|There is always one moment in childhood when the door opens and lets the future in. - Graham Greene|
No. 134, 18 July 1994
RUSSIA MOSCOW DENOUNCES US SENATE AID DECISION. Russian government and parliamentary leaders reacted angrily on 15 July to the US Senate decision of 13 July to block new aid to Russia after 31 August unless Moscow meets its commitment to withdraw all its military forces from Estonia. In an address to the State Duma, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev called the decision perplexing and charged that it was an attempt to interfere in the internal affairs of Russia and Estonia. He said that Russia rejected any linkage between the aid and military withdrawal, Reuters reported. Other Russian leaders echoed Kozyrev. In an interview with Interfax, Presidential Press Secretary Vyacheslav Kostikov said that the Senate decision could complicate resolution of the withdrawal issue; he also compared the human rights situation in Estonia to that in Haiti. Reuters quoted Vladimir Lukin, chairman of the parliaments foreign affairs committee, as saying that the Senate decision was either stupid or provocative. The Los Angeles Times quoted the liberal former Finance Minister, Boris Fedorov, as saying Never tell us what we have to do, especially when it concerns our interests. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV ON NATO, NORTH KOREA. In testimony before the State Duma on 15 July, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told deputies that Russias decision to participate in the NATO Partnership for Peace Program is not subject to ratification by the parliament. There is nothing to ratify here and nervousness concerning this issue is humiliating both for our Duma and for our country, he said. Turning to tensions on the Korean peninsula, Kozyrev said that the Foreign Ministry had information that Pyongyang intends to maintain contacts with the US on problems related to its nuclear energy program and that it is preparing for a summit with South Korea. Kozyrev added that if the negotiations with the US prove fruitless, Russia will insist on holding a multilateral conference on the issue. He also said that Russia was ready to help North Korea move from heavy water graphite-moderated reactors to light water reactors, if the international community finances this project. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. CHERNOMYRDIN HAILS RUSSIAS PROGRESS . . . Addressing a special cabinet session on 15 July, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin expressed pride that his government had confounded the predictions of critics who expected the departure of proreform ministers and the appointment of red directors in January to prompt hyperinflation and economic catastrophe. Economic reforms had born fruit, he said: lines were gone, shops were full, monthly inflation was below 5%, the deficit was down, and the production decline had leveled off. In the second half of 1994, he said, economic policy would focus on real economic restructuring, with an emphasis on addressing regional disparities. While stressing the importance of continued fiscal discipline and a lower deficit, Chernomyrdin also vowed to spur industrial growth. The labor market would be made more elastic, he said; taxation levels would be reduced, with the major burden shifted from enterprises to individuals; and poverty and organized crime would also receive special attention. The cabinet is expected to produce a final economic policy document within ten days, Interfax reported on 15 July. President Boris Yeltsin was to have chaired the cabinet session, but failed to attend because of a cold reportedly caused by the Kremlins excessive air-conditioning. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . PROMISES BANKRUPTCIES . . . Chernomyrdin pledged that long-postponed bankruptcy provisions would finally begin to take force in the economy, shifting resources from insolvent firms to more efficient economic branches. The privatization ministry had already set in motion proceedings to liquidate six of the most egregious cases, he reported; 60 others were already in the courts and a further 100 were under review. Chernomyrdin said bankruptcy proceedings could hit as many as 2000 enterprises in 1994, provided strictly economic criteria were adhered to. He did note, however, that exceptions might be made in the case of vital defense plants and factories whose closure would entail especially socially difficult consequences. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . CRITICIZES DEFENSE INDUSTRIES . . . Chernomyrdin nevertheless lashed out at what he described as the unwillingness of regional leaders and factory directors to convert defense plants to civilian production. Reuters quoted him as saying that we need to build roads and schools and the budget is not made of elastic...How much must we suffer before we switch to different kinds of production? According to ITAR-TASS, Chernomyrdin said that Russias unique conditions (presumably the enormous breadth of the defense complex) made any structural changes in the economy dependent upon the defense sector. He urged rejection of the old practice of placing defense orders with enterprises solely in order to keep people busy, and was quoted as saying that by cutting the assortment of weapons to be produced, the government intends to concentrate defense orders on a smaller number of enterprises, making them more profitable and effective in this way. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . FACES CRITICISM. The enlarged government session was attended by a large delegation of parliamentary committee chairmen and party leaders, many of whom objected to the optimistic tone of Chernomyrdins presentation, Interfax reported on 15 July. The Chairman of the State Dumas Economic Policy Committee, Sergei Glazev, a vocal critic of government economic policy, censured Chernomyrdin for presenting too rosy a picture of the economy and ignoring the social price of economic reform and the danger of Russias deindustrialization. Glazev called for a parliamentary no-confidence vote in the government. He supported this, he said, not so much to remove the government from office, but rather to allow deputies to voice criticism and alert it to problems. He predicted that a majority of deputies would ultimately vote in favor of the government. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. DUMA DEMANDS DISMISSAL OF HEAD OF GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION. The Russian State Duma voted 277 to seven with four abstentions for the dismissal of the head of the government administration, Vladimir Kvasov. The vote took place after 42 deputies were refused admission to the enlarged government meeting between ministers and directors of big industrial enterprises, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Moscow on 15 July. Kvasov, who was appointed to this position by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin last year, is responsible for arranging the governments day-to-day business. His dismissal needs to be approved by Chernomyrdin. Kvasov argued that deputies not on the official list were held back only briefly and only because seating was limited. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN ARMS EXPORTS. Former Soviet Defense Minister and CIS joint armed forces commander Evgenii Shaposhnikov was quoted by Interfax on 16 July as saying that Russia had exported $2.3 billion in military equipment 1993, and that this total was expected to rise in 1994. He said that Russias arms trading company, Rosvooruzheniye, had already signed contracts exceeding $1.5 billion in 1994. Shaposhnikov serves as the representative of the Russian Presidents office to Rosvooruzheniye. According to the same report, the general director of the trading company, Viktor Samoilov, complained that the biggest obstacle to increased arms sales was the requirement to obtain a license from the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations for each arms deal. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. TSARS EXECUTION ANNIVERSARY MARKED. Commemorative events were held in several Russian cities to mark the 76th anniversary of the execution of the last Russian Tsar, Nicholas, and his family by the Bolsheviks, the Russian media reported on 17 July. ITAR-TASS said mourners in Ekaterinburg, the city in the Urals where the execution took place, held an all-night vigil. Churches in Moscow and St. Petersburg also held services. Monarchists and Cossacks were among those attending. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLZHENITSYN TO ADDRESS STATE DUMA IN OCTOBER. Interviewed by Russian TVs Vesti program in the Yaroslavl railway station on 16 July, the Nobel prize winner Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn revealed his intention to address the State Duma in October. The writer said he had received a cabled invitation from the speaker, Ivan Rybkin. Solzhenitsyn cited Rybkin as writing that Solzhenitsyn could address the Duma either before 22 July or after 1 October, because between these dates the parliamentarians are on vacation; Solzhenitsyn added that he probably will come in late fall. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMO IN EREVAN. On 15 July, the opposition National-Democratic Union headed by former Prime Minister Vazgen Manukyan convened a demonstration in Erevan to protest the grave economic situation and what were termed the illegal and immoral policies of the present leadership, Russian agencies reported. The number of participants was estimated at 20,000 by Interfax and at 50,000 by ITAR-TASS. Ashot Manucharyan, a former Karabakh Committee member and ex-security advisor to President Levon Ter-Petrossyan, who since January has been engaged in a public polemic with Minister of Internal Affairs Vano Siradeghyan, accused the Armenian leadership of instigating the assassination of several political figures including former KGB chairman Marius Yuzbashyan. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. AKAEV CALLS FOR PRESS RESTRICTIONS. Kyrgyzstans President Askar Akaev has called for new controls on the press, Interfax reported on 15 July. In a speech to a gathering of legal officials from all of Kyrgyzstan, Akaev said that the countrys free press was one of the major attributes of democracy that has gained Kyrgyzstan recognition in the world community, but press freedom requires responsibility, because the information media affect political processes. At present, according to Akaev, most of the press in Kyrgyzstan is behaving irresponsibly, stirring up social and political conflicts. The Russian-language Svobodnie gory, one of the most popular and influential newspapers in the country, came under particular attack by the president, who suggested that the courts should stop its publication. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. KAZAKH, KYRGYZ CORRUPTION TROUBLE. Kazakhstans economics minister, Mars Urkumbaev, told Reuters on 15 July that he is stepping down from his post for 45 days to defend himself against corruption charges brought by a state prosecutor; the accusations are related to Urkumbaevs previous position as head of a state-run company. Urkumbaev, who has excellent relations with Western companies and governments, was only appointed economics minister this year. Interfax reported on 15 July, citing government sources, that the chairman of the Kyrgyz state property fund, Esengul Omuraliev, and three of his deputies have been dismissed because of grave malpractices. Omuraliev and his deputies denied any illegal actions at a news conference on 12 July. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. TAJIK-RUSSIAN-UZBEK BORDER PROTECTION AGREEMENT SIGNED. During a two-day visit to Tajikistan by Colonel-General Andrei Nikolaev, head of the Russian Federations border troops, an agreement between Tajikistan, Russia and Uzbekistan on protecting the southern borders of the CIS was signed, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 July. A second agreement, between Russia and Tajikistan, dealt with military shipments between the two countries. Details of the two agreements were not reported. When asked at a press conference about the situation on the Tajik-Afghan border, Nikolaev said that it was far from stable and in his view the conflict can only be settled politically. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN, CROATIAN AND TURKISH PRESIDENTS BACK BOSNIAN PARTITION PLAN. International media reported on 17 July that the three heads of state met on Brijuni island and urged the Bosnian Serbs to endorse the proposal without any conditions and ambiguity. The Bosnian parliament and the assembly of the self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna have already approved the measure, and the parliament of the joint Croat-Muslim federation is expected to do the same on 18 July. Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic has said that the plan is not good for his side but is still the best thing going. Reuters adds that the Muslims will probably accept the map without any qualifications, but may seek an arrangement to deal with Bosnias $500 million debt and to place monitors on the republics borders. The latter move would serve a political purpose in reasserting the republics indivisibility, while also having a military aim in enabling monitors to control or at least check Serb supply lines. Turkish President Suleyman Demirel has now concluded a trip that included a visit to his countrys troops at Zenica in central Bosnia. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBS IN FEISTY MOOD AS VOTE DEADLINE NEARS. The BBC and VOA reported on 18 July that Serb politicians in Pale are loaded for bear in anticipation of renewed foreign pressure over the Bosnian partition plan, which the Bosnian Serb legislature is expected to turn down in the course of the day. Their SRNA news agency quoted their leader Radovan Karadzic as saying that we must as a consequence properly equip and discipline our army. The entire population will have to be organized for an all-out war, and all people will have to be mobilized, including women. In the meantime, a notorious militia known as Panthers is continuing the ethnic cleansing of the Bijeljina region in northeast Bosnia, the New York Times reports. The Panthers refused to obey local police officers, saying they had orders. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. UN AND NATO PREPARE CONTINGENCY PLANS FOR BOSNIA. International media reported on 17 July that officials of the world organization and the Atlantic alliance met in Zagreb the previous day to make preparations for their various options under the plan. Rejection by any side of the Geneva plan would implicitly call for NATO to be put on a war footing against it, Reuters said. Up to 50,000 troops might be called for, and numerous questions remain. Meanwhile, the Washington Post on 18 July quotes US Secretary of Defense William Perry as saying that were at a fork in the road here and that if we go down either one of those two forks we laid out that it would be an expanded role for NATO, and the United States would be an important part of that. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. RUGOVA REELECTED AT LDK CONGRESS IN KOSOVO. The Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) held its second election congress in Pristina on 14 and 15 July, Rilindja reported on 15 July. The party represents the overwhelming majority of Kosovo Albanians, and other ethnic Albanian parties there cooperate closely with it. Kosovar President Ibrahim Rugova was reelected as party leader, news agencies said, but most of the 55 members of the partys executive committee were replaced by younger people. The changes are connected with a higher involvement of the party in the local shadow-state administration. Rugova said that the LDK is the main political force, which animates and consolidates all life in occupied Kosovo. The role of the president, and therefore also of the party, will remain extremely important or even increase as long as the parliament, which was elected in May 1992, is prevented by the Serbian authorities from holding its constituent session. The old parliament, which was elected in 1989, lost its mandate on 4 December 1993 and since then the president has ruled in cooperation with the exile government. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. ETHNIC ALBANIAN DEPUTIES SAVE MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT. News agencies reported from Skopje on 15 July that Albanians ended their boycott of parliament the previous day to return and provide Prime Minister Branko Crvenkovski the votes he needed to defeat a challenge from the nationalist VMRO-DPMNE. The government is now safe until the next elections, which must be called by October. The Albanians had absented themselves from the legislature recently to protest sentences imposed on high Albanian officials on charges of organizing paramilitary formations. The Albanians hold five seats in the cabinet. This is the third no-confidence vote Crvenkovski has faced in 22 months in office. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. POLANDS PAWLAK DRAGS FEET ON MASS PRIVATIZATION. Polands long-delayed mass privatization program received another setback on 16 July when Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak refused to approve a final list of 105 enterprises slated for participation in the program. In what has become a pattern for the prime minister, Pawlak argued that he could not make a decision until he had more information on the firms economic condition. If we want to realize this program in a serious fashion, it must be well organized, Pawlak said. Preparations for mass privatization began in Poland in 1991, but political conflict has caused almost surreal delays in its implementation. Pawlaks predecessor, Hanna Suchocka, approved two earlier lists of 335 firms for mass privatization already in 1993. Pawlaks decision follows demands from within his own Polish Peasant Party for the removal of Privatization Minister Wieslaw Kaczmarek, who represents the Democratic Left Alliance; the peasant deputies object to plans to privatize the tobacco industry. Past privatization ministers charged in Gazeta Wyborcza on 18 July that Pawlaks criticism of the program is absurd. They accused Pawlak of using mass privatization to wreak the revenge of a former satellite on its former master. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH DESERTERS SUICIDE PROMPTS DRAFT REVIEW. In the wake of the suicide of a young deserter who led military police on a three-day chase, defense ministry officials have announced plans to humanize military service and exclude psychologically unstable draftees from the armed forces, Rzeczpospolita reports. Deputy Defense Minister Danuta Waniek told a press conference on 14 July that her ministry will erect special examination centers where draftees can be observed by doctors and psychiatrists over the course of several days. The ministry will also take over draftee selection, which is currently conducted by the internal affairs ministry in consultation with the health ministry. Officials denied that the level of desertion is high; in 1993, 37 Polish soldiers deserted and 363 went AWOL. Waniek also confirmed that Poland intends to shorten military service to one year. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN SLOVAKIA. Ivan Miklos, the minister of privatization in the government of Jan Carnogursky two years ago, was elected chairman of the right-of-center Democratic Party (DP) at its congress in Bratislava on 16 July. Slovak media report that Miklos replaced Pavol Hagyari, who had been accused of violating the partys statutes. Hagyari had also been criticized for planning to form a pre-election coalition with the centrist Democratic Union--the move that prompted the DPs coalition partner, the Party of Entrepreneurs and Small Businessmen (PESB), to abandon the coalition. It is not clear whether the PESB will reenter the coalition following Mikloss election. In another development, on 15 July the Slovak parliament rebuffed for the second time this year an attempt of the opposition Movement for a Democratic Slovakia to recall Privatization Minister Milan Janicina. Only 51 deputies in the 150-seat parliament supported the no-confidence vote. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT ELECTED. By a vote of 265 to 93 (with one new opposition deputy voting yes by mistake), and one abstention, Hungarys parliament on 15 July approved Hungarys new government program and confirmed the countrys 14-member coalition government headed by Hungarian Socialist Party Chairman Gyula Horn, MTI and Radio Budapest announced. Gabor Kuncze of the Alliance of Free Democrats will serve as deputy premier (a new post) and minister of internal affairs, with two more ministries (culture and education; transport, communications, and water management) allotted to the AFD. Following the swearing-in ceremony, Horn said he would like to be able to state four years from now that a further worsening of Hungarys economic crisis had been prevented and the populaces living conditions had improved. After approving an 8% increase in Hungarys pensions due in September, parliament adjourned until 29 August. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. HORNS IMMEDIATE FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES. At a 15 July international press conference, Premier Horn said he would lead Hungarys delegation to the 16 July Trieste summit of the Central European Initiative then hold a working meeting on 18 July in Bonn with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to strengthen bilateral economic ties. Horn rejected the view that the four Visegrad group countries should be dealt with jointly as a bloc with regard to their future admission into the European Union. He denied the existence of a consensus in Hungary over NATO membership and favored the holding of a referendum on the countrys admission to both the EU and NATO, adding that he would work toward an affirmative vote on both issues. Horn favored a stabilization of Hungarys relations with Russia and a regaining, to the extent of existing possibilities, of Hungarys eastern markets. He stressed the need to improve relations and sign a bilateral state treaty with Slovakia that would resolve the Gabcikovo dam and national minority issues, and to ease tensions with Romania over the minority issue. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN-BRITISH JOINT MANEUVERS. By a vote of 289 to 1, Hungarys parliament authorized the holding on Hungarian soil of a joint Hungarian-British military exercise from 6 to 24 September 1994, MTI reported. According to defense minister Gyorgy Keleti, the maneuver, the first of its kind, will involve Britains Goldstream Guard Regiments 7th Company (120 men), will take place in the framework of NATOs Partnership for Peace program and aim at exercising peace-keeping tasks and strengthening bilateral military ties. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. NATO SEMINAR AT SINAIA. On 14 and 15 July Romania hosted an inter-parliamentary conference on Security and Regional Cooperation in Central Europe, Radio Bucharest reported. The seminar, which took place in the mountain resort of Sinaia, was sponsored by the North Atlantic Assembly and attended by delegates from major international organizations, all the NATO partner countries, as well as representatives of East European countries interested in NATOs Partnership for Peace Plan. NAA President Loic Bouvard, who attended the second day of the conference, lectured on the relationship between NATO and the countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The conference was closed by Romanias President Ion Iliescu. In a long address, he tried to define Romanias role in the new Europe. Iliescu praised his countrys contribution to ensuring peace and stability in a region plagued by conflicts. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN-UKRAINIAN ROW SURFACES AT CONFERENCE. In other news form the Sinaia seminar, the leader of Romanias parliamentary delegation, Ioan Ratiu, called for the restitution to Romania of territories lost under the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact. Ratiu, one of the leaders of the opposition National Peasant/Christian Democrat Party and its candidate in the 1990 presidential election, specifically mentioned northern Bukovina and southern Bessarabia, which are now in Ukraine. The position expressed by Ratiu is widely shared across Romanias political spectrum and targets both Moldova and Ukraine. Addressing the conference, Romanian President Ion Iliescu acknowledged for the first time publicly that Romanias demand for a condemnation of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact was a stumbling block to the signing of Romanias proposed treaties with Ukraine and Russia. The Ukrainian ambassador to Romania, Leontii Sanduleak, angrily rejected the demands, noting inter alia that the legal basis of Ukraines possession of those areas postdates the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact and that none of Ukraines other neighbors advance territorial claims on it, RFE/RLs corespondent reported. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF OFFICIAL PLEDGES SUPPORT FOR BULGARIAN REFORMS. Russel Kincaid, head of the mission of the International Monetary Fund to Bulgaria, has confirmed that the IMF has decided to offer the Bulgarian government a $100 million loan at the end of the summer, plus another $200 million pending a further analysis of the countrys economic performance later this year. As quoted in the 18 July issue of Pari, Kincaid said loans pledged by the IMF and the Group of 24 industrialized states are likely to substantially enhance the countrys currency reserves, despite that Bulgaria--under an agreement not yet ratified--over the next few months would have to pay $750 million to its creditors. He added that a debt accord would be the most important economic development in Bulgaria during 1994. In Ekspress, however, a financial commentator writes that the IMF seems to have become more skeptical about the government meeting up to its expectations, noting that representatives of the organization just recently spoke of $200 million to be disbursed at an earlier date. The commentator says he believes the IMF is reluctant to make further commitments until the political situation--with a cabinet which has promised to resign this autumn--has become more predictable. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. LUKASHENKA CRITICIZES AGREEMENT ON MONETARY UNION. In an interview with Moskovskiye novosti, the Belarusian president-elect, Alyaksandr Lukashenka, called the agreement on monetary union signed by the former prime minister Vyacheslau Kebich and the Russian prime minister Viktor Chernomyrdin a fig leaf used to further Kebichs presidential campaign, Belarusian radio reported on 15 July. Lukashenka said he had supported a version of the monetary union which had been presented to the Belarusian parliament last year and would only uphold that version. In addition, Lukashenka said that reconstituting the former USSR is unrealistic. Instead, he said he hoped a new formula for uniting the former Soviet republics could be found which would respect the principles of independent statehood. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. PREPARATIONS FOR ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN SUMMIT. Aleskandr Udaltsov of the Russian Foreign Ministry has announced that preparations have started for a meeting between Estonian President Lennart Meri and Russian President Boris Yeltsin, BNS and ITAR-TASS reported on 15 July. The specifics of such a meeting may be discussed by the Estonian and Russian deputy foreign ministers, Raul Malk and Vitalii Churkin, respectively, on 19 July in Helsinki. Malk pointed out that though Moscow has made no official proposal for a Yeltsin-Meri meeting, the latest Russian statements suggest that such a meeting can be viewed as real. Estonia is especially interested in a prompt withdrawal of Russian troops from its territory and has stated repeatedly that it is prepared to meet with Russia at any level to resolve the outstanding issues. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN PRESIDENT TO ANNOUNCE NEW PREMIER NEXT WEEK? Diena reported on 15 July that at a special session of the Saeima on 22 July the lawmakers are to discuss the draft of the law on citizenship and naturalization and the resignation of the government of Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs. President Guntis Ulmanis said that he expects to announce the new prime minister ten days after the resignation on 14 July of the Birkavss government. In his consultations with the various political groups in the parliament, Ulmanis was advised against calling for early parliamentary elections; the only dissenting opinion came from Latvias National Independence Movement which wants early elections. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF APPROVES SPECIAL LOAN FOR LATVIA. The International Monetary Fund has approved the second half of a $34 million economic transformation loan to Latvia, RFE/RL correspondent in Washington reported on 15 July. IMF noted that Latvia has made significant progress in transforming its economy to a market base, even though economic performance in 1993 and so far this year has been mixed. The loan will be used to make structural reforms, reduce inflation, and improve social assistance to those hardest hit by the transformations. The first half of the loan was received in December 1993. Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Martin and Stan Markotich The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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