When I was a boy of fourteen, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be twenty-one, I was astonished at how much he had learned in seven years. - Mark Twain
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 156, 18 August 1994

                              RUSSIA

YELTSIN PROMISES COOPERATION; US REACTS TO NUCLEAR SMUGGLING. In a
letter to German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Russian President Boris
Yeltsin has offered Moscow's cooperation in investigating the
source and trade of nuclear contraband seized in recent months in
Germany, The Los Angeles Times reported on 18 August. The
newspaper said that the letter was the first direct offer of aid
to come from the Russian government, whose officials have to date
denied that the nuclear materials found in Germany originate in
Russia. Meanwhile, US Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary was quoted
by The New York Times as saying on 17 August that while
discovering the origin of the atomic materials seized in Germany
was certainly important, even greater emphasis should be placed on
a broader effort to increase the general security of Russia's
nuclear research and production complex. O'Leary, who said that
her department was "intimately involved" with Bonn in trying to
identify the source of the contraband, warned against
sensationalizing the issue and expressed Washington's respect for
Moscow's ability to make the necessary decisions. Her remarks may
be seen in the context of what The Washington Post described as a
coordinated effort by the US Administration to allay fears that
Russia has lost control of its nuclear weapons stockpile.
Administration spokesmen have also cautioned, publicly at least,
that there is as yet no conclusive evidence that the contraband
did originate in Russia.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSLAN KHASBULATOV AND CHECHEN OPPOSITION. The chairman of the
Chechen opposition Provisional Council, Umar Avturkhanov, denied
on 17 August a report of the previous day to the effect that
former Russian parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov had
officially joined the Chechen opposition, ITAR-TASS reported. On
16 August, Russian Television's "Vesti" reported that Khasbulatov
had been appointed chairman of the recently created State Council
of the Chechen opposition. Avturkhanov described this report as
"propaganda" from the camp of President Dzhokhar Dudaev. So far,
Khasbulatov has refrained from commenting on the announcements. He
is currently in Chechnya offering to mediate between Moscow and
Groznyi.  Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.

NEMTSOV IS NOT SUCCESSOR, YELTSIN SAYS. Interviewed by Russian
television in Rostov-on-Don on 17 August, Boris Yeltsin said that
Boris Nemtsov, the reform-minded governor of the Nizhnii Novgorod
region, has declined the honor of being regarded as Yeltsin's
hand-picked successor. (On 16 August Nezavisimaya gazeta published
an article claiming that Nemtsov had been frightened by Yeltsin's
initial proposal because he feared becoming the primary target of
Moscow's political intrigues.) In Rostov, meanwhile, Yeltsin
repeated the praise that he had originally conferred upon the
34-year-old governor in Nizhnii Novgorod four days earlier, saying
that Nemtsov could indeed "aspire to become the president" of
Russia. Thereupon Yeltsin appeared to qualify his remarks, saying
that Nemtsov has the same right "as anyone else" to compete in the
presidential elections scheduled for 1996. Yeltsin said that when
he had asked Nemtsov directly whether he was interested in
occupying the post of president, the governor responded "never."
The significance of Yeltsin's remarks lies in their implication
that the Russian president--unlike many of his close
associates--may at the moment not be considering the postponement
or annulment of the forthcoming presidential elections.  Julia
Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

BOMB DAMAGES APARTMENT BUILDING IN ZELENOGRAD. A bomb destroyed
part of a four-story apartment building in the town of Zelenograd,
20 kilometers northwest of Moscow, ITAR-TASS reported on 17
August. The agency said there were no deaths or injuries but 23
persons were left homeless. The target of the bomb is not yet
known, but the agency said several residents in the house are
businessmen.  Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.

PROBLEMS WITH DELIVERY OF MiGS TO MALAYSIA? During a meeting of
Russia's Government Commission for Military-Technical Cooperation
on 17 August, First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets denied
rumors that Russia faced difficulties in meeting the terms of a
contract for the delivery of 18 MiG-29 fighter aircraft to
Malaysia, Interfax reported. The contract was signed on 7 June of
this year and is estimated at more than $500 million, of which
approximately 40% is to be paid by Malaysia with supplies of palm
oil. According to Interfax, Russia will receive 65% of the hard
currency payment in advance. The rumored problems apparently
concern Russia's ability to upgrade the aircraft. Viktor Samoilov,
general director of the state arms trading company,
Rosvooruzheniye, suggested that his organization would maintain
control of the advance hard currency revenues, and that it would
dole out some $60 million of it for research and development to
ensure that the service life of the MiG engines be extended from
750 to 2000 hours, as the contract with Malaysia stipulates. He
expressed the concern that if Rosvooruzheniye did not keep control
of the funds, defense enterprises might spend the money on "social
needs." Soskovets was quoted as saying that the contract with
Malaysia would provide employment for some 500,000 Russians.
Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

                  TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALISTS IN KYRGYZSTAN. Muslim fundamentalist
preachers are making their presence felt in southern Kyrgyzstan,
according to an article in Slovo Kyrgyzstana, quoted by ITAR-TASS
on 17 August. Kyrgyzstan's top Muslim clergyman, Kimsanbai
Abdurakhmanov, was quoted as insisting that fundamentalism has
little appeal for the traditionally nomadic Kyrgyz, a point of
view that has been espoused by Kyrgyz government officials, but
the southern part of the country, with a large sedentary Uzbek
population, has traditionally been a center of Muslim piety,
particularly in the Osh region. The article notes that interest in
Islam has increased in Kyrgyzstan in recent years, and many young
people have studied religion in Turkey, Iran and Libya.  Bess
Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

STATE OF EMERGENCY EXPIRES IN TAJIKISTAN. Despite intensifying
armed conflict within Tajikistan and continued fighting on the
Tajik-Afghan border, Tajikistan's government has allowed the state
of emergency imposed at the end of 1992 to expire, Russian and
Western sources reported on 17 August. Deputy Minister of National
Security Anatolii Kuptsov was quoted by Interfax as saying that
the decision was taken not to extend the state of emergency decree
because of the presidential election and referendum on the
constitution coming up on 25 September.  Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

                               CIS

RUSSIAN VIEWS OF INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE TO WITHDRAW FROM MOLDOVA.
According to a commentary in the Russian armed forces daily
Krasnaya zvezda of 16 August, the "number one" advantage to Russia
of agreeing in principle to withdraw from Moldova is that "it
removes the poisonous accusations about Russia's alleged 'imperial
ways' in keeping its army on the territory of sovereign Moldova
without a legal status and allegedly refusing to withdraw it."
According to a commentary in Izvestiya the same day, Russia's
"mere acceptance [of the principle of withdrawing troops from
Moldova] should tranquilize the international community which is
very concerned by the presence of foreign troops in sovereign
Moldova." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

NEW CLARIFICATIONS ON 1992 FIGHTING. The heated discussions
surrounding Russia's 14th Army have occasioned new clarifications
of its involvement in the insurgency against Moldova in 1992. At a
news conference in Tiraspol, reported by Novosti TV's "Itogi"
program on 14 August, the Army's Commander, Lt.-Gen. Aleksdr Lebed
said that he would like to find out "what happened to the more
than 20,000 firearms given to the Dniester government during the
events of 1992." On the same program, well-known military analyst
Pavel Felgengauer said that "since Afghanistan and the dissolution
of the USSR, our army suffers from an acute inferiority complex .
. . It needed a victory, however small, our own Grenada or Panama.
All we have had thus far is Transdniester and General Lebed."
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIAN, MOLDOVAN PRIME MINISTERS PLEASED WITH RELATIONS. The
Russian and Moldovan Prime Ministers held talks on 16 and 17
August in Moscow, Interfax reported. Viktor Chernomyrdin spoke of
"steady progress in political relations, with only technical
matters remaining to be resolved." The Russian side granted a
credit of 70 billion rubles, as the first installment of a planned
credit of 150 billion rubles, to enable Moldova to pay its debts
to the Russian state concern Gasprom for past Russian gas
deliveries. Sangheli insisted that Russia ratify the
Russian-Moldovan treaty, signed in 1990 and ratified only by
Moldova. He gave assurances that Moldova's parliament will soon
complete drafting a special status for Transdniester that provides
for economic and cultural autonomy while preserving Moldova's
territorial integrity. A Russian-Moldovan framework agreement on
cultural cooperation, including provisions on native-language
education for ethnic minorities, was signed. Vladimir Socor,
RFE/RL, Inc.

PAN-RUSSIAN PARTY SCOUTS UKRAINE, MOLDOVA. Basapress of 16 August
carried an interview with Vladimir Danilov, chairman of Russia's
Party of National Unity, who is currently visiting Ukraine's
Odessa oblast, Transdniester, and the Gagauz area in Moldova.
Danilov said that the party does not recognize the dissolution of
the USSR, seeks its restoration, has branches in seven former
union republics, and is about to open branches in Ukraine and
Moldova. He said that there was "mutual understanding" between his
party and the "Dniester" and Gagauz leaders on the goal of
reviving the USSR.  Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIAN SERBS THREATEN CONVOY BLOCKADE. On 18 August Borba reports
that on the previous day Bosnian Serbs demanded fuel from UN
peacekeepers and threatened that a failure on the UN's part to
deliver would result in Bosnian Serb efforts to halt UN convoy
traffic through Serb-controlled territory starting on 18 August.
AFP reported that UN spokesman Ron Annik dubbed the Serb actions
an exercise in "blackmail," adding that the UN has no intention of
complying with the Serbs' demands. The Los Angeles Times of 18
August reports that the fuel-for-traffic ultimatum may in fact
indicate that the Bosnian Serb side is having serious problems
priming its war machine due to Belgrade's decision to cut off fuel
supplies and isolate the Bosnian Serbs for their failure to
endorse the latest international peace plan for Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Meanwhile, the self-styled Bosnian Serb assembly
meets on 18 August to discuss the impact of Belgrade's decision to
sever political and economic ties. Parliamentary speaker Momcilo
Krajisnik, perhaps setting the tone for further Bosnian Serb
defiance to peace and seeming rump Yugoslav resolve to push the
Bosnian Serb leadership into endorsing the latest peace plan, has
observed "[Bosnian] Serbian soldiers are traditionally stronger
when they are under pressure." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

"ABDIC PROCLAIMS UNILATERAL CEASEFIRE" is how Politika on 18
August headlines its reporting on renegade Bosnian leader Fikret
Abdic's decision to declare a unilateral ceasefire. Abdic, based
in Bosnia's Bihac pocket, has recently suffered heavy losses, with
forces loyal to the Bosnian government recapturing an estimated
80% of the territory at one time controlled by Abdic's rebel
troops. On 17 August AFP reported that the Bosnian government has
called on Abdic to surrender within seven days. It remains unclear
what actions the Bosnian army may take if Abdic does not comply
within the specified time limit.  Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

PRISONER EXCHANGE IN SARAJEVO. After two prior delays, the Bosnian
government and Bosnian Serb authorities finally exchanged
prisoners on Sarajevo's Fraternity and Unity Bridge on 17 August,
AFP reported. In total, the Bosnian government freed 13 captives,
while the Serb side reciprocated by releasing 14. The latest
exchange was conducted in compliance with an accord inked in June,
under the terms of which a total of 1,000 prisoners (500 from each
side) are to be released. In other news, on 17 August
international media reported artillery clashes, lasting up to
several hours, between Bosnian Muslim and Serb forces around
Sarajevo.  Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

SANDZAK POLITICAL PRISONERS HALT HUNGER STRIKE. On 17 August Borba
and AFP reported that 16 Muslim political prisoners, all residents
of Serbia's province of Sandzak, halted a hunger strike after
nearly two weeks, at the urging of doctors and relatives. The
captives, who have been detained for 15 months, undertook the
hunger strike as a means of protesting delays in their trial, in
which prosecutors will continue to allege that the accused are
guilty of plotting and acting to create an independent "State of
Sandzak" in the predominantly Muslim-populated region of rump
Yugoslavia. Court officials have vowed to expedite the trial.
Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

AIDS ON THE RISE IN RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. Reuters and Borba reported on
16 August that 35 new cases of Aids have been registered and that
23 people have died from the immune deficiency since January. The
first case was reported in 1985, and 194 people have officially
died from the disease since then. Some 357 people are listed as
having contracted it. The most vulnerable social group to
HIV-infection in Serbia-Montenegro is that of intravenous drug
users.  Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

WALESA PROTESTS SPY'S APPOINTMENT. President Lech Walesa has asked
Interior Minister Andrzej Milczanowski to change his decision to
appoint former spy Marian Zacharski to head the Polish
intelligence service. A communique released by the President's
office on 17 August said that, while the president recognized
Zacharski's professionalism, he believed his appointment "would
jeopardize Poland's efforts toward integration with the West."
Polish dailies claimed on 18 August that Walesa's move had only
just preempted a US diplomatic protest. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka,
RFE/RL, Inc.

POLISH ECONOMY IN JULY. Consumer goods and services rose 1.5% in
July while wages rose 0.8%, representing a drop in real wages of
0.7% over the previous month, according to data published by
Poland's Main Statistical Office on 16 August. In comparison with
July 1993, goods and services rose by 32.8% and wages 37.9%,
representing a yearly increase in real wages of 3.7%. July's price
increase was exacerbated by a 3.2% increase in the cost of various
services (hot water, telecommunications and nursing home costs)
and 5.8% in liquor prices. Unemployment rose by 49,000 to
2,982,000 (from 16.6 to 16.9%), reflecting a large contingent of
schoolleavers. Industrial production fell by 3.4% in comparison
with the previous month, but rose 16.7% with regard to July 1993.
Production in the first seven months of 1994 was up by 11.2% over
the same period last year.  Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc.

PAWLAK TO UKRAINE, INTERVENES IN ARMS CASE. Polish Premier
Waldemar Pawlak and a large delegation traveled to Lutsk on 17
August for talks with Ukrainian government officials on bilateral
economic cooperation. According to a PAP report, three members of
the delegation went to "clarify" the case of a Cenzin official who
was arrested by Ukrainian security officials at Boryspol airport
on 29 July under suspicion of having attempted to send arms to a
war zone. The unnamed official had negotiated the legal sale of
Ukrainian ammunition to Kenia. Ukrainian security officers stepped
in when it transpired that the airplane carrying them was to make
a stopover in Croatia. Quoting well-informed sources, PAP said
that the Pole is to be released from custody pending legal
proceedings and that he might be prepared to cooperate with the
Ukrainian authorities "in the interest of both countries." Anna
Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc.

PREFERENCES FOR POLISH ARMS INDUSTRY. The Polish government
approved on 16 August the idea of "strategic government programs"
to ensure that domestic-produced military technology meets the
high standards required by the armed forces, PAP reports. Several
hundred billion zloty (more than $10 million) will flow annually
from the state budget to the Scientific Research Committee.
Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk revealed that the first
programs--determined by operational priorities--envisaged a
multifunctional helicopter, an antiaircraft defense system, and a
new-generation tank. He expressed optimism that the government's
decision would ensure long-term research planning, development and
realization and open profitable production lines which could be
applied in civilian production.  Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL,
Inc.

REORGANIZATION OF SLOVAK DEFENSE MINISTRY. On 17 August Slovak
Defense Minister Pavol Kanis announced that several major changes
will be introduced in his ministry on 1 September. The number of
generals working for the ministry will be cut from 31 to 20, and
the number of colonels from 354 to 143. The Army Headquarters,
which presently employs 31 generals and 339 colonels will be
transformed into the General Staff, which will have 14 generals
and 233 colonels. Lieutenant General Jozef Tuchyna, who presently
serves as Kanis's advisor, said the cuts correspond to the 1992
Vienna talks on armed forces reduction. By the end of 1995 the
Slovak Army will have a maximum of 46,667 troops, TASR reports.
Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

LAST SESSION OF CURRENT SLOVAK PARLIAMENT BEGINS. The last session
of the Slovak parliament before the upcoming elections, scheduled
for 30 September and 1 October, began on 17 August, TASR reports.
The session's agenda contains 59 points, which include
international agreements (governing relations with the Czech
Republic and Russia, as well as two environmental treaties),
economic laws (focusing on privatization and capital markets),
social laws (including the penal code and law on universities),
and politically motivated laws (including motions of no-confidence
in Deputy Premiers Brigita Schmoegnerova and Roman Kovac as well
as a law on conflict of interest). Although some deputies had
supported a bill to delay the parliamentary elections, this issue
will not be discussed.  Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

HUNGARIAN, SLOVAK JUSTICE MINISTRIES SIGN ACCORD. Justice Minister
Pal Vastagh and his Slovak counterpart Milan Hanzel signed on 17
August in Budapest a cooperation accord between their ministries
and agreed to start talks at the expert level to prepare a
bilateral agreement to facilitate legal assistance in criminal
matters. According to MTI, the two ministries agreed to exchange
their experiences in the creation of democratic legal
institutions, the administration of justice and prison
administration; they will also provide each other with their
respective countries' laws and, when possible, draft laws.  Alfred
Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.

HUNGARY WANTS AWACS PLANE AGREEMENT. Defense Minister Gyorgy
Keleti told General George Joulman, the visiting NATO Supreme
Allied Forces Commander in Europe, that Hungary continues to
support the use of its air space by NATO's AWACS reconnaissance
planes to help enforce the UN's flight ban over Bosnia, MTI
announced on 17 August. At the same time, Budapest wants a written
agreement outlining the conditions for the overflights, which were
authorized by parliament in 1992. The draft of such a document is
already being studied by NATO political officials in Brussels.
Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIAN NATIONALIST LEADER ATTACKS CSCE ENVOY. According to a
Reuters report from 17 August, Gheorghe Funar, leader of the
ultra-nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity and mayor of
Cluj, bitterly attacked CSCE High Commissioner on National
Minorities Max van der Stoel, who is visiting Romania. Funar
accused the CSCE official of favoring the Hungarian minority in
Romania and fostering separatist tendencies among ethnic groups.
He also said that van der Stoel had been misinformed on the
situation in Romania by the political party of the Magyar
minority, the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania. Funar,
who is known for his tough anti-Hungarian stance, warned the CSCE
commissioner not to meddle in Romania's internal affairs and urged
the European Parliament to punish the HDFR for allegedly
misleading European institutions. On 16 August the HDFR announced
that it was launching a campaign to collect signatures in favor of
its own version of an education bill after attacking the
government's bill for alleged discrimination, claiming that it
does not provide enough classes in the Hungarian language. HDFR
leaders discussed the issue with van der Stoel during his visit to
Cluj.  Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

ILIESCU DEFENDS HIS ROLE IN THE 1989 EVENTS. Traian Chebeleu, a
spokesman for Romanian President Ion Iliescu, rejected as
"completely gratuitous" allegations in a Bucharest newspaper on
Iliescu's role in the December 1989 events. According to an RFE/RL
correspondent in Bucharest, the daily Ziua had published a series
of articles suggesting that Iliescu had been responsible for the
killing of Nicolae Ceausescu's Defense Minister General Vasile
Milea. Ziua claimed that Milea, who died in unclear circumstances
after presumably refusing to carry out Ceausescu's orders, had in
fact been killed upon Iliescu's order because he was endangering
the latter's plans to seize power. The presidency statement said
that the editor in chief of Ziua, Sorin Rosca-Stanescu, was known
as a notorious Securitate informer and that his present
allegations "can be sorted out only in court." Dan Ionescu,
RFE/RL, Inc.

BULGARIAN SOCIALISTS PRESENT AMBIVALENT DRAFT PROGRAM. At a press
conference on 17 August, the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP)
presented its new draft program called "New Age, New Bulgaria, New
BSP." Georgi Parvanov, Deputy Chairman of the BSP Supreme Council,
told reporters the draft is intended to position the BSP as "a
modern, national, leftist party of democratic socialism." Both
that stilted qualification and the extensive text itself
nevertheless make clear that the program is the result of a major
effort at combining the views of the party's hard-liners and
groups leaning toward social democracy. The two wings have
especially disagreed on economic issues, which is apparent in the
formulation that the economic reform should be "radical . . . at a
price that is tolerable and socially just." The draft is supposed
to be adopted in a nation-wide poll among its members between 15
September and 15 October.  Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

BULGARIAN UNEMPLOYMENT. By the end of July the number of
registered jobless in Bulgaria was 514,042, 5,440 more than in
June. The press center of the National Employment Service, as
quoted by BTA, says the new figure means a monthly growth rate in
unemployment of 1.06% and thereby breaks the decreasing trend of
the last six months. The NES says that 141,544 of the unemployed
are aged below 24, and no more than 25,105 have high education.
Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

ALBANIAN GREEKS RETRACT CONFESSIONS. Western news agencies report
from Tirana that three Albanian Greeks charged with espionage and
illegal possession of arms have withdrawn their confessions,
saying they were made under coercion. On 17 August Kosta Qirjako
followed the example of his co-defendants Vanjel Papakristo and
Panajot Marto, who on the previous day had retracted their
confessions. All three--who like the other two accused are members
of the Greek Omonia organization--testified that they had been
badly maltreated during interrogations. Another defendant, Theodor
Bezhani, though denying the charges, stuck to his earlier
statements. Following demonstrations in support of the defendants
as the trial opened last week, Reuters says Albanian police are
now patrolling in front of the courthouse and have denied entry to
several Western journalists and lawyers.  Kjell Engelbrekt,
RFE/RL, Inc.

UKRAINE TO PAY A QUARTER OF ITS DEBT TO GAZPROM. The Russian gas
enterprise Gazprom reached agreement with Kiev over payment of
Ukraine's gas debt, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 August. Ukrainian
Deputy Ppremier Anatolii Dyuba said Ukraine would pay off 20-25%
of its $1.5 billion debt between August and October. The two sides
agreed that Gazprom would open bank accounts in Ukrainian banks to
facilitate the payments by Ukrainian enterprises using Russian
gas. The agreement also gives Gazprom the right to sign direct
contracts with Ukrainian gas consumers. Gazprom chairman Rem
Vyakhirev said the main result of the negotiations was the
resolution of a mechanism for gas supplies and their payment. He
also said the Ukrainians had accepted most of the Russian
suggestions regarding the problem. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

UKRAINIAN PRIVATIZATION STATISTICS. On 16 August Ukrainian
television reported the Ukrainian Ministry of Statistics figures
on the country's ownership of industries for the first half of
1994. Almost 60% of all industries are state owned; 20% have mixed
ownership; and 20% are collectively owned. There are only 4 fully
private industrial enterprises functioning in the country. The
report also said that there had been a notable decline in
production in all industrial enterprises.  Ustina Markus, RFE/RL,
Inc.

BELARUS LEADS IN LENIN STATUES. The Minsk Economic News reported
in its August issue that of the 2,000 statues of Lenin still
standing in the former Soviet Union, 502 are located in Belarus.
According to the paper, this means there is one statue of Lenin
for every 20,000 Belarusian citizens. Belarus thus holds the world
record for per capita Lenin statues. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIAN DEMARCATION OF BORDER WITH ESTONIA CONTINUES. Despite
Estonian protests, Russia continues to mark the border with
Estonia, BNS reported on 16 and 17 August. So far more than 25
border posts have been marked, according to Rein Orav of the
Estonian border guards. On 16 August Laar told the press in
Tallinn that Russia's actions were "a glaring violation" of
international norms and that they would jeopardize the
stabilization of relations between the two countries brought about
by the recent agreement on the withdrawal of Russian troops from
Estonia. Laar added that the key to resolving the Estonian-Russian
border issues lies in Russia's recognition of the continued
validity of the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty, which, inter alia, fixed
the borders between the two countries. On 17 August an unnamed
senior Russian diplomat made the claim to RIA that the treaty
became void when Estonia entered the former Soviet Union.  Dzintra
Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

LAST RUSSIAN TANKS LEAVE ESTONIA. On 17 August the last ten
Russian tanks in Estonia were shipped from the port of Paldiski,
Reuters reports. Other military equipment, including armored
personnel carriers, trucks, and ammunition, continues to be sent
out by train, the last one scheduled to depart on 28 August. On 24
July Russia agreed to complete its troop pullout by 31 August.
Aleksandr Olkhovikov, head of the Padilski submarine base,
informed Estonia that the removal of the nuclear fuel rods from
one of the two nuclear reactors at the base would begin on 24 or
25 August. The reactors are to be dismantled by 30 September 1995.
Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

NEW LATVIAN CABINET UNCERTAIN OF PARLIAMENTARY APPROVAL. Diena
reported on 17 August that the cabinet proposed by Prime Minister
designate Andrejs Krastins of Latvia's National Independence
Movement may not win the endorsement of the Saeima when the issue
comes up at today's session. A preliminary count of votes for and
against the new government suggests that the Krastins team may not
obtain the majority of votes from those deputies attending the
session. An agreement of cooperation reached on 17 August between
Latvia's Way, the political party heading the incumbent government
that resigned in July, and the Economists' Political Association
appears to have assured the opposition of garnering more votes
than the LNIM and its partners. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

  [As of 1200 CET]
  Compiled by Stephen Foye and Sharon Fisher
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Updated: 1998-11-

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Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole