost of their shares. In their appeal to Ilyushenko, the leaders of Democratic Russia alleged that Mavrodi was no more responsible for the hardships of MMM shareholders than was the government. Once a mass political movement that claimed credit for the rise of Boris Yeltsin to the Russian presidency, most recently Democratic Russia has lost its popularity, and has been unable to attract more than 200 people to its rallies. Appealing to the sentiments of MMM fans may be a way for the movement to regain some of its mass support. - Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. CHECHNYA SIGNS AGREEMENT WITH DON COSSACKS. Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev signed an agreement on friendship and cooperation with Don Cossack chieftain Nikolai Kozitsyn, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 August. The agreement consists of 25 articles, covering political, economic and ecological cooperation, as well as joint efforts in crime fighting. Dudaev and Kozitsyn told the media they were sure the agreement would benefit all the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. - Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. ATTEMPTED HIJACKING STOPPED IN BASHKORTOSTAN. A man attempted to hijack a bus near Ufa in Bashkortostan on 24 August, according to Russian TV newscasts. The hijacker was reported to have demanded a ransom of between 2 and 10 million rubles ($1-5 thousand) but was stopped by the police who rescued the hostages. In contrast to several attempted hijackings that have taken place in the North Caucasian resort Mineralnye Vody earlier this year, the culprit in the latest case was not a Chechen but a Russian. - Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. CHOLERA OUTBREAK CONTINUES IN DAGESTAN. Director of the Russian State Committee for Sanitary-Epidemiology Inspection, Evgenii Belyaev, said it would take until mid-October to bring the current cholera outbreak in the North Caucasian republic of Dagestan under control, Reuters reported on 24 August. He told a news conference in Moscow that cholera has killed at least 17 people in the republic since it broke out in July. Belyaev said at least 686 more people in Dagestan are now suffering from the disease and an about equal number is carrying it. - Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. MOSCOW, BELGRADE SIGN AGREEMENTS. On 24 August ITAR-TASS reported that Belgrade officials and their Moscow counterparts signed two agreements focusing on economic, technical and scientific cooperation that will take effect as soon as sanctions are lifted against rump Yugoslavia. Interfax said of the 22-24 meetings held in Moscow between a Serbian delegation headed by Serbian Prime Minister Mirko Marjanovic and Moscow officials, that Moscow and Belgrade have agreed to restore full "bilateral trade and economic cooperation" once the sanctions are removed. Included in the restoration of ties, Marjanovic told Interfax, is a scheme to build a pipeline to transport Russian gas to Serbia. Belgrade will reportedly spend some $350 million on this project. - Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. Commander-in-Chief of Russia's Border Guards Andrei Nikolaev and Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Albert Chernyshov flew to Dushanbe on 24 August to discuss the situation in Tajikistan in the wake of the largest clash this year between Russian border troops and Tajik opposition forces on the Tajik-Afghan border, Interfax reported. The two officials met with Tajik head of state Imomali Rakhmonov, and Interfax quoted Nikolaev as asserting that no reinforcements of the troops on the Tajik-Afghan border are necessary at present. Chernyshov said that Russia is urging a resumption of talks between the Tajik government and the opposition. The same day Tajik opposition leader and former top clergyman in Tajikistan Akbar Turadzhonzoda told an Interfax interviewer that the opposition considers the upcoming presidential election illegal and is calling on opposition supporters to boycott it. He said that the opposition will soon renew its offensive on the Tajik-Afghan border because it has no other way to dislodge the Dushanbe regime. - Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. TWO NEWSPAPERS CLOSED IN KYRGYZSTAN. RL's Kyrgyz Service learned on 23 August that Kyrgyzstan's Minister of Justice Mukar Cholponbaev has ordered the state publishing house in Bishkek to cease printing the independent Russian-language newspaper Politika. The publication's chief editor, Chynara Dzakypova, noted that the ban was instituted without a court decision and described it as a step toward dictatorship. The previous week a Bishkek court banned Svobodnye gory, the official newspaper of Kyrgyzstan's parliament. President Askar Akaev had sought the ban on the grounds that Svobodnye gory and other publications were irresponsible in their reporting and were contributing to the destabilization of the country. - Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ETHNIC CLEANSING CONTINUES IN BIJELJINA. Reuters reports that on 23 August Bosnian Serb forces drove 250 Muslims out of the east Bosnian Bijeljina region, in what appears to be a renewed and concerted round of ethnic cleansing. This brings the total expulsions over the last five weeks up to an estimated 735. If they continue at the same rate, according to one UN spokesman, the ethnic cleansing could be "complete in some ten weeks." It is believed that Vojislav Djurkovic, or Vojkan as he is also known, a major in the Bosnian Serb army, is largely responsible for the recent waves of expulsions in Bijeljina. Bijeljina was captured by Bosnian Serb forces in April 1992, and subjected at that time to intense anti-Muslim campaigns. It is estimated that no more than 3,000 Muslims remain in the region. - Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. BOSNIAN REFUGEES ASKED TO RETURN TO BIHAC. On 25 August The Independent reports that Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic and his Bosnian counterpart, Irfan Ljubijankic, met in Zagreb to discuss the recent refugee problem created by the defeat at the hands of the Bosnian army of rebel Muslim leader Fikret Abdic. According to some estimates, at least 25,000 refugees have flooded out of the Bihac pocket, Abdic's former stronghold, and are camped in Serb-controlled Croatia or Krajina, with many hoping for asylum in the West. Many of the refugees have expressed fears of reprisals, and have accused the Bosnian army of atrocities. Croatia has refused transit and both Granic and Ljubijankic agreed at their meeting to insist on the refugees' return to Bihac. According to Reuters on 14 August, Granic said the main obligation was to "provide [the refugees] with the necessary guarantees for their safety," while Ljubijankic stressed "it is in their best interest to go home." Radio Sarajevo reported that the Bosnian government has offered amnesty to the refugees, but rebel leader Abdic himself will be tried for treason if apprehended. - Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. GREECE TURNS DOWN TIRANA OFFER . . . Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou on 24 August turned down an Albanian offer to hold talks about the current bilateral crisis, triggered by an espionage trial against five ethnic Greeks in Tirana. Government spokesman Evangelos Venizelos told a press conference in Athens that Albanian President Sali Berisha, who had suggested the talks, seemed to misunderstand both "his role and the way states conduct their international relations." Venizelos said Greece would nevertheless refrain from following Tirana's example and recall its ambassador for consultations. Meanwhile, the CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, Max van der Stoel, is trying to mediate in the crisis. After meeting Berisha on 24 August, van der Stoel traveled on to Athens. Western media carried the reports. - Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND REJECTS AIRSPACE VIOLATION CHARGES. Also on 24 August, Reuters quoted officials in Athens as denying a Macedonian claim that a Greek military aircraft flew seven kilometers into its air space on the previous day. The Greek foreign and defense ministries both issued statements denying the overflight, with the former protesting that the charge was made in the name of "Macedonia." Maintaining that only its own northern province has the right to that denomination, Athens insists that the country is called "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," at least until a compromise is found. - Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH INTERIOR MINISTER DEFENDS SPY'S APPOINTMENT. Interior Minister Andrzej Milczanowski broke his leave for one day on 23 August to clear up misunderstandings within the government over the appointment of Marian Zacharski, the spy who procured American military technology for communist Poland, as head of civil intelligence. Milczanowski said the decision had been his and President Lech Walesa had known nothing about the appointment, PAP reports. He said that he stood by his decision, and still hoped the prime minister would not accept the resignation of Zacharski, who, he said, was "a top class professional," and had proven his loyalty since 1989 in the service of the State Security Office. He denied the appointment could jeopardize Poland's access to NATO, as suggested by Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski. No consensus was reached and Milczanowski said he would speak with President Lech Walesa next week. - Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND TO VOTE AGAINST ABORTION IN CAIRO. Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski said at a press conference in Warsaw on 24 August that the Polish delegation to the UN population conference opening shortly in Cairo will vote in line with current Polish legal norms on that part of the conference's final document that deals with abortion, which means against using abortion as a means of birth control, PAP reports. A majority of deputies from three Sejm commissions criticized such an approach as unrepresentative of Polish public opinion, and demanded to know the composition of the delegation. Recent legislative amendments that would allow abortion on demand for social reasons were vetoed by President Lech Walesa. Although Sejm commissions voted on 24 August to reject the veto, the actual outcome of the vote on the Sejm floor is uncertain, as a two-thirds majority is required to overrule the veto. Walesa's legal spokesman said that the president would not sign the amendments even if his veto were overruled, and was prepared to go before the Constitutional Tribunal to defend his arguments. At a 23 August press conference, the Chairman of the Polish Episcopate's commission for family matters, Bishop Stanislaw Stefanek, presented the Catholic stance on the issues to be discussed in Cairo, denouncing "demographic imperialism," and reasserting ethic principles. - Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH GOVERNMENT APPROVES DRAFT LAWS. On 24 August, the Czech government approved a draft law on the powers of higher administrative units known as regions. The decision was preceded by months of acrimonious debate among Czech political parties and leaders on the need to subdivide the Czech republic into regions and on region's powers vis-a-vis the central government. The draft must still be approved by parliament. CTK reported on 24 August that Premier Vaclav Klaus had insisted that the draft law be passed as a constitutional amendment, which would require a three-fifth majority in the parliament. The government also approved a compensation package for Czech victims of Nazi persecution during World War II. Klaus told a press conference in Prague that under the terms of the package, legitimate claimants (victims themselves or their surviving spouses) would receive a one-time payment of 2,300 koruny ($90) for each month spent in Nazi prisons. This draft must also be approved by parliament. - Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK GENERAL ON CZECH, SLOVAK AIR FORCES. In an interview with CTK on 25 August, Slovak Maj. Gen. Stefan Gombik, the commander of Slovakia's air forces, questioned Czech plans to modernize obsolete MiG-21 fighter planes rather than buy modern MiG-29 fighter planes. "I would never support such a solution in Slovakia," he said, claiming that one MiG-29 fully replaced four MiG-21 planes, and that it was better to rely on a small number of highly trained pilots flying modern planes, than have a large number of pilots flying obsolete planes. Gombik also expressed bewilderment over the Czech army's plans to start using as fighter planes the L-159 planes, which have until now been used only in training. "I do not know who conceived this idea; I cannot imagine this plane as a fighter plane," he said. His comments echo those of some Czech politicians and experts who have criticized the Czech army's plans in this respect. CTK reports that Slovakia currently has 16 MiG-29 planes, six of which the country received from Russia as a form of payment for the Russian debt to Slovakia. The Slovak Army also has some 70 MiG-21 fighter planes, 20 Su-22 fighter bombers, and a dozen Su-25 fighter planes. The squadron flying MiG-29 planes is a candidate for membership in the World Association of Tiger Squadrons, an elite group of highly trained fighter pilots. - Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK ARMY COMMANDER ON PLANS FOR MODERNIZATION. On 24 August Slovak Army Commander-in-Chief, Lt. Gen. Julius Humaj, announced plans to modernize the Slovak army in three stages by the year 2000, domestic media report. By the end of 1995 structural changes should be completed, leaving the army with 46,667 men; surplus weapons have already been gathered and are ready for liquidation or sale. The second stage: modernizing the country's current arsenal, will last until 1996 or 1997; new purchases are not being considered. During this stage, the proportion of professional soldiers will be increased, reaching 60% by the year 2000. The third stage includes continued modernization of weapon systems and improvement of organizational structures so that by the year 2000, Slovakia's army will be "small but well-armed and well-trained," Humaj said. - Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK NATIONAL PROPERTY FUND REPORT. At a 24 August press conference National Property Fund (FNM) President Rudolf Janac said the fund now administers property worth 59.729 billion koruny, has ownership rights in 583 firms and holds 1.1 billion koruny of deposits in Slovak banks. Janac noted that as of 22 August various firms owed the FNM 1.138 billion koruny, and discussed ways to force these companies to repay their debts. The fund has earned more than 25 million koruny by selling shares unsold in the first phase of coupon privatization; a total of 71.3% of these shares have now been sold. Still, prices in the over-the-counter RM System have been falling and are not expected to pick up until late 1994 or early 1995. The second phase of coupon privatization should begin on 5 September. - Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARY PLANS DRASTIC ENERGY INCREASES. Nepszabadsag reported on 23 August that state-owned producers have proposed price increases of 52.5% for electricity and 76.6% for natural gas for private consumers, effective October 1994. Although the actual level of increases and their step-by-step introduction is still under debate, the ruling Hungarian Socialist Party said the measure was required to eliminate all subsidies by 1996. - Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE ON BUDAPEST'S PAST TERRORIST CONNECTIONS. Nepszava on 24 August quoted an unnamed retired Hungarian intelligence officer as saying that Abu Nidal, one of the world's most wanted terrorists, stayed in Budapest during the early 1980s. The officer also said that Hungarian authorities avoided confrontation with Abu Nidal fearing reprisal attacks on Hungarian installations at home and abroad. - Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. ZHELEV SLAMS SOCIALISTS. In a sharply worded statement issued on 24 August, President Zheleyu Zhelev attacked the Bulgarian Socialist Party for trying to exploit dissatisfaction in the army for short-term political ends, BTA reports. The statement accused the Socialist leadership--which is seeking the dismissal of Defense Minister Valentin Aleksandrov after he ordered the retirement of 300 colonels--of whipping up discontent among officers instead of solving a range of pressing defense-related problems. Zhelev called on the BSP to use its strong leverage over parliament and the cabinet to speed up the reform process, and to spend less time criticizing others. Several papers on 25 August quote the chairman of the Bulgarian Legion "Georgi Rakovski" as agreeing with Zhelev that focusing solely on retirement issues means evading the true problems of the army. - Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. PRNU FAVORS HUNGARIAN TREATY BUT REJECTS DEMANDS. Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu met with leaders of the Party of Romanian National Unity on 24 August and discussed his forthcoming visit to Budapest (5 September) and the negotiations with Hungary on the basic treaty between the two countries. After the meeting, the PRNU's Deputy Chairman Ioan Gavra said at a press conference broadcast on Radio Bucharest that the views of the Foreign Ministry and those of his party "coincide." The PRNU, he said, supports a treaty recognizing the inviolability of the present borders and granting national minorities rights "reflecting international standards." He also said granting such rights depended on the "unconditional loyalty" of members of the minorities towards the state in which they live. The RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest quoted Gavra as saying that the treaty would not answer the demands of the Hungarian minority for bilingual street signs and a Hungarian university. The extreme nationalist PRNU, which joined the government last week, has consistently opposed such demands. - Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. REACTIONS TO SEVASTOPOL'S CLAIM TO RUSSIAN STATUS. On 24 August agencies reported on reactions to the Sevastopol City Council's decision to give the city Russian status. The deputy head of the analytical center of the Russian Federation, Mark Urnov, said that Russia had no intention of interfering in Ukraine's internal affairs and that it respected the principle of territorial integrity. Ukraine's president Leonid Kuchma reacted calmly saying he regretted the move and such decisions could only be made at the state, not local, level. He advocated negotiation with the Sevastopol authorities rather than use of force. Nationalist organizations in Ukraine have taken a harder line. One of Rukh's leaders, Ivan Zayets, reportedly said that Kiev must act resolutely to teach separatists a lesson. - Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. KAZAKH DEFENSE MINISTER IN KIEV. During an official visit to Ukraine, Kazakh Defense Minister Sagadat Nurmagambetov met with President Leonid Kuchma and Defense Minister Vitalii Radetsky, Ukrainian radio reported on 23 August. An agreement on military cooperation should be signed in the near future. Radetsky said they also discussed disarmament since both countries have nuclear weapons, and possible barter trade. Nurmagambetov had fought in Ukraine during World War II. - Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN SOLDIERS TO CROATIA AS PEACEKEEPERS. On 22 August 32 Lithuanian soldiers flew from Denmark to Croatia as part of a Danish battalion in the UN peace-keeping forces stationed in the Krajina region, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reported on 24 August. Povilas Malakauskas, the director of the international and internal relations department of the Lithuanian Defense Ministry, said that the soldiers, who received special training in both Lithuania and Denmark, will be paid $300-500 per month for their planned six-month term of duty. They will form the core of the Lithuanian part of the joint Baltic UN peace-keeping battalion that will be formed in 1995. - Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. DISMANTLING OF PALDISKI REACTOR BEGINS. On 24 August Russian scientists opened one of the two nuclear reactors at the former Soviet submarine base at Paldiski and began removing its 200 fuel rods, BNS reports. No increased radiation was reported during the opening of the reactor's cover. The removal of the fuel is expected to take about 1.5 months. According to an Estonian-Russian agreement signed on 30 July, the dismantling of the two reactors is to be completed by 30 September 1995. The Estonian government issued a decree establishing special security conditions on the Pakri peninsula, where the base is located, during the dismantling period allowing only permanent residents, local employees, and people with special permits to enter the area. - Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. KARASIN: RUSSIA NEED NOT APOLOGIZE FOR EVENTS 50 YEARS AGO. Commenting on publications in connection with the 55th anniversary of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which served to divide Europe into Soviet and German spheres of influence, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin told Interfax on 23 August that "Russia does not believe it has anything to apologize for, and all the more so since the events took place more than fifty years ago." Objecting to linkage between those events and contemporary Russia by portraying it as a successor to imperial-style policies, Karasin said the Russian Foreign Ministry's activities are guided by "the post-war arrangement in Europe based on the UN Charter, enshrined in peace treaties and reaffirmed by the Helsinki Act and the Paris Charter for a New Europe" and asserted that Russia's foreign policy is formulated according to present-day international law. - Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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