|It matters if you don't just give up. - Stephen Hawking|
No. 142, 28 July 1994
RUSSIA DEMOCRATS TO DEMAND EXTENSION OF YELTSIN'S POWER? Nezavisimaya gazeta of 22 July reported that a group of democratic politicians plan to hold a conference in October at which to call for the prolongation of Yeltsin's presidency, without holding the elections scheduled for 1996. The plan was revealed in the course of a meeting of former Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar and other leaders of Russia's Democratic Choice party with its youth affiliate, "Free Generation." Invitations to the October conference have reportedly been sent to the leaders of other democratic parties, such as the bloc of the liberal economist Grigorii Yavlinsky and the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms, but thus far they have not agreed to participate. The newspaper further reported that the plan had been initiated by Yeltsin himself, who may attend the conference. The plan reportedly also envisages a campaign in the government-controlled media as a follow-up to the conference. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. CHERNOMYRDIN URGES MORE DEFENSE CONVERSION. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin told conference participants in the city of Penza on 27 July that defense enterprises should rely more on the production of higher quality civilian goods, Interfax reported. "I am all for selling military goods, but the problem is that no one is buying them; if you manage to find a client I am ready to sign any export license," Chernomyrdin was quoted as saying. Interfax suggested that Chernomyrdin had criticized Viktor Glukhikh, the head of the State Committee for Defense Industries, for failing to clearly define the size and assortment of government defense orders. Glukhikh was accompanying Chernomyrdin. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN PRESSURED ON BALTIC WITHDRAWAL; LUKIN COMMENTS. Quoting ITAR-TASS, AFP reported on 27 July that Boris Yeltsin had that day acknowledged being pressured by his US and German counterparts to reach an accord that guaranteed the withdrawal of Russian military forces from Estonia by the previously agreed upon 31 August deadline. Yeltsin was quoted as saying that "Estonia managed to excite the West" and that he had received letters from the two Western leaders "urging the withdrawal of the troops" by 31 August. "The human rights issue was postponed for several years," Yeltsin added. Meanwhile, ITAR-TASS on 28 July quoted the chairman of the Russian Duma's international affairs committee, Vladimir Lukin, as saying that the recently signed Estonian-Russian agreement "was only the beginning, and not the end of a process of regulating the problems of the Russian-speaking population" in Estonia. He suggested that Moscow would move beyond demanding that the rights of military pensioners be protected--an issue specifically covered in the agreement--to a policy aimed at ensuring full rights for all "Russian speakers" in Estonia. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. CHINA-RUSSIA TRADE PLUMMETS. Trade between China and Russia fell 39% in the first half of this year as compared with the same period last year, Chinese authorities reported on 28 July. Reuters said that traders blamed the fall on a flood of low-quality goods that have been sold by inexperienced firms on both sides of the border. Chinese reports indicated that there are huge stockpiles of Russian steel, cars, machinery, and equipment sitting in Chinese border cities, and that this stockpiling has led to severe cash shortages, heavy losses, and bankruptcies. Chinese officials said the poor quality of Chinese goods had led Russians to buy Western goods, despite their higher prices. Russia's primitive banking system was portrayed as another obstacle to effective trade. Chinese officials also suggested that trade had developed too quickly after the collapse of the USSR, and that the necessary laws and regulations had not been put in place to cope with the business. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GREECE AND RUSSIA DISCUSS ARMS SALES, CFE. Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets told visiting Greek Defense Minister Gerasimos Arsenis on 27 July that Russia was prepared to sell finished military products to Greece, but that Moscow was not willing to satisfy Greek proposals for joint production of such hardware, Interfax reported. Arsenis said that the purchase by rival Turkey of military hardware threatened to upset the military balance in the region, and that to meet this threat Greece was interested primarily in joint production of arms with Russia rather than in buying Russian arms off the shelf. Arsenis said that increased military cooperation between Greece and Russia could lay the foundation for the development of broader economic relations. He was also quoted as saying that "due to international agreements Russia has problems . . . concerning armed groupings on its southern front," and that Greece regards Russia's position on this issue with understanding. Arsenis was apparently referring to Russian efforts to amend the CFE Treaty in a fashion that would allow it deploy more troops in the Caucasus region; Turkey has been among the countries most adamantly opposed to any such change. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN OIL PIPELINE VIA GREECE, NOT TURKEY? On 27 July Interfax quoted an unidentified senior official of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations as having told the Petroleum Information Agency that Russia has no interest in the construction of a pipeline to export crude oil from Kazakhstan and the Caspian via Azerbaijan to south-eastern Turkey, since this would compete with the planned Tengiz-Atyrau-Astrakhan-Novorossiisk pipeline and in addition would effectively give Turkey control over the transport of oil from the former USSR. As an alternative, Russia is interested in a Greek proposal to build a pipeline from the Bulgarian port of Burgas to the Greek port of Alexandroupolis, which would obviate the need to carry Russian oil by tanker via the Turkish straits. This proposal was discussed during talks in Moscow on 27 July between Russian First Deputy Premier Oleg Soskovets and Greek National Defence Minister Gerasimos Arsenis, according to Interfax. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN SOFTENS STANCE ON RUSSIAN KARABAKH PEACEKEEPERS. An unidentified member of Azerbaijan President Heidar Aliev's staff told Interfax on 27 July that Azerbaijan would be prepared to support the Russian proposal for deploying Russian peacekeeping forces in Nagorno-Karabakh provided that Armenian forces withdraw unconditionally from Shusha and Lachin. He proposed a total force of between 3,000 and 6,000 CIS peacekeepers, of whom between 60 and 90 per cent would be Russians, under a CSCE mandate; this force could, however, be deployed only after a political settlement to the conflict had been reached and some 26 CSCE observers had taken up their posts. (The most recent Russian draft peace plan relegates discussion of a political settlement and withdrawal from Lachin and Shusha until after the deployment of peacekeeping forces.) Meanwhile Azerbaijan parliament speaker Rasul Guliev criticized the CSCE Karabakh peace plan as "fraught with risks" for Azerbaijan in that it would result in the consolidation of Armenian territorial gains. Also on 27 July, Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan, on a private visit to Moscow, met with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev to discuss the Karabakh conflict, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. TAJIK FIGHTING INTENSIFIES. A full day of fighting took place on 27 July in Tajikistan's Tajikabad and Garm regions, indicating that rebel forces are significantly stronger than expected. ITAR-TASS reports that 12soldiers of the Tajik army were killed in the fighting that began in the evening of 26 July and appears to be continuing. No casualty figures were available for the rebels, many of whom have been holed up in the mountains since the active phase of the civil war ended in December 1992. At least some of the rebel forces may be under the command of Rezwon, a fighter who has gained a cult following among opposition sympathizers. ITAR-TASS also quoted an unnamed Tajik army officer as denying speculation that the 56 soldiers now in opposition hands had voluntarily joined the rebels and had not been forcibly captured as officially claimed. A spokesman for the Tajik Foreign Ministry said that his government has asked the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the Red Cross, and the CSCE for help in finding and obtaining the release of the soldiers. Despite the escalation of tension, neither the Tajik government nor opposition representatives have so far threatened to pull out of the next round of peace talks, scheduled to be held in Pakistan in August. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF CREDIT FOR KYRGYZSTAN. Returning from a visit to the US, Kyrgyz Prime Minister Apas Dzhumagulov told a press conference in Bishkek that the International Monetary Fund is granting Kyrgyzstan $104 million in credits over three years to support the national budget, Interfax reported on 27 July. Dzhumagulov said that he had also obtained a $60 million loan from the World Bank for agricultural projects and help for small and mid-size producers of consumer goods. Kyrgyzstan has been more severely affected by the breakdown of Soviet-era economic ties than most other successor states to the USSR, with industry nearly at a standstill and unemployment increasing rapidly, and the country has become dependent on foreign help to carry out its economic restructuring program. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. ANTI-CORRUPTION CAMPAIGN IN UZBEKISTAN. Ten years after a Moscow-directed anti-corruption campaign was launched in the then-Soviet republic of Uzbekistan, the country's President Islam Karimov has called for a campaign against corruption and bribery on the part of regional and local officials, Interfax reported on 27 July. Karimov announced the campaign at a meeting of Surkhandarya viloyat administrators, judicial and law enforcement officials in Termez on 26 July. The earlier anti-corruption campaign caused great bitterness in Uzbekistan, with many people from all parts of the political spectrum criticizing Moscow for "picking on" Uzbekistan when corruption was spread throughout the USSR, and was a major factor in the alienation of the republic from the center, which eventually led to Uzbekistan's independence. The problem of corruption, as Karimov pointed out, continues to exist. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS MOLDOVAN RESERVATIONS ON CIS DECISIONS. Moldova's First Deputy Foreign Minister Nicolae Osmochescu, who represented his country at the recent meeting in Moscow of the Committee of Foreign Ministers of CIS member states, told domestic media as reported by Basapress on 26 July that Moldova had declined to join, or entered reservations on, most decisions taken at the meeting. As a general principle, Moldova will support decisions on economic cooperation but will not participate in political and military integration within the CIS, Osmochescu said. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS BLAST UN CONVOY. International media reported on 27 July that Bosnian Serb gunners hit an unarmed UN convoy near Sarajevo, killing one British soldier. The Serbs had announced the previous day that they were closing the land route to the capital to all but UN vehicles, but this attack means that even the UN will stay off that "blue route." The Serbs later said that they thought the convoy was a Muslim one, but the BBC on 28 July reported that it was "impossible" to mistake the clearly identified, white UN vehicles on a bright sunny day. The UN called in NATO warplanes, but they held their fire because they could not identify a target, Reuters noted on 27 July. The next day's Los Angeles Times, however, says that the flights were routine and that the UN "appeared reluctant to call a Western air attack. . . ." These latest Serb moves may be described as yet another display of what the Serbs themselves call "inat," or stubborn defiance. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. PERRY WARNS SERBS OF "CONSEQUENCES." News agencies on 27 July quoted US Secretary of Defense William Perry as saying that there is deep concern over "a pattern of Bosnian Serb provocations." He warned the Serbs of "consequences" if they do not stop opposing the Contact Group's peace plan, adding that lifting the arms embargo against the Muslims could then become an "irresistible" option. Reuters quotes one Sarajevo resident, commenting on the renewed blockade, as saying that "it's going to be a madhouse again. Someone should really stop this man Karadzic. He does whatever he wants." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ARE THE SERBS STRINGING THE RUSSIANS ALONG? Meanwhile, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev and special envoy Vitalii Churkin met with Serb rebel leaders from Croatia, Politika reports on 28 July. Churkin told AFP that the Bosnian Serbs, who were earlier given a letter from President Boris Yeltsin, are now "considering making their response to the Contact Group clearer." Today's Politika runs the headline: "Grachev announces an impending denouement over Bosnia." It could well be, however, that the Serbs are seeking to play the Russians along and split them from the West, thereby ensuring a key Serb goal that no serious international action is taken against them. The 27 July Washington Post quotes Churkin as saying that Russia is following its current strategy with the Serbs because it "assures a certain place for Russia in the negotiating effort." Interfax, however, cites an unnamed Russian Balkan expert as pointing out that "Russia has its own national interests differing from the interests of Bosnian Serbs . . . Serb politicians of the 20th century recall their 'special relations' with Russia only when they get in trouble, and forget about such relations as soon as the clouds over them disperse." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CROAT REFUGEES PARTIALLY LIFT UNPROFOR BLOCKADE. Reuters reported on 27 July that refugees have agreed to let the Croatian government take over seven of their posts blocking UNPROFOR checkpoints. The refugees demand that the UN finally start carrying out its mandate to help them return to their homes in Serb-held territory, and appear to have launched their blockade on 1 July with the connivance of Croatian police. Prime Minister Nikica Valentic, however, threatened to resign if the blockade were not at least partially lifted, and announced the new agreement himself. That same day Hina reported on President Franjo Tudjman's appeal to the Contact Group not to neglect Croatia's Serb-held territories in drafting their final settlement for Bosnia. Finally, Politika reports on 28 July on the long-standing feud in the Croatian military between professionals and those who owe their careers to their ties to the governing Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ). Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. WARSAW UPRISING ANNIVERSARY STIRS CONTROVERSY. Preparations for the 50th anniversary of the Warsaw Uprising have underlined the disparity between Germany's surprisingly warm relations with Poland and Russia's far less amiable approach. To transform the anniversary into a symbol of historical reconciliation, President Lech Walesa issued invitations to both the German and the Allied heads of state in August 1993. The decision to invite the German and Russian presidents stirred controversy. A few nationalist groups, including the Confederation for an Independent Poland, have called for a boycott; they argue that the presence of "representatives of countries that murdered Poles offends the victims' memory." German President Roman Herzog accepted Walesa's invitation, graciously expressing respect for Poles who objected to his presence. "We have waited 40 years for Poland's return to the community of free nations," Herzog told PAP on 26 July. Russian President Boris Yeltsin declined the invitation, however. Russia will be represented by the Yeltsin's chief of staff, Sergei Filatov. Although Yeltsin claimed an overcrowded calendar, Interfax reported on 26 July that the Russian president will spend the first ten days of August on vacation. A Polish official called Yeltsin's absence "a political fact." Reporting a joke now making the rounds in Warsaw, Gazeta Wyborcza said that it would be most fitting if Yeltsin were to observe the anniversary ceremonies through binoculars from the far side of the Vistula, just as the Red Army did as the Nazis obliterated the uprising in 1944. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA OPENS PAMPERS PLANT. The Polish president presided at the opening of Procter and Gamble's new diaper factory in Warsaw on 26 July, PAP reports. On the defensive after media speculation about his own financial interests, Walesa explained that he had promised to attend if P&G invested $200 million in the Polish economy. (The firm, the 12th largest investor in Poland, plans to invest $190 million by 2005.) Referring to the press uproar over his wife's opening of a pasta plant in 1992, Walesa stressed that neither he nor anyone in his family owns shares in any firms. Walesa added that he plans to think about making money only after leaving politics. The new plant is P&G's largest investment in Eastern Europe. It will produce 2 billion diapers yearly--80% for the baby-happy Polish market--and employ 600. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK NATIONAL PROPERTY FUND TO SELL ITS SHARES. According to information released on 27 July by the chairman of the Executive Committee of the National Property Fund, Viliam Vaskovic, the fund proposed that the Privatization Ministry approve a direct sale of shares it holds in the VSZ ironworks, the Slovenska Poistovna insurance company, gasoline distributor Benzinol, Investicna a Rozvojova Banka and the bank Slovenska Sporitelna to selected buyers. The fund has also begun to sell on the capital market shares of 88 companies which remained unsold after the first wave of coupon privatization; 47% of the shares have now been sold for 18.4 million koruny through the over-the-counter RM-System. Shares of 21 firms have now been sold out, but in 37 companies no shares have been traded, TASR reported. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. MECIAR DENOUNCES CHRISTIAN DEMOCRAT LEADER. Movement for a Democratic Slovakia Chairman Vladimir Meciar recently sent a letter to the CSCE accusing Christian Democratic Movement Chairman Jan Carnogursky of "conducting an election campaign in a way which does not correspond to democratic, moral, and ethical standards of democratic countries," TASR reported on 27 July. The letter continued by saying that "politicians who adopt these methods should withdraw from public political life, as did former US President Richard Nixon after the Watergate scandal." Meciar was referring to a statement made by Carnogursky during a recent parliamentary session saying he had found a document on his desk describing the MDS campaign strategy, including its plans to spend more than 66 million koruny. This prompted Carnogursky to support a bill on limiting a party's campaign spending to a maximum of 12 million koruny. Meciar asked the CSCE to reconsider Carnogursky's post as CSCE vice-chairman since, he said, "from a moral perspective, he has no right to hold this post." Meciar also sent a letter to the European Democratic Union, suggesting a reevaluation of the CDM's membership in that group. Although the MDS claimed the document Carnogursky found was a fake, Carnogursky said on 27 July that he is convinced of the document's authenticity. Meciar himself has several times "found" documents which are damaging to his political opponents. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HORN ON GABCIKOVO DAM. Premier Gyula Horn on 27 July told representatives of Hungary's environmental movements that Budapest did not intend to withdraw its suit with the International Court of Justice (ICJ) at The Hague, whose decision cannot be expected before Spring 1997, MTI reports. On the other hand, Horn would like the talks between Hungarian and Slovak experts on the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros dam, which showed no progress over the past year, resumed within two weeks so as to facilitate a mutual accord with Slovakia. According to most ecologists, there is no environment-friendly solution to Gabcikovo and Hungary's decision to halt the project was correct and any change would render the ICJ suit meaningless. According to state secretary for foreign affairs Istvan Szent-Ivanyi, the two countries have set no particular time limit to the signing of a state treaty and are putting the emphasis not on speed but on a long-term comprehensive settlement of all bilateral issues with the participation of Slovakia's Magyar and Hungary's Slovak minorities.Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARY ARMY IN DIRE LACK OF FUNDS. According to defense minister Gyorgy Keleti, the Hungarian Army is presently faced with a 3.5 billion forint ($35million) shortage and cannot expect to get the extra 2.5billion requested by his predecessor Lajos Fur, MTI reported on 27 May. Strict saving measures will thus be required, such as the call-up of 21,000 instead of 23,000 conscripts next month and the gradual reduction by 10,000 to 12,000 of the number of army conscripts; the joint exercise with British soldiers in September will be the only maneuver held this year. Keleti said that in the future, the army will play a lesser role in Hungary's security policy, which will rely more on political means and the bilateral treaties to be signed with Hungary's neighbors. Keleti said the air defense accord signed on 23 July with Slovakia was meant to be a confidence-building measure and that he would next meet his Romanian counterpart Gheorghe Tinca on 30 July in Gyula, Hungary to discuss bilateral military cooperation. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT RATIFIES DEBT SETTLEMENT. On 27 July the National Assembly ratified on its second reading a settlement involving $8.1 billion of Bulgaria's total $9.3 billion foreign debt to commercial banks. In return for a $3.8 billion debt reduction, the approximately 300 creditor institutions expect that Bulgaria immediately pays a $720 million installment, followed by $250-270 million annually over the first seven years. The agreement, signed on 29 June, runs over 30 years. While Germany's Deutsche Bank represented lender interests in the negotiations, Citibank of the United States has agreed to act as the agreement's fiscal agent. As quoted by Western agencies, Prime Minister Lyuben Berov prior to the ballot made a strong appeal to all lawmakers to support the motion, in order for the country to become reintegrated into the international financial community. But while a majority voted for the bill, the deputies of the Union of Democratic Forces came out either against or abstained. Explaining the coalition's position, UDF Chairman Filip Dimitrov said the settlement may be important, but has dangerous flaws. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVAN LANGUAGE DECISION ATTACKED IN ROMANIA. The Moldovan Parliament's vote last week to designate the country's official language as "Moldovan," rather than Romanian, in Moldova's new constitution has triggered an outcry in Romania. At a briefing on 27 July, carried by Radio Bucharest, the Romanian Foreign Ministry's spokesperson said that the Moldovan population's and Parliament's preference for the term "Moldovan" reflected "Bolshevik indoctrination." In a communique carried by Radio Bucharest on 26 July the Civic Alliance, which groups some of the leading cultural and political figures of Romania's democratic opposition, described Moldova's parliament and government as "Stalinist and Brezhnevian," "neocommunist," and "anti-Romanian and pro-Russian," and said that "our unification is again gravely threatened from the East." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. AFTERMATH OF ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN AGREEMENTS. On 27 July Estonian and Russian Foreign Ministers Juri Luik and Andrei Kozyrev did not sign, as expected, an agreement on the dismantling of the two nuclear reactors at the submarine base at Padilski due to "technical" reasons, BNS reports. A leader of the opposition Coalition Party, Endel Lippmaa, criticized the agreements as giving a whole lot of rights to Russians and nothing to Estonia and expressed doubts that the parliament would ratify them. He noted that Russian troops would remain in Padilski after 31 August just as they will at the Skundra radar station in Latvia. President Lennart Meri noted that almost half of the 10,700 military retirees were born before 1930 and thus already had the right to a residence permit as did the 2,560 who were legal Estonian citizens. Stressing the fact that Estonia had the right to refuse residency permits to individuals for security reasons, Prime Minister Mart Laar said that he considered all retired Russian military a threat to Estonia's independence and doubted that a majority of the retirees would be allowed to remain in Estonia. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIA, BELARUS TALKS. On 26 July Belarus Deputy Foreign Minister Stanislau Ahurtsau traveled to Vilnius where he held talks with his Lithuanian counterpart Rimantas Sidlauskas on border questions, Radio Lithuania reports. The two agreed on the exchange of railroad tracks that are either on Lithuanian or Belarusian territory, but belong to the railroad systems of the opposite side and the continuation of the construction of a Lithuanian cultural center in the Astravec region of Belarus. Further talks will be held in August on the fate of the Adustiskis railroad station which both sides claim. Ahurtsau traveled to Riga on 27 July to attend the opening of a Belarusian embassy. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. KUCHMA APPOINTS HEAD OF ADMINISTRATION. On 26 July Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma issued a decree appointing Dmytro Tabachnyk as the head of the president's administration, Ukrainian television reported. The decree also created a new ministry for nationalities, migration and cults, replacing the earlier ministry for nationalities, migration and religious affairs. Mykola Shulha was appointed minister for nationalities, migration and cults. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF TO WORK OUT STABILIZATION PROGRAM WITH UKRAINE. On 27 July Interfax reported that IMF officials will work out a stabilization program with Ukrainian experts which could serve as the foundation for IMF aid. The decision was made during a meeting between Kuchma and IMF managing director Michel Camdessus. The program is to be submitted to the IMF session in Madrid in October. The exact amount of credit Ukraine can expect was not specified. Camdessus also met with Prime Minister Vitalii Masol. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN HARD-LINERS PROTEST US-RUSSIAN MILITARY EXERCISES. The hard-line Slavic Assembly Belaya Rus has sent a letter to Russian president Boris Yeltsin calling for the cancellation of the planned joint US-Russian military exercises in the Urals, Belarusian radio reported on 26 July. According to the letter, the exercises would only benefit the Americans "and will harm the interests of our great Fatherland." The letter was delivered to the Russian embassy in Minsk. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. ATHENS AGAIN BLOCKS EU LOAN TO ALBANIA. On 27 July Greece for the second time used its veto right to stop a $42-million loan of the European Union to Albania. Greece and the other member states had one week earlier--at a meeting of all EU foreign ministers--reached a compromise on the immediate release of $18million of the loan, and the rest following a probe into Albania's political and human rights situation. Reuters reports that Greece now, however, insists that the second installment of the loan should require unanimous EU approval, a demand other EU governments are not prepared to accept. Athens is of the opinion that Tirana consistently violates the rights of the country's minority Greeks. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. "ANTI-COMMUNIST FRONT" FOUNDED IN ALBANIA. Two right-wing parties, the Democratic Party of the Right and the Party of the Social Justice, have founded an "Anti-communist Front of the Right" in cooperation with the National Society of the Expropriated-Right of Possession, Gazeta Shqiptare reported on 23 July. In a joint declaration the three groups agreed that the Anti-communist Front will be formally set up and that its political agenda will be chiefly based on the program of the National Society of the Expropriated. The front will be governed by a joint council made up of the leaders of the three organizations. Both parties are minor ones, but together they might begin to have some clout. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Vladimir Socor and Dan Ionescu The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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