|The greatest happiness is to know the source of unhappiness. - Dostoevsky|
No. 127, 7 July 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIA PROPOSES ENHANCED ROLE FOR CSCE . . . Russia has formally proposed that NATO, the CIS, and other European security organizations be subordinated to the CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe), an RFE/RL correspondent reported out of Vienna on 6 July. The proposal, which has long been mooted informally by Russian diplomats, was contained in a letter sent one week earlier to the CSCE chairman, which, according to the report, means that it will automatically be included on the agenda of the CSCEs upcoming three-month conference, scheduled to begin in October in Budapest. NATO leaders have consistently rejected the idea of being subordinated to the CSCE, which they consider too unwieldy a body, and the report quoted officials from NATO countries as suggesting that the Russian proposal is aimed either at manipulating the CSCE security system to Moscows advantage or at obtaining a recognized international framework and financing for Russian peacekeeping activities in the former USSR. Stephen Foye RFE/RL, Inc. . . . SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH NATO DENIED. RFE/RL also reported out of Vienna remarks by NATO Assistant Secretary-General Gerbhardt Von Moltke on 6 July reiterating that, in acceding to the NATO Partnership for Peace plan, Russia had been granted no special privileges or influence in NATO. Von Moltke, who suggested that Moscow itself has been guilty of fostering the perception that it had won special concessions from the alliance, said that Russian acceptance of the NATO partnership plan did not mean there would be joint Russian-NATO military operations and did not give Russia a right to be consulted over the admittance of Central European States into NATO. Stephen Foye RFE/RL, Inc. POST-VOUCHER PRIVATIZATION TO DUMA. Privatization Minister Anatolii Chubais on 6 July urged the State Duma to show its commitment to economic reform by giving quick approval to legislation governing the next stage of privatization, Interfax reported. Post-voucher privatization, which is to involve the sale of 20% of state assets, was initially to have been enacted by presidential decree. But Chubais said the government had chosen the legislative path to give deputies an opportunity to show that real political interaction between the parliament, the president, and the government exists in Russia. The first auctions are to take place by August; the government expects to collect revenues of 2.5 trillion rubles ($1.25 billion) from such sales in 1994. The Duma opens debate on post-voucher privatization on 7 July. Chubais added that President Yeltsin is expected soon to sign a decree extending the validity of unused privatization vouchers, permitting their use in the purchase of shares put up for auction between 1 September and 1 December. Louisa Vinton RFE/RL, Inc. LAW ON COVERAGE OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES ADOPTED. The State Duma adopted on 6 July the controversial Law on the Order of Covering the Activities of Bodies of State Power in the State-owned Mass Media. According to the law, the state-owned media must provide full coverage of the activities of the Russian president, government, and both houses of the parliament. The law also stipulates that broadcasting journalists are not to comment on such activities in the news. Although these provisions do not seem to depart from the norms of journalistic ethics commonly accepted in the West, many Russian journalists have viewed the law as an infringement on freedom of the press. Julia Wishnevsky RFE/RL, Inc. GORBACHEV TO TESTIFY IN THE COUP TRIAL. Former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev is to testify at the trial of General Valentin Varennikov in the Russian Supreme Court on 7 July, Russian television newscasts reported a day earlier. Varennikov is the only defendant in the case of the August 1991 coup against Gorbachev to have refused to accept the amnesty declared for those involved in the case by the State Duma this past February. Varennikov believes that Gorbachev and his close political ally, Aleksandr Yakovlev, rather then the coup organizers, should be tried for high treason because their policy of liberalization brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev, in turn, told Nezavisimaya gazeta on 6 July that the coup had prevented adoption of a new treaty between the then Soviet Unions republics and had brought instead the seizure of supreme power by Yeltsin and other radical politicians who subsequently dissolved the USSR in December of the same year. Julia Wishnevsky RFE/RL, Inc. KGB GENERAL DENIES GORBACHEVS ISOLATION. Testifying on 6 July at Varennikovs trial, the former Chief of the KGBs Ninth Administration, Yurii Plekhanov, said that during the August 1991 coup Gorbachev was not severed from lines of communication at his dacha in the Crimea as had been believed at the time, ITAR-TASS reported. According to Plekhanov, the government communication lines were disconnected for short period, in order not to disturb Gorbachev and the leaders of the coup during a meeting on 19 August. Plekhanov said that the disconnection was ordered by KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov and that the other plotters were unaware of it. Gorbachev was fully able to use the lines of communication as he pleased, Plekhanov was quoted as saying. Victor Yasmann RFE/RL, Inc. GORBACHEV ACKNOWLEDGES ROLE IN BAKU MILITARY INTERVENTION. In an interview published in Nezavisimaya gazeta on 6 July and summarized by Reuters, former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev admitted that he had taken the decision to send Soviet troops into Baku on 19 January, 1990. The intervention followed a week of pogroms against the citys Armenian population and cost the lives of up to 150 Azerbaijanis, mostly innocent civilians. Gorbachevs role in the Soviet troop actions against demonstrators in Tbilisi in April, 1989, and in Vilnius in January, 1991, remains to be clarified. Liz Fuller RFE/RL, Inc. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE DISCOVERS STOLEN URANIUM-238. The Russian Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK) has recovered a 5.5 kilogram cache of uranium-238 stolen from the National Nuclear Center near Chelyabinsk, ITAR-TASS reported on 6 July. The uranium was discovered in the house of a Center employee, who had earlier been arrested for an attempted illegal sale of platinum. Prior to the recent visit of US FBI Director Louis Freeh, the FSK had generally dismissed US concerns about leaks of radioactive materials in Russia. During his stay in Moscow, Freeh said that preventing the proliferation of nuclear materials and related technologies in cooperation with Russian law enforcement agencies is a top priority of his agency. Although the case reported above occurred in April, ITAR-TASS did not explain why it was reported only now. Victor Yasmann RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA TO IGNORE NEW TURKISH SHIPPING REGULATIONS. On 6 July Interfax cited a legal expert within the Russian Foreign Ministry as stating that Russian vessels will ignore the new restrictions on shipping through the Turkish straits introduced by Turkey on 1 July, which he termed groundless and contrary to international treaties. He further stated that if the Turkish authorities detain a Russian vessel, Russia would claim damages and lodge a diplomatic protest. Liz Fuller RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA BATUMI--PARIS ON THE BLACK SEA? Aslan Abashidze, the tennis-playing chairman of the Adzhar Supreme Soviet, has come closer to realizing his ambition of transforming his autonomous republic, an oasis of stability within war-torn Georgia, into a major tourist zone. Despite high ticket costs of US $25 (the minimum wage in Georgia is currently US $0.05), Paris cabaret stars from the Folies Bergeres and the Moulin Rouge played to a packed house at Batumis summer theater on 5 July, Interfax reported. Security measures--a triple cordon of police with dogs--were described as unprecedented. Batumi already has a rival to the Eiffel Tower in the form of the 45 meter minaret of the local mosque. Liz Fuller RFE/RL, Inc. KAZAKHSTANS PARLIAMENT VOTES TO MOVE CAPITAL. Kazakhstans Supreme Soviet voted on 6 July to move the countrys capital to Akmola, Russian and Western news agencies reported. The legislature approved the move after an appeal by President Nursultan Nazarbaev, who for several years has promoted the idea of moving Kazakhstans capital from Almaty in the southwestern corner of the country to the former Tselinograd. Some observers have said that Almatys proximity to China is a major factor in the move; Nazarbaev told the Supreme Soviet that Almaty is overcrowded and unable to expand. Kazakh intellectuals have suggested that moving the capital to the northern part of Kazakhstan would reinforce the countrys possession of the largely Russian northern oblasts. Bess Brown RFE/RL, Inc. KAZAKHSTAN COSSACK GROUP GAINS OFFICIAL RECOGNITION. In the wake of severe friction between Kazakh authorities and two Cossack villages in Taldy-Kurgan Oblast earlier in the year, Kazakhstans Ministry of Justice has registered an Assistance Society of the Cossacks of Semirechiye, which represents Cossacks in Alma-Ata and Taldy-Kurgan Oblasts, ITAR-TASS reported on 6 July. The registration coincided with a gathering of some 572 Cossacks in Almaty. State Counselor Kairbek Suleimenov was quoted as saying that Cossacks could serve in the countrys armed forces and might even form a special unit of the Republican Guard. Previously, Kazakhstani authorities tried to restrict the activities of Cossack groups, which were strongly opposed by many Kazakhs. Bess Brown RFE/RL, Inc. CIS CSCE FORUM CALLS FOR RUSSIAN WITHDRAWAL FROM MOLDOVA. At its regular annual session, the Parliamentary Assembly of CSCE passed on 6 July in Vienna a resolution calling for a most rapid, continuing, unconditional, and full withdrawal of Russias 14th Army from Moldova, RFE/RLs correspondent reported. This is the strongest language yet to appear in a CSCE document on this issue. The resolution further calls for a peaceful settlement of the Dniester conflict based on respect for Moldovas independence, sovereignty, and full integrity, and on CSCE principles concerning human rights and the rights of national minorities. The Assembly voiced hope that the 28 April meeting and joint document between Moldovan and breakaway Dniester leaders will allow progress toward a political settlement with the assistance of the CSCE Mission [to Moldova]. The preceding day, Moldovas prominent Agrarian politician Andrei Diaconu had told the Assembly that Russia was advancing unacceptable conditions for a military withdrawal and a Transdniester settlement, including Moldovas confederalization, in order to prolong Russias troop presence in Moldova. Diaconu also reaffirmed Moldovas wish, which Russia has repeatedly rejected, that CSCE observers attend the Moldovan-Russian troop talks. Vladimir Socor RFE/RL, Inc. DNIESTER SAID TO SEND PARAMILITARY AID TO CRIMEA. Colonel Mikhail Bergman, the Russian 14th Armys commandant of the city of Tiraspol, told the Ukrainian news agency UNIAN on 25 June that 28 officers-instructors of the Dniester republics Ministry of State Security-had just left for the Crimea in an operation coordinated by the Minister, Colonel Oleg Gudyma. Bergman added that deliveries of weapons and ammunition from the Dniester republic to Crimea have increased recently, transport being routed via Odessa. The same Dniester ministry sent commandos in 1993 to fight on the Russian-backed Abkhaz side against Georgia and on the Rutskoi-Khasbulatov side against Yeltsin in Moscow. The Tiraspol leaders are also known to maintain political contacts with the separatists in Crimea and Odessa. Vladimir Socor RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CLINTON CHEERED IN LATVIA. As the first US president to visit Latvia, Bill Clinton was received with great public enthusiasm on 6 July. While in Riga, he signed three cooperation accords between the US and Latvia and met with Baltic leaders. After placing flowers at the foot of Latvias Statue of Liberty, Clinton addressed a huge crowd. He said that the Baltic States had inspired the world in their quest for freedom. As they return to Europes fold, we will stand with you, we will help. [ . . . ] And we will rejoice with you when the last of the foreign troops vanish from your homelands. Clinton rejected President Yeltsins region be linked to the treatment of Russian minorities living there. At the same time, Clinton urged the Baltic States to assume a tolerant and inclusive approach toward minorities and added that Freedom without tolerance is freedom unfulfilled, Western media reported on 6 July. Dzintra Bungs RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC PRESIDENTS ISSUE STATEMENT. In the statement issued on 6 July after meeting with Clinton, the presidents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania expressed their satisfaction with the state of relations between the US and their countries. The Baltic heads of state commended the US postwar policy of non-recognition of the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union and said that it provided a source of hope for the Baltic peoples. They emphasized the importance of 31 August as the final date for Russias withdrawal of its forces from Estonia and Latvia and expressed the conviction that Russia will carry out this obligation which it assumed in Helsinki in 1992. They also urged that the Kaliningrad region not become a source of tension in the region. Expressing the desire to deepen Baltic cooperation within NATOs Partnership for Peace (PFP) program, they noted their countries wish also to become NATO members. They welcomed the Baltic Enterprise Fund that the US has established to foster development of the private sector in the Baltics, and reiterated their support for the continuation of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuania language programs by both RFE and VOA. Dzintra Bungs RFE/RL, Inc. CLINTON ON NATO IN WARSAW. At the start of his 26-hour visit to Warsaw on 6 July, US President Clinton stressed his enthusiasm for NATOs expansion but said that eventual Polish membership depends on the stance of other NATO partners. Clinton did note, however, that Poland will be the site of the first PFP military exercises, to be held in September. Welcoming Clinton, President Lech Walesa stressed the need for an American presence, both economic and military, in Europe. Initial talks focused on the economy, and Gazeta Wyborcza reports that Walesa chose not to raise the issue of Polands impatience with NATO, a courtesy that was apparently appreciated by the US delegation. The two presidents reportedly agreed that a democratic and market-oriented Ukraine is essential to European stability. The Polish press took a skeptical view, emphasizing the visits importance as a public relations gesture. During an address to the parliament on 7 July, Clinton is expected to announce an assistance program designed to help build a Polish social safety net. A meeting with nine East European foreign ministers is also planned. Polish TV has provided live coverage of all aspects of the Clinton visit. Louisa Vinton RFE/RL, Inc. CLINTON TOPS POLISH POPULARITY POLL. A CBOS opinion poll reported by PAP on 5 July put Clinton, with 75% approval, at the top of Polish popularity rankings for both foreign and domestic politicians. In a sign of the depth of the Polish-German reconciliation, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl was close behind, with 69%. Russian President Boris Yeltsin scored high in the distrust rankings, with 42% disapproval; Vladimir Zhirinovsky had 71% disapproval. Walesa had 48% disapproval. Louisa Vinton RFE/RL, Inc. WE HAD TO JUMP OVER THE MORAL BRIDGE. This is how US special envoy Charles Redman described aspects of the Bosnian peace plan presented to the Serbs, Muslims, and Croats on 6 July by US, Russian, and EU diplomats. Redman told the 7 July New York Times that the moral compromises were in the interests of wider peace and of keeping Bosnia together. The proposal firms up the Muslims position in eastern Bosnia, linking some hitherto isolated enclaves and returning some lost areas like Visegrad. But it also allows the Serbs to keep their northern supply corridor as well as numerous towns they not only captured but also ethnically cleansed by driving out or killing the Muslim inhabitants, such as Zvornik, Rogatica, and Prijedor. Patrick Moore RFE/RL, Inc. SKEPTICAL REACTION TO THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN. Even if the international community has been willing to jump certain bridges, it is still not clear whether the Serbs will meet them even half-way. The Serbs would have to surrender about a third of their conquests and apparently renounce their intention to join a greater Serb state. Muslim Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic told the VOA on 6 July that the key issue here is whether the Serbs will be allowed to change internationally recognized borders by force. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic called the plan an American dictate, while Muslim President Alija Izetbegovic indicated that his side probably would accept it only because it knows that the Serbs would torpedo the project anyway. Enthusiasm seemed limited to the Croats, whose position in the Posavina region, central Bosnia, and western Herzegovina apparently is assured. Tanjug quoted their leader Kresimir Zubak as saying that Croats can even be very satisfied by the map. The Washington Post on 7 July reports from Sarajevo, however, that ordinary citizens there remain unimpressed by the Geneva song and dance. Patrick Moore RFE/RL, Inc. SERBIAN ULTRANATIONALIST ON TRIAL. On 7 July Serbian dailies report on the trial of Serbian Radical Party leader Vojislav Seselj and four other SRS members charged with attempting to incite a brawl in the rump Yugoslav parliament on 18 May. On 7 July Borba reports that a key piece of evidence, a video recording of the incident, has simply disappeared without a trace. In related news, Politika reports on 7 July that ultranationalist paramilitary leader and accused war criminal Zeljko Raznatovic, alias Arkan, is filing a private slander suit against Seselj. Stan Markotich RFE/RL, Inc. MACEDONIAN CENSUS EXTENDED. The deadline for the Macedonian census has been extended for five days until 10 July, agencies reported on 5 and 6 July. The census began on 21 June and so far only about 60% of the population has registered. It is likely that a large part of the ethnic Albanian population failed or refused to register, because most Albanians boycotted the last census in 1991. This time Macedonian authorities have assured them that their claims to citizenship would be recognized, but the Albanians are wary because they are barely represented on the bodies that will tally the results. The Albanians need an impressive showing in the census to back up their demands for increased political clout. The head of the state census commission, Risto Ivanov, said that Albanian leaders had called for a boycott in Debar, even though a joint committee made up of the two biggest ethnic Albanian parties urged the Albanians to register. In any event, speakers of both parties, the Party of Democratic Prosperity and the Democratic Peoples Party, urged Albanian participation in the tally. Observers from the European Union, which is financing the census, praised the extension of the deadline. Fabian Schmidt RFE/RL, Inc. LITTLE FOREIGN INTEREST IN BELARUS ELECTIONS. The international communitys lack of interest in Belarus is evident in the tiny number of foreign observers applying for accreditation for the second round of presidential elections. On 5 July Belarusian radio reported that only 13 foreign observers have extended their accreditation for the second round. Ten times that number were present during the first round. In contrast, 600 foreign observers were present for Ukraines parliamentary elections and 300 observed the first round of presidential elections there. This international indifference is particularly disturbing because many analysts believe the second round of elections will likely be invalidated on technicalities if the prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, loses to Alyaksandr Lukashenka. Ustina Markus RFE/RL, Inc. FORECAST ON BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. In an interview with Interfax on 6 July, deputy chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Ivan Bambiza, said he believes that less than 50% of voters will take part in the second round of the presidential elections. If this is the case, the Central Electoral Commission would have 10 days to set a new date for another, final round. If there is still no winner then, the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Mechyslau Hryb, would automatically take over as head of state. In the past week Hryb has stated that he is prepared to take over the executive duties of the president if there is no winner. Ustina Markus RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN COSSACKS SUPPORT KRAVCHUK. The Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks, Maj. Gen. Volodymyr Mulyava, has announced that the Cossacks support President Leonid Kravchuk in the presidential elections, Ukrainian television reported on 5 July. According to Mulyava, Kravchuk commands authority in international political circles and has shown that he can guarantee peace in Ukraine. Run-off elections between Kravchuk and Leonid Kuchma are scheduled for 10 July. Ustina Markus RFE/RL, Inc. CRIMEA OVERRULES KIEV DECREE ON MILITIA. The Crimean parliament adopted a resolution on 6 July invalidating Kievs decree which placed the Crimean militia under the jurisdiction of the Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs, Russian television reported. Local militiamen have been instructed to carry out only the instructions of Crimean authorities. This is the latest move in the struggle between Kiev and Simferopol over control of the Crimean police. The crisis began in April when Crimean President Yurii Meshkov replaced the chief of the Crimean internal affairs ministry with his own man, Valerii Kuznetsov. In May, Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk ordered that Kuznetsov be removed from his post and replaced by a Kiev man, but Ukrainian officials were unable to enforce the order. Compromise was reportedly reached when it was decided to have both a Crimean and Ukrainian internal affairs ministry presence on the peninsula. On 28 June, the Ukrainian parliament again tried to assert control over the Crimean militia by subordinating all police units to the Ukrainian government. The Crimean parliament responded by approving a resolution to repeal all Ukrainian acts which contradicted the Crimean Constitution or previous resolutions of the Crimean parliament and president. No resolution of the conflict is in sight. Ustina Markus RFE/RL, Inc. CONSTITUTIONAL COURT ON ILIESCUS IMPEACHMENT. Romanias Constitutional Court on 6 July issued a statement on the impeachment procedures launched by the opposition against President Ion Iliescu, Radio Bucharest reports. The Court unanimously ruled that the allegations against Iliescu are not the grave violation of the constitution required to impeach a president. The communique was signed by the Courts president Vasile Gionea, a member of the National Peasant Party--Christian Democratic, who was disavowed by his own party in 1992 after Iliescu appointed him to his current position. The Court has only a consultative role. On 4 July Romanias parliament opened a special session to debate the possible suspension of Iliescu over remarks on the issue of property confiscated by the Communists. The opposition maintains that they amounted to a violation of the Constitution and of judicial independence. The debate is expected to end on 7 July. Dan Ionescu RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVAN CONCESSIONS TO GAGAUZ DEEMED EXCESSIVE. A panel empowered by the Political Commission of the Council of Europe at Moldovas request to examine Moldovas autonomy plan for the Gagauz has found it too far-reaching, Moldovan parliamentary leaders told the RFE/RL Research Institute on 6 July. The assessment, which has just been received in Chisinau, objects in particular to provisions which would seem to establish an inner border between the Gagauz region and the rest of Moldova and which would delegate to the regions authorities certain functions which the panel feels properly belong to the central government. The panel also objects to the absence of provisions on the rights of persons of other than Gagauz ethnicity in the future autonomous region. Last year another Council of Europe panel had also found excessive some of Moldovas offers to the Gagauz. If adopted, Chisinaus plan would set a precedent in terms of ethnic-territorial autonomy in Eastern Europe and the former USSR. Vladimir Socor RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN FINANCE MINISTER IN BONN. Outgoing Hungarian Finance Minister Ivan Szabo, parliamentary caucus leader of the defeated Hungarian Democratic Forum, made a one-day working visit to Bonn on 6 July, MTI reports. Szabo met with the CDU-CSU faction leader Wolfgang Schauble. The purpose of the visit--unusual in the case of a lame-duck cabinet--was not revealed. But Nepszabadsag of 2 July offers a possible explanation. The Hungarian daily claims that the rotating capital of the state budget has been completely used up. The outcome of the elections undermined a government bond issue in June. Gyula Horn will take over as prime minister in about a week; his first visit is planned for Bonn as well. Both the outgoing and the incoming governments may well be asking Germany for loans. Judith Pataki RFE/RL, Inc. WEU PARLIAMENT CHAIRMAN VISITS SLOVAKIA. On 6 July Sir Dudley Smith, chairman of the parliamentary assembly of the West European Union, visited Slovakia at the invitation of Foreign Minister Eduard Kukan. His visit focused on European security issues and cooperation between Slovakia and the WEU. President Michal Kovac assured Smith that Slovakias foreign policy will not change after the parliamentary elections. Stressing the importance of Central European stability, the president said that the improvement of bilateral relations with Hungary through the signing of a bilateral agreement is a priority for Slovakia. Kovac also mentioned interest in establishing a training center in Slovakia for UN peacekeeping troops, TASR reports. Smith also met with Kukan and Premier Jozef Moravcik. Sharon Fisher RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK CABINET ON ECONOMY AND MINORITIES. During its session on 6 July the Slovak cabinet agreed to release 500 million koruny from the National Property Fund for apartment construction, 245.5 million for defense industry conversion, and 3.5 billion for development programs. The cabinet also discussed a bill on privatization of the power and gas industry, which will be submitted to the parliament for approval. According to the resolution, 51% of the property of power companies and 67% of the gas industry will remain under state control. These firms will be transformed into joint-stock companies, and the National Property Fund will hold the states shares. The cabinet also approved a bill on road signs in ethnically mixed areas, which will now be sent to the parliament. Speaking before a public gathering of more than 5,000 supporters from around Slovakia on 6 July, Movement for a Democratic Slovakia Chairman Vladimir Meciar said he is against the proposal to privatize the energy industry. If necessary, he said, a petition would be organized to stop the action. Sharon Fisher RFE/RL, Inc. ZHELEV MEETS DEMIREL, EX-GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL LOSES APPEAL. On 6 July Reuters reported that Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev met with Turkish President Suleyman Demirel in Ankara where the two leaders discussed bilateral relations and broader regional issues. In a post-meeting statement Demirel said that developments are making our closer cooperation necessary, but reports do not clarify the remark. Zhelev arrived in Ankara on 6 July, and is in Turkey for an official three-day visit. In other news, on 6 July AFP reported that a former Bulgarian communist government official, former Deputy Prime Minister Grigor Stoichov, lost a final appeal before the supreme court and now faces a two-year jail term. Stoichov, who was originally sentenced to three years in prison in December 1991 after being convicted of misleading the public over the real and potential health risks associated with nuclear fall-out from Chernobyl, had the sentence reduced at a previous appeal hearing. Stan Markotich RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Louisa Vinton The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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