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No. 123, 30 June 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN UPBEAT ON ECONOMY. Exuding optimism, President Boris Yeltsin predicted on 29 June that the worst is over for the Russian economy, Western and Russian media reported. During a visit to a defense research center outside Moscow, Yeltsin claimed that inflation had dropped from 8.1% in May to only 5.5% in June; that the industrial recession had leveled off and would bottom out in June; and that the political situation is stable. These three factors, the president argued, give grounds for optimism. Government officials have cited widely different figures on inflation rates in recent weeks, however, so it is not clear if Yeltsin's optimism is grounded in hard statistics. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. VOUCHER PRIVATIZATION ENDS. The deadline for Russians to exchange privatization vouchers for shares in state firms expires on 30 June. Rossiiskaya gazeta reported that 136 million of the total 148 million vouchers had been traded for shares as of 20 June. Interest picked up as the deadline grew closer; an average of 9 million vouchers were traded in each of the final weeks. Editorial comment on the occasion reflected a full range of views. Pravda charged that the program produced only spectacular scandals and cheated millions of people. The economist Stanislav Shatalin told Nezavisimaya gazeta that only a small elite had benefited. Rossiiskie vesti stressed that the time has come to move from commerce in vouchers to "real" money; only then will privatization be effective. The cabinet is scheduled to debate the second stage of privatization on 30 June, Interfax reported. As the voucher program drew to a close, Moscow mayor Yurii Luzhkov persisted in his challenge to Privatization Minister Anatolii Chubais, asserting once again his right to control privatization in the capital. (President Yeltsin instructed Chubais on 10 June to "leave Moscow alone," and was seconded by the prime minister.) City authorities announced on 29 June that Moscow residents can deposit unused vouchers at the Moscow Savings Bank, although Chubais has stressed that they cannot be used after the 30 June deadline. RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent reported that Yeltsin on 29 June extended by one month the validity of vouchers held by workers at firms undergoing privatization. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WORLD BANK LENDS $500 MILLION FOR OIL INDUSTRY. The World Bank announced on 29 June that it will lend Russia a further $500 million to upgrade production in the oil industry, Western agencies reported. This loan, granted as the World Bank closes its fiscal year, brings to $1.5 billion the bank's total lending for Russia in 1993-94. The funds are earmarked for pipeline improvements and environmental protection measures that officials hope will halt the decline in oil production attributed mainly to the neglect of existing facilities. Oil extraction dropped 12% in 1993, officials said. Russia received a similar loan of $610 million for the oil sector in June 1993. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. HUGE MILITARY DISTRICT IN NORTH CAUCASUS PLANNED. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev told Interfax on 29 June that Russia intended to establish what was described as a "huge" military district in the North Caucasus that would boast mobile and other forces as well as powerful weaponry. Grachev said that Moscow had been working diligently over the past two years to transform the district into an army group capable of waging either small or large conflicts. He also said that the district's regular military forces would, in accordance with Russia's military doctrine, be available to help Interior Ministry troops with domestic security operations. Grachev's remarks came at the start of an inspection tour of troops deployed in the Northern Caucasus. Although the report of his comments was too vague to assess with certainty, it suggested that Russia's continued force build-up in the region could eventually test constraints imposed by the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. MOSCOW DENIES CHEMICAL WEAPONS CHARGE. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin has dismissed charges leveled by Washington that allege that Russia is concealing information about the development and testing of chemical weapons, The New York Times reported on 30 June. A week earlier the US State Department had accused Moscow of breaking a joint agreement to exchange information on chemical weapons stockpiles by failing to provide data on binary weapons. Karasin called the charges groundless and said that Moscow would seek clarification of data provided by the US. The newspaper also quoted a spokesman from the Russian Defense Ministry who said that no binary chemical weapons had been produced; he reportedly did not categorically deny the charge that research continued. Concern in the US over Russia's activities in this area have been heightened by the well-publicized arrest and subsequent release of Vil Mirzayanov, a Russian chemist who charged that Russia continued development of a binary chemical weapon. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENSE INDUSTRY UPDATE. In a 29 June interview with Interfax, Russian First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin said that the development of dual use technology constitutes one of the main priorities in Russia's defense conversion effort. He said that the Defense Ministry, the State Committee for Defense Industries, and the Economics Ministry were jointly carrying out research in the practical application of dual use technology in hopes of preserving the defense sector's mobilization potential and developing a national industrial policy. Meanwhile, another Interfax report quoted Vasilii Yegorov, identified as a spokesman for a government technical commission, as saying that the Russian government owes various defense suppliers some 441 billion rubles for orders filled in 1993. Yegorov, whose remarks came during an international seminar on Western investment in the Russian defense sector, also claimed that defense orders in 1994 had shrunk by some 80% and that spending on conversion has also been reduced radically. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. STEPASHIN DENIES THREAT OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM. The director of the Federal Counterintelligence Service, Sergei Stepashin said that he has no information about access of the Russia mafia to nuclear materials or about proliferation of nuclear technologies by Russian criminal networks, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 June. Commenting on earlier statements made by US Federal Bureau of Investigation Director Louis Freeh, who is now visiting Central European and former Soviet states, Stepashin said the FBI's concern about mafia access to nuclear technologies must be substantiated by facts. Stepashin added that he will ask Freeh to provide facts on proliferation of nuclear materials from Russia during his meeting with the FBI Director during the first week of July in Moscow. Stepashin, however, admitted that Russian scientists working on nuclear matters and missile-technology are subject to recruitment by rogue countries striving to obtain nuclear technologies. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. FURTHER CONTROVERSY OVER ELECTION POSTPONEMENT. At a press conference in Moscow on 29 June, Sergei Shakhrai, leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, said that many political forces in Russia could benefit from the postponement of the parliamentary and presidential elections, but that such a postponement would aggravate social tension in society. Recently the speaker of the parliament's upper chamber, Vladimir Shumeiko, proposed the postponement of the elections for two years. Meanwhile, on 29 June Shumeiko's proposal was also criticized as counterproductive by St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak and the Civic Union leader Arkadii Volsky, Ostankino TV reported. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. ABDULATIPOV ON SITUATION IN NORTH OSSETIAN -INGUSH CONFLICT ZONE . . . Ramazan Abdulatipov, a deputy chairman of the Russian parliament's Federation Council who was in North Ossetia for the recent signing of an agreement between the presidents of North Ossetia and Ingushetia on the return of Ingush refugees to North Ossetia, told journalists on 28 June that any improvement in the local situation had taken place not thanks to but rather in spite of the policy of the federal authorities, Russian Television reported. Abdulatipov criticized the Russian MVD for not overseeing the handing in of weapons organized by the North Ossetian and Ingush authorities and said that Ingushetia had received from Moscow only 800 million of the 93 billion rubles promised. Moreover, those engaged in reconstructing the houses destroyed in the conflict have still not been paid, although the refugees cannot return unless housing is available. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND CHECHNYA. Abdulatipov added that the North Ossetian-Ingush conflict could not be settled without taking into account the South Ossetian and particularly the Chechen factor. In an interview with Interfax reported on 29 June, he accused certain politicians of speculating on the Chechen and Ossetian-Ingush issues. He described as pure misinformation reports that Yeltsin had designated Shmidt Dzoblaev, general secretary of the Assembly of Democratic Forces of the North Caucasus, as an intermediary with Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev and asserted that Dzoblaev's claim to have met Dudaev was untrue. In Abdulatipov's view, Yeltsin should appoint a special envoy, acceptable to both sides, for talks with Chechnya. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. CHECHNYA AND HOSTAGE DRAMA. Chechnya has described the attempt by Russian helicopters to pursue terrorists over Chechen territory as a violation of the air space of a sovereign state. The Chechen Foreign Ministry told Interfax on 29 June that only Chechnya's obligations to confront terrorism as an international phenomenon prevented it from taking tougher measures against the helicopters. The Chechen State Security Department said that the detention and neutralization of the terrorists was carried by Chechen special purpose units. In the third recent incident of its kind, the terrorists had captured a bus with civilians near Mineralnye vody and flown to Chechnya after having been given a ransom of several million dollars. The Russian authorities are negotiating for the extradition of the three terrorists, of whom two are Chechen and one a Kumyk. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIK GOVERNMENT AID TO GORNO-BADAKHSHAN. Twenty truckloads of food, escorted by CIS troops, arrived in the capital of autonomous Gorno-Badakhshan in the Pamirs on 29 June, but opposition forces in the region objected to the military escort and warned that armored troop carriers should stay out of Badakhshan, Russian news agencies reported. Representatives of the Badakhshan administration, which has been sympathetic to the Islamic opposition in the ongoing struggles in Tajikistan, and members of the Coordinating Council of the Democratic Opposition met with representatives of the CIS command to try to persuade the CIS forces not to bring armored transport into the region. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE NEGOTIATORS AGREE ON BOSNIA MAP. Negotiators from the European Union, Russia, and the US agreed on a Bosnia peace plan at a Paris meeting on 29 June. The plan is based on earlier proposals involving a 51-49% territorial demarcation, with the Bosnian Serb side set to acquire the smaller share. The plan will include positive and negative incentives, such as the possibility of sanctions being applied against any parties that reject it. The proposal, which has yet to be presented to the warring parties, will be discussed by the foreign ministers representing the international "contact group" prior to being presented at the G-7 meeting to be held 8-10 July. Meanwhile, media throughout the former Yugoslavia also concentrate on the course of the fighting in Bosnia. On 30 June Borba, for example, chronicles the "great offensive of the Bosnian Muslim army in central Bosnia." Finally, on 29 June an RFE/RL correspondent reported that Russian diplomat Alexei Nikiforov traveled to Belgrade in order to speak with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic about international efforts to hammer out a peace plan for Bosnia. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. GLIGOROV SAYS FIGHTING UNLIKELY, GREECE HAILS COURT RULING. In a statement quoted by the Croatian daily Vjesnik on 29 June, Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov said that tensions between the rump Yugoslavia and Macedonia would not escalate to the point where armed conflict would be the outcome. What appears to be the most recent rump Yugoslav transgression against Macedonia's borders involves twelve Serbian soldiers who have ensconced themselves some 250 meters across the border on the Macedonian side. In other news, on 29 June AFP reported that Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou hailed a European Court of Justice ruling which failed to order Greece to end its embargo against Macedonia. In its decision not to grant an interim ruling compelling Greece to lift the embargo, the Court said that the EU's Executive Commission had not proved its contention that the embargo was adversely affecting any EU members and it needed more time to review the facts in the case. Papandreou, however, said the court decision lends backing to Athens's contention that the embargo is a lawful act. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA'S COMMERCIAL DEBT CUT. On 29 June Western agencies and BTA reported that Bulgaria signed an agreement that could slash its debt to foreign commercial banks by roughly 47%, to an estimated $5 billion. The deal, concluded in Sofia, was signed by Finance Minister Stoian Alexandrov and representatives from the US Citibank Corporation as well as Deutsche Bank. In order to become binding, the deal will have to secure the Bulgarian parliament's ratification as well as the approval of the 300 creditor banks. Successful ratification would permit Bulgaria to spread repayment over a thirty-year period. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUS RUNOFF SCHEDULED. Belarus's central election commission announced on 29 June that the second round of presidential elections will be held on 10 July (the same day that Ukraine's presidential contest is also likely to be decided). The two candidates--Alyaksandr Lukashenka, former head of the parliament's anticorruption commission, and Prime Minister Vyachaslau Kebich--settled jointly on the date. Lukashenka received 44,82% of the vote in the first round; Kebich had 17.33%. In a bizarre incident on 28 June, Lukashenka was reportedly assaulted by uniformed policemen as he attempted, with the escort of a second group of policemen, to enter the anticorruption commission's headquarters. In the final days of the campaign, Lukashenka had claimed that someone had fired shots at him, but the Belarusian secret police dismissed this charge as fabricated for publicity. In an editorial on 28 June, Nezavisimaya gazeta compared Lukashenka to Zhirinovsky and argued that his victory would bolster forces in Russia favoring dictatorship. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE'S KUCHMA COMPLAINS OF "IRREGULARITIES." Former Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma charged on 29 June that the presidential elections on 26 June were marred by "serious irregularities," PAP reports from Kiev. Kuchma finished a close second to President Leonid Kravchuk; Kuchma had 31.3% of the vote to Kravchuk's 37.7%. Kuchma expressed astonishment that the election commission took 48 hours to release official results. He claimed that the delay was used to "correct" the results in Kravchuk's favor in several regions, including Lviv, Rovno, Odessa, and Kiev. Kuchma also criticized the media for bias; the press "sees only a single candidate, Kravchuk," he charged. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE ON 1989 EVENTS. The Senate commission overseeing the activities of the Romanian Intelligence Service released on 29 June a report compiled in March 1994 by the RIS on the events that led to Nicolae Ceausescu's overthrow in December 1989. The report says that Soviet, Hungarian, and Yugoslav agents had been involved in the 1989 events, an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest reported on the same day. The release of the report follows the resignation in early June of the chairman of a special commission set up by the Senate to investigate the 1989 events in protest against the non-cooperative attitude of the authorities. Also on 29 June, the Senate decided to extend the deadline to 5 December for its own commission to submit its report. The RIS report says that although there was clearly foreign involvement in the overthrow, the moving force of the revolution was the Romanian army acting in alliance with anti-communist protesters. The report says the KGB tried to oust Ceausescu without destroying the communist system. It names two Soviet correspondents in Bucharest as intelligence agents and says Soviet media criticized Ceausescu in an attempt to enhance the population's feelings of frustration. According to the report, numerous male Soviet tourists were in Romania at the time of the revolution, and some were armed. Although few of the Soviet tourists were involved in the pre-revolutionary events, "the majority behaved as if they were expecting an order that failed to come." The report also says Hungarian intelligence prepared for the Romanian revolution by training Romanian defectors as its agents, and names a man alleged to have been a Hungarian intelligence agent, who incited to disorder in Timisoara. Finally, it is claimed that a Yugoslav diplomat in Timisoara, where the revolution began, acted as a courier for the revolutionaries. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND'S DEMOCRATIC LEFT QUARRELS OVER CONCORDAT. In an implicit reversal, deputies from the postcommunist Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) voted 64 to 34 on 29 June not to block a first reading of Poland's concordat with the Vatican. The reading, scheduled for 30 June, is likely to prompt the year's most contentious Sejm debate. SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski argued that the decision does not signal his party's future acceptance of the concordat, and that revisions are still necessary. A final vote on the concordat need not take place until the new constitution is adopted, roughly in a year's time, he said. But he argued that debate should begin, "to voice all of our reservations." Led by Labor Minister Leszek Miller, the party's ideological traditionalists objected strenuously to Kwasniewski's stance. Miller argued that SLD voters will see the move as a two-faced betrayal of the party's insistence on the strict separation of Church and state. Kwasniewski prevailed in the end. The dispute suggests that the SLD has backed itself into a corner on the issue. It criticized the concordat to win support from anticlerical voters but failed to present specific objections to the text. If it now chooses to impede ratification, it risks an all-out war with the Church. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH GOVERNMENT APPROVES REGIONAL REFORM PLAN. On 29 June, the Czech government approved a draft constitutional amendment providing for the creation of 17 regions in the Czech Republic. The document will be submitted to the parliament on 1 July, where it requires a three-fifths majority to pass. The government's decision came after a period of intensifying disputes within the ruling coalition about the regional administration reform. Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus's Civic Democratic Party was accused of stonewalling on the issue by its coalition partners after it repeatedly delayed addressing the issue, despite the fact that the Czech Constitution requires the creation of regions. President Vaclav Havel sent letters to the chairmen of the four coalition parties on 26 June, warning of political instability should a solution not be found quickly. Following the adoption of the government compromise on 29 June, some opposition politicians said that they were opposed to such a large number of regions. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH SATELLITE TV LICENSES AWARDED. CTK reported on 29 June that the Czech Republic's Board for Television and Radio Broadcasting had licensed three companies to launch satellite TV broadcasting. The companies are Art Production K., CET 21, and FTV Premiera. The last of the three stations already broadcasts locally in Prague and southern Bohemia, while CET 21 operates the only private nationwide TV channel under the name Nova. Art Production K. owns a private radio station and is active in the entertainment industry; its president, Michal Kocab, is one of the best-known entertainers in the Czech Republic. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. HAVEL MEETS FBI CHIEF. On 29 June Czech President Vaclav Havel met with the director of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Louis Freeh. CTK reports that the two officials discussed cooperation between security and police forces of the two states as well as new forms of crime appearing in the Czech Republic. They agreed on the possibility of setting up an FBI office in Prague. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKIA SIGNS PACT WITH FBI. On 29 June an FBI delegation led by Freeh, arrived in Slovakia for a one-day working visit aimed at expanding cooperation in the fight against international organized crime, TASR reports. Slovak officials, including Interior Minister Ladislav Pittner, Justice Minister Milan Hanzel and Deputy Premier for Legislation Ivan Simko, briefed the US delegation on legislative steps taken by the government in the fight against organized crime and the education of experts. A cooperation pact was signed between the FBI and the Slovak Interior Ministry to cooperate on a strategy to combat organized crime, which Freeh said is the FBI's top concern in Slovakia. The FBI delegation is traveling to various European countries to intensify cooperation in the fight against drugs and the spread of violence, as well as threats posed by stolen nuclear weapons. The delegation continued on to the Czech Republic in the afternoon. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PARLIAMENT DISCUSSES ECONOMIC ISSUES. The 34th session of the Slovak parliament, held on 28 and 29 June, focused mainly on economic legislation. On 29 June the parliament endorsed a bill on the sale of 23 billion koruny in state bonds to be issued on domestic and foreign capital markets, necessitated by the large 1993 state budget deficit. Finance Minister Rudolf Filkus said that 12.8 billion koruny in taxes were not paid in 1993, mainly because of the insolvency of firms and illegal imports of cigarettes, spirits, and petroleum. Serious problems in the education, health, and social spheres led to increases in planned expenses by 6.6 billion koruny, while debt payments, which had not been taken into consideration when planning the budget, reached 5.6 billion koruny in 1993. The state debt rose by 27 billion koruny in 1993, reaching a total of 123 billion koruny. The parliament also passed a law to raise consumer taxes on wine, beer, alcohol, tobacco products and fuels. An amendment to raise the VAT on certain items was also passed, which is expected to increase Slovakia's budget income by 3 billion koruny, TASR reports. In another development, parliament chairman Ivan Gasparovic announced that local elections will take place on 18 and 19 November of this year. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. OPPOSITION STEPS UP ATTACK ON SLOVAK LEADERS. On 29 June the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia released a statement criticizing President Michal Kovac's remarks during his press conference upon his return from the US on 27 June. The statement said that Kovac had "violated diplomatic protocol" when he expressed himself "in the name of another sovereign state." (Kovac had said that the attitude of US President Bill Clinton towards Slovakia had changed since the new government was installed in March and that certain US representatives had expressed fear that MDS leader and former Premier Meciar might return to power following the fall elections.) The statement said that under the Meciar government US and Slovak officials had "declared unambiguous bilateral cooperation and understanding, which can be proven by a range of documents" and that Meciar had addressed US Ambassador to Slovakia Theodore Russell in an official letter. Also on 29 June, the opposition Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National Party put forward proposals to dismiss Privatization Minister Milan Janicina and deputy parliament chairman Ludovit Cernak. Party of the Democratic Left member Milan Ftacnik called the vote on Janicina "a children's game" of the opposition and said that the coalition cabinet had agreed to stand behind the minister. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEES START WORK. The economic committee of the new parliament approved a legislative proposal to eliminate the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and merge it's functions with the Ministry of Trade and Industry, MTI reported on 29 June. The cultural committee approved a proposal by the care-taker prime minister, Peter Boross, to dismiss the controversial acting presidents of Hungarian Radio and Hungarian Television, effective 5 July 1994. The two officials were accused of political bias before and during the general elections. The committee for self-government affairs endorsed a draft law that would lift a previous regulation barring city mayors from holding parliamentary seats at the same time. The move became necessary because about 18 city mayors were elected to the parliament. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA'S LEADING POLITICAL PARTY SPLINTERS. The Pro Patria (in Estonian: Isamaa) political party--formed by several smaller political parties and groups with similar platforms--has been beset by internal discord which has led several groups within the party to leave its ranks, Baltic media have reported, starting on 27 June. The first group to leave Pro Patria was the Conservative Party (chairman: Enn Tarto), followed by the Republican Party (spokesman: Indrek Kannik). Baltic media estimated on 29 June that Pro Patria would keep only 11 of the 22 seats that it had in the 101-member parliament and would no longer be the leading force in the parliament. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. RETURN OF RUSSIAN TROOPS HAMPERED BY HOUSING PRICES. According to a statement by Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces, more than half of the 177 units that were stationed in Latvia on 30 April have been withdrawn. The last Russian ships are to sail away on 1 July, Baltic and Russian media reported on 29 June. One problem facing the Russian officers leaving Latvia is the cost of housing in Russia: recent estimates indicate that for the price of a three-room apartment in Latvia, it is possible to purchase only a garage in Russia. In the period from 1 July 1992 to 1 March 1994 some 2,176 military families (4,999 individuals) have moved back to Russia. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE WORLD BANK CREDITS FOR LATVIA. The World Bank has drafted an agreement for the extension of a loan of $35 million in order to help develop the private sector in Latvia. The credits are expected to be provided late this year or early in 1995. Most of the money will be channeled through commercial banks in Latvia that meet World Bank requirements regarding assets and security, BNS reported on 29 June. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. MANY UKRAINIANS IN LATVIA TO TAKE RUSSIAN CITIZENSHIP. Many of the 80,000 Ukrainians in Latvia, of whom about 70% were born in Ukraine, will be taking out Russian citizenship (which they can do until February 1995) because it is impossible for them to receive Ukrainian citizenship unless they take up residence in Ukraine, Kievskie vedomosti reported on 29 June. Only 3,914 Ukrainians in Latvia have Latvian citizenship. Unlike the Russians in Latvia, the report stated, the Ukrainians are more ready to understand why Latvia is reluctant to grant Latvian citizenship to non-Latvians, and their criticism is directed rather at Ukraine for failing to allow them to be Ukrainian citizens. The Ukrainian Minister for Nationality Affairs and Migration Aleksandr Emets told the newspaper that his ministry had been trying to get the Ukrainian law on citizenship amended but so far without success. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Louisa Vinton The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. 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