|Жизнь не в том, чтобы жить, а в том, чтобы чувствовать, что живешь. - В.О. Ключевский|
No. 122, 29 June 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN ON MILITARY REFORM. On the evening of 28 June Russian President Boris Yeltsin addressed graduates of the military academies, delivering a short speech which summarized current Russian security policy. The speech, which was broadcast live on Ostankino TV, attempted both to extol the military and justify budget cuts. Yeltsin pointed out that the military must learn to use its resources more efficiently but did suggest that additional sources of funding and support might be forthcoming. While Yeltsin endorsed the Partnership for Peace program he tempered this support by reiterating his call for the strengthening of all-European structures such as the CSCE. Concerning the "near abroad" Yeltsin noted that "Nobody and nothing can free Russia from the political and moral responsibility for the fate of countries and peoples, which for centuries have moved forward together with the Russian state." The speech contained no specifics as to how large the military should be or how rapidly it should be cut. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV ON NATO COOPERATION PLANS. Following a meeting in Moscow on 28 June with US General George Joulwan, supreme NATO commander in Europe, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said that agreement had been reached to set up in early July bilateral working groups which would be tasked with drafting a program of joint activities. According to Interfax and ITAR-TASS, some thirty such events would be scheduled for this year. Agreement was also reportedly reached on the establishment of NATO missions in Russia and Russian military missions at NATO headquarters in Europe. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. CHINESE PRESIDENT TO VISIT MOSCOW. Chinese President Jiang Zemin will meet with President Yeltsin in Moscow on 2 September, world press agencies reported on 28 June. The announcement came during a press conference in Moscow conducted by visiting Chinese Foreign Minister Qian Qichen and his Russian hosts. Reuters quoted Qian as saying that the Yeltsin-Jiang summit will focus on "furthering bilateral good-neighborly and friendly relations," which he called "beneficial for the peace and stability in the Asian-Pacific region and the rest of the of the world." The two leaders are also expected to sign a protocol on their mutual border. Qian said that the subject of Russian arms sales to China had not been raised during the talks on 28 June, and that issue was also not expected to be discussed during Jiang's visit to Moscow. Meanwhile, the official Chinese news agency Xinhua reported on 28 June that Russian Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin had arrived that day in Beijing to begin two days of talks on what was described as Chinese-Russian cooperation in the conversion of military technology. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. BEIJING ON RUSSIA-NATO AND NORTH KOREA. During the press conference in Moscow Qian made clear that Beijing found nothing threatening in Russia's decision to participate in the NATO Partnership for Peace Program. Some in Moscow, including former CIS Joint Armed Forces commander Evgenii Shaposhnikov, had suggested earlier that Russia's participation in the program could harm relations with China. However, Qian was quoted by ITAR-TASS as saying that China "regards with understanding the fact that Russia maintains relations of partnership with the countries of Europe . . . We believe that these relations will not in any way harm the development of links between Russia and China." According to Interfax of 28 June, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev suggested during the press conference that China remained sympathetic to Russia's call for an international conference to settle the crisis on the Korean peninsula. Qian seemed noncommittal on the subject, however, saying that "China has responded with understanding" to the Russian proposal, but adding that the conference "can materialize only when there are appropriate favorable conditions for it." Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RYBKIN: KURILS BELONG TO RUSSIA. Ivan Rybkin, the speaker of the Russian State Duma, said during a visit to one of the four disputed Kuril Islands on 28 June that the "Kurils are our own Russian islands . . . We cannot afford to lose such beauty." His remarks, which came during a tour of Siberia and the Russian Far East, were reported by Reuters, quoting ITAR-TASS. Ownership of the islands, which were seized from Japan by Russia at the end of World War II, remains the major obstacle to the signing of a peace treaty and to the establishment of friendly relations between the two countries. Russian nationalists have demanded that Moscow make no concessions to Japan on the territorial issue, a stance which has complicated Russia's efforts to win economic assistance from Japan. Rybkin's remarks come in the lead-up to the July G-7 summit, where the disposition of the islands seem likely to be a subject of discussion. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN HAILS STABILITY, WELCOMES INVESTMENT. President Yeltsin on 28 June added his voice to the chorus of government officials striving to attract new Western investment in Russia. Meeting at the Kremlin with leaders of major Western firms on the second day of a conference devoted to investment opportunities, Yeltsin asserted that "Russia is now more stable than it has been at any point since the reforms were initiated two years ago." He dismissed fears that the political climate still presents too many risks for foreign investors. The conference marked the inauguration of a joint government-business advisory council on foreign investment. Speaking to reporters the same day, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin argued that the Russian market can accommodate $10 billion of investment annually, rather than the $1 billion now being invested. In other economic news, Yeltsin signed a decree setting rules for privatization in the transitional period between the end of voucher privatization and the start of Russia's new privatization program, which is to focus on the sale of firms for cash. The rules for the new program are to be set forth in a presidential decree to be issued by 30 June, the deadline for voucher privatization, Interfax reports. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. NEMTSOV CALLS FOR ACTION AGAINST ZHIRINOVSKY. The head of the administration of the Nizhnii Novgorod Oblast, Boris Nemtsov, asked local prosecutor's office to investigate an incident with the ultra-nationalist leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 June. On 27 June Zhirinovsky occupied Nemtsov's office in Nizhnii Novgorod for two hours to protest what he said was an unfriendly reception by local officials. Regional prosecutor Aleksandr Fedotov told ITAR-TASS that Zhirinovsky had violated a law guaranteeing the privacy of the office of a member of the federal parliament. (Nemtsov is a deputy of the parliament's upper chamber.) Fedotov also said that Nemtsov complained that documents and other items were missing following Zhirinovsky's seizure of the office. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. MUSLIM BOARD AGAINST PARTITION OF KABARDINO-BALKARIA. The Spiritual Board of Muslims and Council of Imams of Kabardino-Balkaria said in an appeal to the inhabitants of the republic on 27 June that to divide the republic into an autonomous Balkaria and an autonomous Kabarda would inevitably cause bloodshed and destroy the already weak genetic reserves of the Kabardinians and Balkars, ITAR-TASS reported. The board and the council were responding to a recent call by the Executive Committee of the National Council of the Balkar people for such a division. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. TARSCHYS STRESSES PAN-EUROPEAN MISSION. Daniel Tarschys, the new secretary-general of the Council of Europe, stressed in his opening speech in Strasbourg on 28 June the importance of continuing and speeding up the Council's "pan-European mission." The task is a challenging one because Europe has become "turbulent . . . restless, and in search of new directions," he said. But this makes it even more imperative that the Council respond to the "needs and aspirations" of countries in Central and Eastern Europe. For the Council, he said, that means intensified action in the areas in which it has the greatest competence: "consolidation of democracy, defense of human rights, cultural cooperation, institution-building and the whole legal infrastructure of the reform process." The Council is currently considering potential problems posed by the admission of new countries with a combined population of more than 250 million; in the view of Tarschys, this kind of enlargement would surely tilt the Council's balance further to the east. To study this issue the Council's Committee of Ministers--its chief executive organ--has set up a working group on "the implications of enlargement," an RFE/RL correspondent in Strasbourg reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KARABAKH POLITICAL SETTLEMENT IMMINENT? Russian special envoy for Nagorno-Karabakh Vladimir Kazimirov was quoted by Interfax on 28 June as stating that the basis of the political agreement on a settlement of the Karabakh conflict is "practically ready." Kazimirov had implied on 27 June that the draft agreement in question was the Russian variant of the peace plan, which he claimed duplicated "all the substantive elements" of the alternative CSCE document, although there were "certain differences" between the two, ITAR-TASS reported. On 28 June Kazimirov flew from Baku to Ankara for what he termed "routine working discussions" on the Karabakh issue. On 27 June Reuters reported that Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller plans to convene a special parliament session to debate the issue of sending a Turkish peacekeeping contingent to Nagorno-Karabakh. A Karabakh Armenian spokesman told ITAR-TASS on 27 June, however, that the leadership of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic would not under any circumstances condone the deployment of Turkish peacekeepers given Turkey's "unceasing" military assistance to Azerbaijan. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE ON END OF TAJIK TALKS. Although negotiators for the Tajik government and the Tajik opposition in exile failed to agree on a ceasefire before their round of talks in Tehran ended, the two sides issued a joint declaration on 28 June supporting a ceasefire and national reconciliation, Iranian, Russian and Western press agencies reported. Tehran Radio said that the declaration set no timetable for the ceasefire. UN mediator Ramiro Piriz-Ballon was quoted by AFP as telling a news conference that the two sides had made considerable progress and that the Tajik government had committed itself to prepare to free political prisoners--a key demand of the opposition--and grant amnesty to opposition leaders. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. KAZAKH MINISTER ATTACKS MOSCOW. Kazakhstan's newly-appointed minister of the oil industry, Ravil Shardabaev, was quoted in the Financial Times on 28 June as having told an interviewer that Russia has cut off almost all of the country's oil exports. Shardabaev said that the cutoff began in May, and without the possibility of selling their oil, Kazakhstan's refineries are halting production. Russian officials have been pressuring Kazakhstan to allow Russia shares in the Karachaganak gas field and are reported to be seeking a share in the Tengiz oil field, where Chevron has a major joint venture. The only export pipelines available for Kazakhstani oil cross Russian territory. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KRAVCHUK LEADS KUCHMA IN UKRAINE ELECTIONS. The final results from the presidential election on 26 June have been posted. As reported on 28 June by ITAR-TASS and other news agencies, incumbent president Leonid Kravchuk received 37.7% of the vote, several percentage points ahead of rival Leonid Kuchma, who received 31.3%. Supreme Council chairman Oleksandr Moroz finished third, with 13%, followed by economic reformer Volodymyr Lanovyi, with 9.3 percent. Other candidates were entrepreneur Valerii Babych (2.4%), former SC chairman Ivan Pliushch (1.3%) and education minister Petro Talanchuk (0.5%). Kravchuk garnered close to 90% of the votes in the western regions of Lviv and Ternopil, whereas, as expected, Kuchma was the winner in eastern Ukraine, Odessa, and, by an overwhelming margin (82.6%), in Crimea. Kravchuk and Kuchma will face a runoff election in July. Kathy Mihalisko, RFE/RL, Inc. BOSNIA FIGHTING INTENSIFIES. According to international media reports, fighting throughout Bosnia is intensifying. On 28 June Bosnian radio observed that Serb forces, already reportedly beginning to engage Muslim troops, are preparing for what may turn into a major armored offensive. A UN military commander, British Brigadier Andrew Ridgway, told reporters "There is no peace in Bosnia . . . not even a cessation of hostilities here." Moreover, the commander of UN forces in Bosnia, General Michael Rose, assesses the situation as critical and confirms that current Bosnian government offensives could prompt a "massive" retaliation by the Bosnian Serb side. Reuters reports that for his part, UN envoy Yasushi Akashi has said that current levels of fighting may prompt renewed calls for the use of NATO air power. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. KARADZIC ADDRESSES VIDOVDAN RALLY. Nearly 4,000 Bosnian Serbs turned out to attend a Vidovdan rally on 28 June that featured a speech by Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic. Vidovdan, significant to ethnic Serbs as a reminder of the crushing defeat suffered by Serb troops engaging conquering Ottoman armies on 28 June 1389, offered Karadzic the opportunity to stir Serbian national sentiments. Karadzic told his audience that Bosnia was Serb territory and that conquests made by Serb forces in the course of the Bosnian war were "just." On 24 June Tanjug had reported that Bosnian Serbs would mark Vidovdan in 1994 by declaring it Bosnian Serb "statehood" day. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. GRANIC CALLS FOR TALKS WITH KRAJINA. According to a 28 June Reuters report, Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic has said that the Croatian government will pursue peaceful, diplomatic means of trying to resolve political disputes with the breakaway and self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK). Granic's statement follows recent heated rhetoric between Zagreb and the self-styled authorities in Knin, capital of the RSK. Granic has also hinted that Zagreb will use diplomacy in a bid to secure the objective of reincorporating Krajina under Croatian jurisdiction. For their part, RSK leaders have not deviated from the position that the RSK's de facto independence is nonnegotiable. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIA GETS WORLD BANK LOAN. On 24 June an RFE/RL correspondent reported that the World Bank had approved a loan of $120 million to Croatia, to be used mainly for emergency infrastructure repairs. Some funds will go to improve Croatia's ailing agricultural sector, also wracked by war. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN PRESIDENT RETURNS CITIZENSHIP, TARIFF LAWS TO PARLIAMENT. President Guntis Ulmanis returned to the Saeima for further consideration the recently passed laws on citizenship and tariffs. He told the press on 28 June that the law on citizenship and naturalization had legal flaws and failed to provide clarity on some issues; he also objected to the naturalization quotas as they were formulated in the law. Terms of the law had been criticized by CSCE and Council of Europe representatives. Russian foreign ministry officials had condemned the terms of the law as "inhuman." Concerning the law on tariffs, Ulmanis said that as it stands, it is detrimental to Latvia's farmers. Latvian media reported that the citizenship law is likely to be taken up by the Saeima sometime in July. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. HOW MANY RUSSIAN TROOPS IN LATVIA? BNS reported on 28 June that Latvia still does not know how many Russian troops are stationed on its territory. Ilgonis Upmalis, head of the Latvian commission monitoring the troop withdrawals, told the press that despite the stipulations in the Latvian-Russian accords on troop withdrawals that Russia provide accurate information about its troops, Russia has failed to do so. Upmalis estimates that there are still about 5,000 Russian troops in Latvia and noted that it will be possible to withdraw all of them by 31 August. He added that most of the stored ammunition has been removed. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. PROPOSAL TO IMPEACH ILIESCU SUBMITTED. The opposition National Peasant Party Christian Democratic formally submitted to parliament the proposal to impeach President Ion Iliescu on 28 June, Radio Bucharest announced on the same day. As required by the letter of the law, the initiative is supported by one-third of the members of both houses of parliament. It now goes to the Constitutional Court to assess its legality. A spokesman for the NPPCD said parliament will probably not vote on the proposal until after the summer vacation ends on 1 September. In another political development, the chairman of the small Democratic Agrarian Party, which is represented only in the Senate, said on 28 June that his formation, which has backed the government in the past, has "irrevocably withdrawn" its support and will vote "against the government's bankrupt policy." Victor Surdu said, however, that the DAP does not agree with some of the arguments presented in the no-confidence motion moved by the democratic opposition one day earlier. The DAP has submitted its own motion of no-confidence and it is not clear whether it will vote against the executive alongside the rest of the opposition. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN LONDON TALKS. Romania's Foreign Minister, Teodor Melescanu, held talks in London with British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd, an RFE/RL correspondent and Radio Bucharest reported on 28 and 29 June. A British spokesman described the talks as "non-confrontational." The two ministers discussed Romania's objective of joining the European Union and NATO. They also discussed the issue of Moldova and the war in former Yugoslavia, in connection with the problems posed by the war for Romania regarding the enforcement of sanctions. A British official told RFE/RL's London correspondent that Romania can expect aid from the international community in recognition of its role in helping achieve stability in the region. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT HOLDS INAUGURAL SESSION. Hungarian President Arpad Goncz greeted the new deputies during the first session of the newly elected parliament on 28 June. Parliamentary officers were also elected, MTI reports. Goncz praised the way the elections were conducted and urged deputies to give a good example of democracy to Hungarians and Hungarian minorities in neighboring countries. He also asked for God's blessing. Zoltan Gal of the Socialist Party was elected speaker of the parliament. The socialist-liberal governing coalition of the Hungarian Socialist Party and the Alliance of Free Democrats controls over 72% of the seats in the new legislature. The accreditation of about 18 deputies was delayed because they also hold local government positions. The first issue discussed by parliament will be how to resolve this legal problem. In addition, Gal charged that the controversial law passed by the old parliament this spring to regulate the status of former communist agents is unconstitutional and urged the constitutional court to rule against it. The parliament is expected to conclude the formation and approval of the government by mid-July and will begin normal operations only in late August. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PARLIAMENTARIAN FORCED TO APOLOGIZE. During the session of the Slovak parliament on 28 June, Ivan Luptak, a deputy from the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, was forced to apologize for his actions during the 9 June session, when he raised his arm and addressed deputy parliament chairman Ludovit Cernak with the words "Heil Hitler." The parliamentary Committee on Mandates and Immunity had judged the action to be "at variance with the position and honor of a parliamentary deputy" and suggested that he apologize, and the parliament voted to approve the suggestion. Luptak responded by saying that while the gesture was "ill-considered," it was by no means a propagation of fascism, as he is "against any totalitarian ideology." The parliament voted to recall Luptak from the parliamentary delegation that represents Slovakia in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, TASR reports. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIAN PREMIER MEETS HAVEL. "Even small countries can become the source of great tension," said Albanian Premier Aleksander Meksi during his meeting with Czech President Vaclav Havel on 28 June. Meksi was referring to the 80th anniversary of the Sarajevo assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. "In this context, it is important that Albania become a stable country," CTK reported Meksi as saying. Havel and Meksi discussed bilateral cooperation and the possible introduction of visa-free travel between the two countries--a measure designed to increase tourism. During his meeting with Meksi, Czech Parliament speaker Milan Uhde said he did not see any reason why Albania could not join the Central European Initiative. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH FOREIGN MINISTER IN AUSTRIA. On 28 June Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec officially opened the Czech Center in Vienna. The main task of the center will be to provide information about political, social, trade, and cultural activities in the Czech Republic. The center is the 11th such establishment opened by the Czech republic abroad. CTK reports that Zieleniec also delivered a lecture entitled "The Czech Republic and Austria in a Common Europe." In the discussion that followed the lecture, the foreign minister said that Austria's rejection of nuclear power is "an exception in Europe." (Austria has repeatedly clashed with the Czech government over plans to complete the nuclear power plant in Temelin.) Zieleniec also said that Prague "does not subscribe to the British "Euroskepticism," arguing that the process of European integration is a subject of serious discussions" in his country. He defended the Czech Republic's efforts to be admitted to the European Union as an individual country rather than a member of a regional grouping. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. KLAUS ON DEHAENE. Speaking on Czech Radio on 28 June, Premier Vaclav Klaus argued that the recent failure of the member states of the European Union to chose the EU's new commissioner, to replace Jacques Delors, "is no crisis but the process of searching." Klaus argued that it is logical that not all 12 EU members have the same opinion. The fact that Great Britain blocked the candidacy of Belgian Premier Jean-Luc Dehaene "is not surprising," said Klaus. "I am familiar with the British concept of the European Union and I am familiar with the opinions of Mr. Dehaene. If the British views are considered an extreme on one side of the spectrum, then the views of Mr. Dehaene, as I know him, are really an extreme on the other side of the spectrum," the Czech Prime Minister said. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND'S KOLODKO ASSERTS CONTROL OVER ECONOMIC POLICY. Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Grzegorz Kolodko scored a further success in his efforts to cement a power base within the government when the cabinet opted on 28 June to subordinate a four-year plan drafted by the central planning office (CUP) to his own "Strategy for Poland." CUP chairman Miroslaw Pietrewicz denied that there is any rivalry between his office and the finance ministry but admitted that any challenge to Kolodko's position would be a "lost cause." The government had already ordered in the CUP document four times since it was first ordered drafted in November. The one major difference between the CUP plan and Kolodko's "strategy" is the stringency to be applied to inflation. Kolodko wants annual inflation reduced to 8.7% by 1997 while CUP predicted inflation will remain as high as 14% in 1997. Meanwhile, the new Socio-Economic Strategy Council, a body set up on Kolodko's recommendation to advise the government, held its first meeting on 28 June. Chairman Jan Mujzel admitted that the council had failed to attract many of the best Polish economists, including Leszek Balcerowicz and Janusz Beksiak. Mujzel said that many economists refused to participate because they feared the council is merely a "decoration" for the government. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WORLD BANK CONCERNED ABOUT POLISH LOANS. Concluding a visit to Warsaw on 28 June, World Bank Deputy Chairman Wilfried Thalwitz praised Poland for maintaining continuity in economic policy over the past four years. Thalwitz nonetheless expressed concern at "social tension" and the low rate of absorption of World Bank loans. Poland has received about $3.6 billion, but only 33% has been put to use, PAP reports. Poland should make use of existing loans before pressing for new ones, Thalwitz indicated. President Lech Walesa told Thalwitz that "the economy stands on its own," as no government or politician can slow down market reforms. A World Bank study presented on 28 June claims that 5.5 million Poles, or roughly 15% of the population, live in poverty. Most affected are rural families with three or more children. The study found that Polish poverty is "shallow," in that the expenses for the poorest families are only a few percentage points lower than the smallest pension. Poland devotes 19% of its GDP to social spending, the study found, but a full three-fourths of those receiving benefits other than pensions are not poor by any definition. The study recommended that the government take steps to focus scarce funds on the truly needy. Labor Minister Leszek Miller commented that the report would benefit from comparison with domestic studies of the poverty problem. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW CONFUSION OVER POLISH CONCORDAT. With the first parliamentary debate on Poland's concordat with the Vatican approaching on 30 June, the foreign affairs ministry held a press conference on 28 June to reiterate its firm support for ratification. While the government officially supports ratification, the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD)--one of the two partners in the ruling coalition--has proposed postponing the debate until after the new constitution is approved. The parliament is not expected to complete work on the constitution until mid-1995. Foreign ministry officials stressed that, should the parliament fail to approve the concordat, "relations with the Vatican would enter a difficult phase." The concordat was signed on 28 July 1993, after two years of negotiation. Ministry officials stressed that the government "feels that there are no conflicts between the concordat and the constitutional regulations currently in force." The 30 June debate is likely to test the unity of many parties, the Freedom Union (UW), in particular. Barbara Labuda, the UW's leftist maverick, told a press conference on 28 June that she will vote against the concordat even if the party imposes voting discipline. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIAN PRESIDENT ENDORSES NOMINEE FOR DEFENSE MINISTER. President Lennart Meri approved the nomination of Enn Tupp as Minister of Defense, Baltic media reported on 28 June. Tupp served previously as head of the Defense Policy Department of the Defense Ministry. He replaces Indrek Kannik, who was dismissed on 23 May as a result of friction within the Pro Patria political party and the Estonian government. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIA PASSES STATE BORDER LAW. The Seimas on 28 June voted 54 to 17, with 5 abstentions, to pass a state border law, Radio Lithuania reports. Lithuania's borders had been protected by the Border Defense Service subordinated to the Defense Ministry. According to the new law, the country's air space would continue to be controlled by the Defense Ministry, but the land and sea borders would be controlled by the newly created Interior Ministry's Border Police Department whose commissioner the government would soon appoint. The law also defines borderland and border stations, regulates procedures on dealing with border incidents and violations of the state border. The Seimas also approved amendments to the Police Law, the Provisional Law on Conscription, and the Military Service Law. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Louisa Vinton The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. 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