|Три пути у человека, чтобы разумно поступать: первый, самый благородный, - размышление; второй, самый легкий, - подражание; третий, самый горький, - опыт. - Конфуций|
No. 158, 22 August 1994
RUSSIA SITUATION IN CHECHNYA. A spokesman for the Chechen opposition said his side was continuing to recruit fighters and gather military equipment to defend against any attack from government forces, Interfax reported on 20 August. On 21 August about 10,000 people rallied in the Chechen capital Groznyi in support of President Dzhokhar Dudaev. Demonstrators called for the expulsion of all opposition leaders to Moscow, ITAR-TASS reported. Meanwhile, former Russian parliament speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov sent personal representatives to try to persuade all armed groups to sign a peace accord. Khasbulatov's representatives met on 21 August with Provisional Council head Umar Avturkhanov. (The opposition treats Khasbulatov with caution, whereas Dudaev's government completely rejects his offer of mediation.) Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN-GERMAN NUCLEAR SMUGGLING TALKS. The Chief of the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK), Sergei Stepashin, said after his meeting in Moscow with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl's aide for security matters, Bernd Schmidbauer, and German security service chiefs, that his agency will cooperate with the West in preventing nuclear smuggling. The Russian nuclear and security experts still believe that the nuclear materials confiscated in Germany did not originate from Russia, FSK spokesman Aleksandr Mikhailov told Russian television on 21 August. Foreign Intelligence Service spokeswoman Tatyana Samolis said that the samples of confiscated plutonium brought to Moscow by Schmidbauer "prove nothing". Samolis also quoted American scientists from the Los Alamos nuclear center, who were unable to confirm that the plutonium was of Russian origin. President Yeltsin declined to meet with Schmidbauer, but has agreed to discuss the problem of non-proliferation with Chancellor Kohl and President Clinton at the Russian-American summit later this year, according to ITAR-TASS of 21 August. The basis for this discussion should be how to place under international control the nuclear materials of the all countries that comprise the "nuclear club", added ITAR-TASS. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. AUGUST 1991 ANNIVERSARY ROUNDUP. Only a few hundred citizens showed up in front of the Russian White House on 19 August to celebrate the third anniversary of their resistance to the coup attempt by reactionary Soviet leaders against Mikhail Gorbachev. They were outnumbered by shareholders of the MMM pyramid stock company who rallied at the same place in defense of the imprisoned MMM president, Sergei Mavrodi. Police dispersed the MMM demonstration with truncheons in order to clear the square for those who had defended the White House on the name of freedom and democracy between 19-21 August 1991. Also on 19 August, the coup organizers, including the former speaker of the Soviet parliament, Anatolii Lukyanov, addressed a rally of hard-core communists, swearing to restore the Soviet Union and the communist regime. In order to raise the spirits of his supporters, on 20 August President Yeltsin issued a decree, making 22 August a state holiday in honor of the Russian flag--thus marking the anniversary of the restoration in democratic Russia of the White-Blue-Red banner of the Russian Empire. In his letter to participants of a conference to commemorate the coup on 20 August Yeltsin wrote that the whole truth about the event has yet to be told. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. LEBED KEEPS SNIPING AT YELTSIN . . . "There was no putsch as such" in August 1991, Lt.-General Aleksandr Lebed, a possible contender in Russia's next presidential election, told ITAR-TASS on 19 August, the third anniversary of the event. "There was only a brilliantly planned and executed, large-scale, unprecedented provocation, in which the roles were scripted for the intelligent and the stupid, all of whom consciously or unconsciously played their parts." The provocation "made it possible at one stroke to crush the communist party and the power ministries and ultimately to liquidate the great country, 73% of whose citizens had unequivocally said in the March referendum, 'the Union must be'." Lebed, who had switched to Yeltsin's side in mid-coup and did help defend the Russian White House, now told ITAR-TASS that "he does not count himself among the defenders of the White House" and regards the event as "the most shameful page in the Russian state's history." Lebed's remarks not only strike at the core of Yeltsin's democratic image but also endorse the hardline opposition's view of Yeltsin as responsible for the collapse of the USSR. Yeltsin's recent intercession to save Lebed's post as commander of Russia's 14th Army has apparently not earned the President immunity from Lebed's attacks. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND HINTS HE MAY RUN FOR PRESIDENT. Questioned in an interview in Moskovskie novosti, no. 33 (14-21 August) about his possible candidacy for the presidency of Russia, Lebed replied: "We shall talk about it in detail if they force me to take off my epaulettes." He also commented that he is "a military man but not a subservient one." In the same interview, Lebed clearly implied that he considered Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, "whose job requires him to protect the interests of the state," responsible for the recent attempt to dislodge him from his Army's command. In the same issue of Moskovskie novosti, a correspondent reports from 14th Army headquarters that "politicians are telephoning from Moscow seeking to draft Lebed into the ranks of their supporters." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. GORBACHEV SUPPORTS DEMOCRATIC ALTERNATIVE PARTY BUT UNWILLING TO LEAD IT? On 19 August Interfax quoted Gorbachev's spokesman Aleksandr Likhotal as having denied that former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev had any intention of forming a democratic opposition party in Russia. In a formal statement transmitted to Interfax earlier that day, Likhotal dismissed the rumors to the contrary as "an inadequate interpretation" of Gorbachev's calls for the creation of a broad democratic movement and Gorbachev's stated willingness to assist such a movement. The misunderstanding was caused by Gorbachev's interview with ITAR-TASS on 18 August in which Gorbachev was quoted as saying that he had opted "to form a democratic movement, alternative to the current regime." It is possible that Gorbachev had thus implicitly expressed his support for the party with the working title of "Party of the Democratic Alternative", reportedly to be formed by supporters of the economist Grigorii Yavlinsky. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENSE MINISTRY ON REFORM EFFORTS, BUDGET. In remarks broadcast by Radio Mayak on 19 August, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev defended the military leadership's decision in 1992 to put off a structural reorganization of the Russian armed forces until 1996 and to concentrate its efforts instead on managing the withdrawal to Russia of hundreds of thousands of troops and dependents from abroad. Grachev criticized the government's decision to reduce the strength of the armed forces to 1.5 million troops, arguing that the nation would be better served by an army of 1.9 or 2.1 million. But he said that the troop reductions would compel the army to move from the current five-branch force structure to a four-branch structure, with the possibility of a further reduction to three services sometime in the future. Meanwhile, Interfax on 20 August quoted a communique issued by the Defense Ministry's press office which said that Russian arms procurement had fallen by more than 80% since 1991. The communique also complained that through the first eight months of this year the government had continuously underfinanced orders for military hardware placed with defense enterprises. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. COMMUNISTS MAY DISRUPT RUSSIAN-US JOINT EXERCISE. In protest actions conducted on 19 and 21 August, pro-Communist activists criticized the Russian military leadership for its intention to take part in a joint Russian-US peacekeeping exercise scheduled for early September, Interfax reported. Protest leaders also threatened to send protesters to the Totsk training ground, where the maneuvers are to take place, with the aim of disrupting the exercise. One right-wing leader said that the protesters would adopt the tactics of the environmental protection organization Greenpeace and suggested that clashes with law enforcement forces could result. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. WITHDRAWING TROOPS "TAKING EVERYTHING WITH THEM." The commander of the small contingent of Russian forces remaining in the former East Germany has admitted to the German newspaper Bild that he has ordered his troops to take everything possible with them as they return to Russia. According to Reuters of 19 August, Col. Gen. Matvei Burlakov said that material taken from Germany could be of use at new bases in Russia and, in some cases, might even be swapped with local authorities for pigs, calves, or other needed items. The result, according to the report, is that apartment houses inhabited by the troops have been stripped bare and, in one case, a small airport runway was loaded piece by piece onto railway cars and taken away. While German officials have reportedly expressed surprise at the troops' broad interpretation of the term "transportable" objects in the withdrawal agreement, they have not objected and have focused their attention more on the smoothness of the withdrawal operation. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. HOW POWERFUL IS BARKASHOV'S NEO-NAZI PARTY? The neo-Nazi party of the Russian National Unity (RNU) led by Aleksandr Barkashov may be more powerful than initially believed, judging by a letter to the editor of Izvestiya, published on 18 August under the pseudonym "Andrei Khudokormov". Khudokormov says the RNU consists of over 10,000 full members, 500 of them in Moscow alone. Apart from the full members, the party has the support of numerous sympathizers, many of whom reportedly belong to the top layers of the military, police and other governmental circles. He depicts the RNU as so influential that it was able to arrange the firings of active democrats, anti-Fascists, and communist supporters of Gennadii Zyuganov, as well as Jews, Ukrainians and Lithuanians from "some military units, institutes of higher education and factories." The RNU paramilitary troopers are well-trained and highly disciplined youths, who, Khudokormov claims, are rewarded for their service with free food, free training in wrestling, free uniforms and free travel across the whole of Russia. Apart from the storm troopers, the RNU is said to have a formidable clandestine counterintelligence service, to which, Kudokormov says, he himself belongs. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA MAJOR CLASH ON TAJIK-AFGHAN BORDER. At least 50 Tajik opposition fighters and seven Russian border guards were killed in the largest-scale opposition attack on the Tajik-Afghan border to occur in months, Russian and Western agencies reported on 19 August. Russian forces finally overwhelmed their opponents by calling in helicopter gunships. According to officers of the Russian border troops, the guards were attacked not only from across the border by Tajik opposition forces, with the assistance of Afghan supporters and Arab mercenaries, but also by Tajik opposition forces within Tajikistan. The Russian Foreign Ministry lodged a protest with the government of Afghanistan, and on 21 August Uzbekistan's newly-appointed Foreign Minister Abdulaziz Kamilov announced that his country was prepared to send more military aid to the government of Tajikistan to help it fight the opposition. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ABDIC DEFEATED. On 21 and 22 August international media reported that rebel Bosnian Muslim leader Fikret Abdic's 11-month revolt ended on 21 August as Bosnian government troops entered his stronghold of Velika Kladusa in the Bihac pocket with what one UN official described as "no great difficulty." Some media accounts reported violent clashes had erupted between government forces and Abdic loyalists on 19 August. Reports of Abdic's surrender that same day proved to be premature. On 21 August Reuters and AFP reported that talks between Abdic and Bosnian government leaders, in part dealing with the possibility of an Abdic surrender, collapsed after Abdic steadfastly refused to declare "null and void" the autonomy of his self-styled Bihac enclave. On 22 August Politika speculated on Abdic's whereabouts and well-being, which at the moment remain unknown, although the rebel leader is not unlikely to be seeking refuge in the neighboring Serb-held section of Croatia, commonly known as Krajina. A serious fallout of Abdic's defeat appears to be a massive refugee wave: Borba estimates that up to 50,000 are in flight. Most are attempting to gain entry into parts of Croatia controlled by Zagreb, but are currently being held at bay. Fears exist that the Bosnian government will seek reprisals despite the fact that, according to Radio Sarajevo reports, the Bosnian government has offered amnesty. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. LILIC ATTACKS KARADZIC. On 20 August the president of rump Yugoslavia, Zoran Lilic, told Politika that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic was warmongering for personal gain and glory. Lilic also reiterated Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic's now-familiar refrain that Belgrade could not support the policies of such Bosnian leaders. In an apparent response to Lilic's remarks, Karadzic met on the same day with Milan Martic, leader of the self-styled Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK), in Krajina for discussions on the possibility of some sort of political union between the RSK and Serb-held territories in Bosnia. Karadzic also planned a rally in the Bosnian town of Banja Luka, which arguably had the twin purpose of demonstrating Karadzic's continued resistance to Belgrade's seeming willingness to isolate the Bosnian Serbs, and to garner support for the defiant policies of the Bosnian Serb leadership. On 22 August Politika's coverage of the Banja Luka visit noted that Karadzic, perhaps in a bid to not be overshadowed by Milosevic's maneuvering, used the occasion to stress that Bosnian Serbs were willing and eager to make peace, even to bargain over territory, but not to do so in such a way that would jeopardize or undermine Bosnian Serb interests. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. BOSNIAN OFFICIAL SHOT. On 20 August Reuters reported that Bosnian Deputy Trade Minister Dzemal Cabanavdic was shot in the head and seriously injured while travelling the Igman road, a stretch of road "skirting Serb front-lines outside Sarajevo." As yet, no culprits have been identified. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBIAN CHURCH OFFICIAL WARNS OF RISKS OF PAPAL VISIT. On 21 August Reuters reported that a Serbian Orthodox church official, Metropolitan Jovan, warned the Vatican about the possibility of security risks that may mar a 12-hour visit by Pope John Paul II to Sarajevo, tentatively scheduled for 8 September. Jovan, underscoring earlier statements made by Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, stressed it would be difficult to guarantee the Pontiff's safety. Jovan was quick to add that his remarks should not be construed as opposition to the visit, but noted that the occasion would be "valid" only if the Vatican were to use the occasion to condemn all parties for war atrocities. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. GREEK-ALBANIAN DEVELOPMENTS. The ongoing trial against five Albanian Greeks in Tirana continues to be a source of bilateral friction, with another round of sharp diplomatic exchanges in recent days. On 19 August the Greek parliament adopted an appeal to all European Union legislatures, demanding their "immediate intervention" into what they described as a "flagrant violation of minority and human rights of the Greeks in Albania." On 21 August, however, Albania's Foreign Minister Alfred Serreqi attacked Athens both for using violence when expelling large groups of Albanian illegal immigrants over the past days, and for dispatching a civilian plane to drop leaflets calling for the overthrow of the Tirana government in violation of Albanian air space. Greek authorities later admitted having deported some 4,000 Albanians between 19 and 21 August, though they argued that such expulsions are routine. They denied any official involvement in the airplane incident, which was said to have been the initiative of a crop-dusting pilot who was subsequently suspended from duty. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL EUROPEAN PRESIDENTS MEET IN AUSTRIA. The presidents of Austria and its neighbors began a two-day summit in Albach on 21 August, devoted to minority issues, regional security, and the Eastward expansion of the EU. The nine countries represented are: Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein, Italy, Switzerland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Hungary. Jacques Santer, who will become president of the EU Executive Commission next year, is also present. Austrian President Thomas Klestil opened the meeting by urging gradual entry of East European countries into the EU, saying that if the EU "does not face this challenge," it "would be condemned to fail," international media reported. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SECRET POLICE GENERALS ACQUITTED . . . Former security police chief General Wladyslaw Ciaston and the head of the department that kept tabs on the Church and the opposition, General Zenon Platek, were acquitted on 19 August of instigating the October 1984 murder of Father Jerzy Popieluszko and aiding the perpetrators, PAP reports. In the course of the trial, which lasted two years, the Warsaw Voivodship Court heard the testimony of 80 witnesses, including the four perpetrators who were convicted in 1985. The proceedings revealed the complexity of ties within the secret police and the unlawful nature of many of its activities. Nonetheless, the presiding judge said it had proven impossible to establish the truth of the matter. The case, as presented by the prosecutors was only one of the possible versions of what had happened but it could not be considered as proven in the absence of substantive evidence. Spectators who had followed closely the entire proceedings left the court in protest at the verdict, shouting "Shame!" Both of the accused had refused to testify in court and pleaded not-guilty. The sentence was not passed unanimously and is subject to appeal. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND CONVICTED MURDERER APPLIES FOR PAROLE. On 18 August PAP reported that the principal perpetrator of the crime, former Captain Grzegorz Piotrowski, whose original sentence was cut from 25 years to 15, has applied for parole after serving two-thirds of his sentence. Polish TV said the request would likely be granted because it was accompanied by a positive assessment from prison officials who praised his conduct and commended his critical attitude to his crime, as well as from the Ursuline nun who visits the prison. Ten years after the murder Polish public opinion is still unable to come to terms with it. The prospect of parole for Piotrowski and the court's inability to bring the security police to answer for its crimes will increase disappointment with the system of justice. The inevitable appeal proceedings may lead to further probing. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN ECONOMIC CHAMBER CRITICIZES GOVERNMENT. In a joint statement issued on 19 August the Hungarian Economic Chamber and the Employers' Federation criticized the Hungarian government for failing to institute measures to spur economic growth, MTI reports. According to representatives of the two organizations, the government's measures focus one-sidedly on reducing the budget deficit and do not outline a strategy for economic growth that would enable entrepreneurs to plan for the 1995 business year. The current restrictive economic policy, which seeks to reduce internal consumption, keep interest rates high, and increase taxes, will bring only temporary and artificial relief, the organizations warned. They stressed that economic growth is the driving force behind an economic recovery, and declared that they will oppose the introduction of central wage controls in the upcoming talks on a "social pact" between the government, workers, and employers. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKIA FIGHTS ORGANIZED CRIME. On 19 August the Slovak parliament approved a bill to fight money laundering by organized criminals, TASR and Reuters reported. The new law, which requires banks to notify law enforcement agents of all deposits over 245,000 koruny, is a follow-up to a recent law requiring participants in privatization to prove the origin of their funds. On 18 August the parliament passed amendments to the crime law, increasing sentences for organized criminals. Interior Ministry State Secretary Roman Vavrik said the ministry expects to establish a special force to deal with cases of money laundering. Deputy Premier Ivan Simko said the new laws would give criminal prosecutors and society a powerful weapon to fight crime. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKIA TO EXPAND HIGHWAYS. Transport and Communications Minister Mikulas Dzurinda has recently confirmed Slovakia's interest in linking the country to a highway stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic. The first priority will be to connect Bratislava to the Austrian border, which was guaranteed by a recent bilateral agreement. Construction of this highway as well as a modern border crossing is expected to be completed in 1997. Dzurinda also received an informal promise from his Polish counterpart to connect the Polish highway network with Slovakia, Sme reported on 20 August. Since 1969 only 6-7 km of highways have been built per year in Slovakia, but Dzurinda said he would like to reach the European standard of 18-30 km per year. Dzurinda said Slovakia hopes to build 453 km of highways; one km costs about 200 million koruny. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. US JEWISH GROUP PROTESTS AT TEREZIN. Six American Jews led by New York Rabbi Avraham Weiss demonstrated on 19 August against the presence of Christian symbols at the site of the former Nazi concentration camp at Terezin (Theresienstadt) in northern Bohemia. CTK reported that the demonstrators attached a sign to a cemetery cross, saying its presence was "Holocaust revisionism." Local officials at Terezin tried to explain to the protesters that those buried in the cemetery were not only Jews, but also victims from a gestapo prison at Mala Pevnost. The protest was held without incident. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SECOND EXTREMIST PARTY WANTS TO JOIN ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT. The Greater Romania Party announced on 19 August that it wants officially to join the Vacaroiu cabinet, which it has supported in parliament since 1992. The party's chairman, Senator Corneliu Vadim Tudor, revealed at a press conference broadcast by Radio Bucharest on the same day that he has made future backing for the cabinet conditional on being offered two ministerial portfolios and several posts in the central and local administration, as well as in the foreign service. The move follows the reshuffle of the government announced on 18 August, when the extremist Party of Romanian National Unity joined the Vacaroiu cabinet. The executive secretary of the PRNU, Valer Suian, revealed at a press conference on 18 August that the PRNU is represented in the government by four, rather than two ministers as hitherto thought. Suian said that the Minister of Justice, Iosif Gavril Chuizbaian, is a member of the PRNU (a fact which was hidden from the public on Chiuzbaian's appointment in 1992) and that the Minister of Transportation, Aurel Novac, is a "sympathizer" of the party. The leadership of the opposition National Peasant Party Christian Democratic protested against the government reshuffle on 19 August. The NPPCD said the "aberrant symbiosis between a formation calling itself democratic and a fascist party" was likely to harm Romania's image in the world. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. RESULTS OF PRICE INCREASES IN BELARUS. Recent increases in bread and milk prices have resulted in a decline in production levels of the two commodities, Belarusian radio reported on 19 August. According to the Ministry of Trade, milk production declined by 20% in the last week, while bread production was down by 10-15%. Officials say the decline is related to the fact that the compensation payments to cushion the effects of the rises have not yet been fully distributed. On 20 August Interfax reported that last week's reduction of Belarusian banknote denominations to their face values, and the corresponding price reductions caused some confusion in marketplaces which were emptier than usual. The measure has not caused the Belarusian ruble to drop in value against the Russian ruble or the US dollar. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. KUCHMA DISMISSES 3 MINISTERS. Ukrainian television reported on 19 August that President Leonid Kuchma issued decrees dismissing three of his ministers. Ivan Dzyuba was relieved from the post of Minister of Culture in connection with his retirement; Oleh Slyepichev was dismissed as the Minister of Foreign Economic Relations because he is being transferred to a new job; and Volodymyr Maltsev was dismissed as Minister of Health because of his transfer to a new job. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY NEWS. On 19 August the commander of NATO naval forces in the Atlantic, Admiral Paul David Miller, ended an official two-day visit to Ukraine. At a press conference Defense Minister Vitalii Radetsky said the two discussed Ukraine's nuclear disarmament and problems surrounding the division of the Black Sea Fleet, as well as NATO's Partnership for Peace Program. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. UDALTSOV: TROOPS MAY LEAVE ESTONIA BEFORE ACCORDS RATIFIED. Russian Foreign Ministry official Aleksandr Udaltsov told Interfax on 18 August that the ministry does not rule out the possibility that Russia might pull its troops out of Estonia before all of the Estonian-Russian agreements related to the withdrawal of Russian forces are ratified by the Estonian parliament. Udaltsov was referring in particular to the accord signed by Estonian President Lennart Meri and Russian President Boris Yeltsin in July concerning the 10,500 retired Russian servicemen living in Estonia. According to the other accords endorsed by the two presidents, the Russian troops are to be withdrawn from Estonia by 31 August 1994. The delay in ratification can be attributed partly to the refusal of Estonian parliamentarians to consider the agreements on the grounds that an official version of the agreements exists only in Russian. Udaltsov said the Estonian refusal was "far-fetched." In the meanwhile, BNS reported on 20 August that Russian army property was continuing to be withdrawn from Estonia. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ULMANIS: YELTSIN'S REACTION TOO SHARP. Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis told Russian journalists that Russian president Yeltsin's recent remarks on Latvia's citizenship law were "too sharp and unjust," and suggested that such views in Moscow may have come from a careless reading of the law, Interfax reported on 19 August. Ulmanis said the law provides ample opportunity for those who wished to become Latvian citizens. Reproaching Russia for paying insufficient attention to the Russian people, victims of 50 years of the reigning Soviet policy and ideology, Ulmanis urged a Russian program of assistance to those wishing to return to their ethnic homeland. At the same time, Ulmanis reiterated that Latvia does not plan forcibly to deport residents who are not Latvian citizens, nor to make life difficult for them. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP IN ESTONIA. The Estonian Environment Ministry distributed a report on damage to the environment caused by the 50 years of Soviet-Russian military occupation, BNS reported on 19 August. The cost of repairing the damage was set at 54.75 billion kroons ($4.4 billion) of which about 40 billion kroons would be for cleaning up radioactive pollution from the nuclear reactors at the Paldiski submarine base. More than 11 billion kroons are needed to clean up former Soviet military airfields and artillery ranges and 1.7 billion kroons to remove radioactive waste at the Sillamae uranium plant. The Soviet military had maintained 570 military installations in Estonia encompassing 83,651 hectares or almost 2% of the republic. There was no indication of how the work would be financed. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. 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