|Лучшее - враг хорошего. - Вольтер|
No. 116, 21 June 1994
RUSSIA CHERNOMYRDIN TO WASHINGTON. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin arrived in Washington on 21 June to begin four days of talks with top US officials on a broad array of issues. RFE/RL's Washington correspondent reported that the two countries are expected to sign more than a dozen cooperation agreements and statements on such topics as environmental protection, joint space exploration, and the establishment of an oil-and-gas technical center in Russia. Chernomyrdin is scheduled to co-chair, with US Vice President Al Gore, a commission dealing with nuclear and energy issues, while on 23 June he is to meet with President Bill Clinton for talks on international developments, including the crisis on the Korean Peninsula. According to an Izvestiya commentary on 21 June, Chernomyrdin also intends to raise once again the subject of full Russian membership in the G-7--he suggested that if Russia puts its economic house in order a transformation of the organization into the G-8 might be expected--and also what Moscow believes are continuing restrictions on Russian-US trade. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. NATO-RUSSIA UPDATE. NATO and Russia continued their diffident dance of courtship over the weekend of 18-19 June, with NATO sources saying on 20 June that the two sides had met to finalize a joint declaration which will be issued when Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev signs the Partnership for Peace agreement, an event scheduled for 22 June. Reuters quoted NATO diplomats as saying that the Russians "had backed off on some of their demands and accepted that NATO has to put certain very clear limits on the relationship." The short political declaration was described as recognizing that Russia had a particular weight in Europe and outlining general principles of the relationship between NATO and Russia. The document, which reportedly commits Russia to active participation in the partnership and envisions consultations on European security issues, will nevertheless have no legal status. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. FILATOV SAYS YELTSIN WILL STAND BY DECREE ON CRIME. The chief of the presidential administration, Sergei Filatov, said on 20 June that President Yeltsin will not revoke his recent decree giving law enforcement organs sweeping powers to fight crime, despite opposition from the State Duma. The majority of the Duma factions, including the reformist Russia's Choice, say the decree violates the constitution and the criminal code. Filatov was quoted by Russian TV as saying Yeltsin's administration acknowledged that there was a danger the decree could infringe upon human rights in some cases. He added, however, that it was necessary to get the fight against crime on track. Filatov said two years of talk about fighting crime had not yet produced any concrete legislation, therefore Yeltsin's decree was necessary. The official also added that the decree had full support of regional leaders. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. VARENNIKOV'S COUP TRIAL RESUMES. The trial of the former Soviet Deputy Defense Minister Valentin Varennikov will resume in Moscow on 21 June, ITAR-TASS reported. Varennikov is the only one of the leaders of the August 1991 attempted coup who is still on trial. Varennikov refused to accept an amnesty granted by the State Duma in February to the organizers of the coup. The cases against other eight defendants were closed by Russia's Prosecutor General in May, but Varennikov demanded that his trial continue. He hopes that the trial will prove his innocence. Varennikov faces charges of high treason and conspiring to seize power. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. FEDERATION COUNCIL APPROVES PEACEKEEPING FORCE. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev addressed the Federation Council on 21 June Ostankino TV reported, stating that Russian troops were prepared to start peacekeeping operations in Georgia, but urging that funding for the operation not be taken from the defense budget but from other sources. Reuters reported on the same day that the Federation Council overwhelmingly voted in favor of sending Russian peacekeepers, reversing a previous rejection of the proposal. The move clears the way for the introduction of up to 3,000 troops into the area. Some units already in place near the conflict zone started engaging in peacekeeping operations such as mine clearing even before formal approval was granted. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENSE INDUSTRY PROTESTS DEFENSE BUDGET. Ostankino TV on 21 June reported on a protest held by Russian defense industry workers outside the Council of the Federation building on the same day. Workers from the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapons laboratory were prominent amongst the protesters. Speaker of the Federation Council Vladimir Shumeiko addressed reporters in front of the crowd, calling their demands "justified" and again calling on the State Duma to meet with the Council of the Federation to reach a compromise on the defense budget, which the Council has argued must be substantially increased. Shumeiko warned that throwing millions of defense workers out of work could lead to a "social explosion" that would render the Civic Accord meaningless. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. HOW BIG IS THE RUSSIAN MILITARY? Izvestiya on 17 June tried to clear up the ongoing confusion concerning the size of the Russian military. In recent comments President Yeltsin has claimed that the military is still 3 million strong. Citing the Ministry of Defense, however, Izvestiya notes that there are two different strengths--the assigned strength, and the actual number of people in uniform. Thus, on 1 May 1992 (just before the Russian military was formed) there were 2.8 million personnel slots, but only about 2 million people serving. According to Chief of the General Staff Mikhail Kolesnikov, on 16 June 1994, the number of slots has been decreased to 2.2 million but the number serving is "significantly fewer." Given the previous shortfall, and the continuing decline in draft intake rates, recent estimates of perhaps only 1.5 million troops or fewer thus seem plausible. Kolesnikov also noted that there are currently some 50,000 border guard troops (significantly less that other estimates of 100,000-200,000), 350,000 interior ministry troops, and some 70,000 railroad troops, as well as miscellaneous troops associated with other ministries, for a total of some 800,000 people in uniform, but not serving under the Ministry of Defense. (It is not clear, however, whether the latter figures represent personnel slots or serving personnel.) John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS UNITED COMMAND FOR BALTIC SEA FLEET. Oleksandr Moroz, chairman of the Ukraine Supreme Soviet, during a presidential campaign speech in Donetsk called for setting up a united rather than a joint command for the Russian and Ukrainian fleets in the Baltic Sea, Interfax reported on 20 June. Noting that the objectives of the two fleets would be increasingly identical, Moroz said that the experience of creating NATO's navy could be drawn upon in setting up the command. Rear Admiral Aleksandr Penkin, aide to the Baltic Sea Fleet (BSF) Commander, said that keeping the BSF in one piece was the only sensible way out of the deadlock on its future. He hoped that Moroz's statement was sincere and not just campaign rhetoric. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LEBED HECKLED, SERBIA CHEERED IN BENDERY. At a rally in Bendery on the second anniversary of the "Dniester republic"'s and the Russian 14th Army's victory over Moldova in that city, the army's commander, Lt.-General Aleksandr Lebed, was repeatedly booed and whistled at during his speech, ITAR-TASS and Basapress reported on 19 and 20 June, respectively. With "Dniester" president Igor Smirnov looking on, and defying the heckling, Lebed chastised the Tiraspol leaders for corruption, unwillingness to settle the conflict with Moldova peacefully, and for having "repaid Russia with black ingratitude" by sending fighters to support the antigovernment side in Moscow in October 1993. The rally cheered a Serbian nun who conveyed greetings from Serbian and Russian volunteer fighters in the former Yugoslavia, described Transdniester as "spiritually related to Serbia," and accused "America and international Zionism" of harboring designs on the region. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NIYAZOV IN TURKEY. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov began an official visit to Turkey on 20 June, telling his Turkish opposite number, Suleyman Demirel, that he rejoices over the good relations that have developed between the two countries in the years since Turkmenistan's independence, Russian and Turkish news agencies reported. Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller told Niyazov soon after his arrival in Ankara that Turkey's Export-Import Bank has opened a credit line of $90 million for Turkmenistan to promote trade between the two countries. Demirel told Niyazov that the Turkish government is eager to start construction of a pipeline to ship Turkmen gas to Europe, a project of great importance to Niyuazov. Western governments have been concerned about Niyazov's cozy relations with Iran; his visit to Turkey may help to allay their fears. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. KYRGYZ PREMIER CALLS FOR JAPANESE INVESTMENT. During a meeting with Japanese businessmen visiting Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan's Prime Minister Apas Dzhumagulov appealed for Japanese investment in the reconstruction of defense, engineering and food processing industries in his country, Interfax reported on 20 June. He also asked for Japanese participation in developing Kyrgyzstan's considerable hydroelectric potential. According to Dzhumagulov, who heads a Kyrgyz-Japanese Economic Cooperation Commission, Kyrgyzstan's government has set up a reconstruction and development bank on the Japanese model to mobilize state resources in support of small and medium-sized businesses in certain priority fields. The same day President Askar Akaev told Japan's new ambassador that no country has done more than Japan to promote economic restructuring in Kyrgyzstan. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. TAJIK PEACE TALKS BEGIN. Talks aimed at establishing a truce in the Tajik civil conflict began in Teheran on 18 June, and are expected to last ten days. The talks, sponsored by the UN, are being attended by representatives of the Tajik government and opposition, as well as mediators and observers from Russia, Iran and Pakistan. According to the UN special envoy for Tajikistan, Ramiro Piriz-Ballon, a ceasefire is a prerequisite for the difficult task of finding a lasting peaceful settlement, which is expected to be tackled at the next round of peace talks, tentatively scheduled for Pakistan in late July, AFP reported. Ballon was also quoted as saying that the UN is ready to "immediately send its representatives to Tajikistan" to verify compliance with any agreement. The opposition's top negotiator, Otakhon Latifi, told Interfax on 18 June that the opposition is ready to agree to a ceasefire along the Tajik-Afghan border during the talks; this would be a significant concession, since the status quo favors the government, and many opposition leaders are skeptical about the authorities' willingness to compromise. According to AFP, Iran's foreign minister, Ali Akbar Velayati, urged the two sides to show "political courage and tolerance," and said that Iran would "not hesitate" to send peacekeeping troops, if asked by the UN. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS USE NEW TACTIC IN ETHNIC CLEANSING. The Washington Post reports on 21 June that the 260 Bosnian refugees who arrived in no-man's-land on the Croatian border last week are the victims of a new Serbian ploy to create an "ethnically pure" region around Banja Luka. The villagers had originally been driven from Bronzani Majdan in February, but left Banja Luka voluntarily when Serb officials promised them "passage to Croatia, a transit visa across that country, and the promise of a visa to live in Sweden." A UN official on the scene said that "the Serbs have collected them (Muslims and Croats) all in the city of Banja Luka and said, 'now, let's get rid of them.'" Another UN spokesman said that "the Serbs are using this as a test case to see whether the (UN refugee agency) and Croatia take them." Refugee relief is already the second largest item in the Croatian state budget after defense. Serb forces took Banja Luka in 1992 and made it into one of their major centers, driving out Muslims and Croats and destroying centuries-old mosques in the process. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. UN TRIES TO SHORE UP BOSNIAN CEASE-FIRE. RFE/RL's South Slavic Language Service said on 20 June that UN commander Gen. Sir Michael Rose wants to meet with Muslim and Serb officers on 25 June to patch up the leaky truce that went into effect ten days ago. Fighting has centered mainly on the Doboj-Gradacac area northwest of Tuzla, as Muslims seek to put pressure on the northern corridor linking Serbia with its conquests in Bosnia and Croatia. Reuters quoted UN sources as wondering why the Serbs have yet to respond in force, noting that "usually the Serbs go ballistic" under Muslim attack. The news agency added that their had been a "'substantial' exchange of small arms fire" between British UNPROFOR troops and Muslims near the beleaguered Muslim enclave of Gorazde in eastern Bosnia. Finally on the diplomatic front, AFP says that the meeting of the "contact group" originally slated for 22 June to finalize a partition plan has been postponed to the first three days of July. Major powers are expected to endorse the project at the G-7 summit in Naples starting on 8 July. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SPLIT IN THE SANDZAK'S POLITICAL SCENE? Policy differences have reportedly led to the retirement of the Sandzak's mainly Muslim Party of Democratic Action's General Secretary Rasim Ljajic. Politika said on 17 June that he will return to his medical practice. The Belgrade daily alleges that political differences between SDA President Sulejman Ugljanin, who fled the country under threat of arrest by Serb police in May 1993, and Ljajic about whether to raise or reduce political tensions in the region prompted Ljajics decision. Since Ugljanin's escape, Ljajic has effectively led the party. Politika quoted the Istanbul paper Zaman as saying that Ugljanin's main aim is the unification of Sandzak, a region divided between Serbia and Montenegro, with the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Ljajic reportedly judges "the political reality in the region" differently Meanwhile, Ugljanin urged representatives of the Swiss government not to finance a camp for Serbian and Montenegrin refugees due to be set up in the Sandzak, Politika reported the same day. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. CENSUS STARTS IN MACEDONIA. The census in Macedonia, which will take place between 21 June and 5 July, has been widely disputed. The ethnic Albanian parties as well as the Union of Serbs and Montenegrins in Macedonia have expressed doubts about the reliability of the census results to come, Politika reported on 17 June. The union's leader Nebojsa Tomovic claims that about 80% of the Serbs in Skopje and more than 90% in some other districts have not gotten Macedonian citizenship and therefore will not be included in the survey. Elsewhere, Serbs and Montenegrins have allegedly been warned to list themselves as Macedonians. Meanwhile, Macedonian-Serbian relations continue to deteriorate following repeated border violations by the rump-Yugoslav army, Rilindja reported on 16 June. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. MURDER HEIGHTENS MACEDONIA'S INTERETHNIC TENSIONS. The killing of an ethnic Macedonian youth in a scuffle between Macedonians and Albanians on 19 June appears to have increased interethnic tensions on the eve of the census. MILS and Nova Makedonija reported the next day that two Albanians were arrested while trying to cross the border a few hours after the incident and are believed to be the main attackers. Another two young Albanians have also been detained, whereas eight Macedonians had to receive medical treatment. MILS described the current situation in Tetovo, which in recent years has been a scene of repeated interethnic conflict, as "calm, but tense." Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH LOCAL ELECTIONS: OPPOSITION STRONG. The local government elections on 19 June provided a rare occasion in Poland: good news for all major political forces. In urban areas, where proportional voting systems were used, the "postcommunist" Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) emerged as the largest single force, winning a plurality in 17 cities. SLD leaders boasted that their representation had increased tenfold in comparison to May 1990, when the last elections were held. But the SLD is unlikely to dominate the city councils, as it is outnumbered in most places by the combined forces of the centrist and right-wing opposition. Right-wing coalitions won the largest share in six cities, all located along Poland's eastern border. The Freedom Union (UW) won in six cities, including Warsaw, Gdansk, Poznan, and Cracow. Turnout nationwide was 35.8%, according to initial figures. Participation was higher in rural areas (38.5%) than cities (29.2%). There was no general anti-incumbent trend. Full results are not yet in from rural districts, where voting was conducted according to a majority system. The results here are likely to be far less revealing--although the Polish Peasant Party stands to gain--as most rural candidates have no formal party affiliation. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH ELECTIONS: RETURN OF THE RIGHT. The strong showing of right-wing parties in the local elections will reorient Polish politics. In the parliamentary elections of 1993, the Catholic parties and other right-wing forces fragmented into hostile camps and failed to win any seats in the Sejm, despite substantial voter support. In the local elections, by contrast, the right-wing parties successfully forged broad local coalitions (often including up to a dozen partners). Although Labor Minister Leszek Miller (SLD) attempted to portray the election outcome as a defeat for the Catholic hierarchy, the success of right-wing coalitions also reflected the mobilizing force of the Church, which issued a strong statement criticizing the ruling "postcommunist" coalition on the eve of the elections. With turnout generally low, Catholic voters apparently had a greater impact. SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski welcomed the return of the Right as "an element of normality." The challenge for the right-wing parties is now to cement their coalitions into viable political forces. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. "PARTNERSHIP" NAVAL MANEUVERS SCHEDULED FOR JULY. Joint naval maneuvers including warships from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as well as from its former enemies in the Black Sea region have been scheduled for July, Bulgaria's top military officer announced on 20 June. General Lyuben Petrov, chief of the Bulgarian General Staff, told a press conference in Sofia that seven states participating in the Partnership for Peace program--the United States, Turkey, Greece, Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria--have agreed to conduct joint exercises on the Black Sea to enhance mutual confidence and regional stability. The multilateral maneuvers will go by the name Breeze '94. The announcement was made during a visit to Sofia by the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces, southern Europe, Gen. Antonio Milani. BTA and Western agencies also quoted Milani as saying that a team of US, Turkish, Greek, Italian officers have traveled to the port of Varna to discuss the possibility of holding regular exercises with Bulgarian naval forces. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PRESIDENT IN THE US. Speaking to journalists in Washington on 20 June, the first day of his six-day visit to the United States, Slovak President Michal Kovac said that Slovakia has become politically more stable in the last four months since the current coalition government took over, which has contributed to the "intensification of US-Slovak relations." Kovac further argued that the economic situation in Slovakia has improved slightly since the new government entered office and that there is "a degree of social peace" in the country now. On 21 June Kovac and his Hungarian counterpart, Arpad Goncz, are to meet jointly with US President Bill Clinton. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN COALITION AGREEMENT ON DISTRIBUTION OF POSTS. The Hungarian Socialist Party and the Alliance of Free Democrats reached preliminary agreement on 20 June on the distribution of government and parliamentary posts, MTI reports. HSP chairman Gyula Horn and his AFD counterpart Ivan Peto announced that the AFD will take over three ministries: those of interior, traffic and communications, and culture. The rest of the 12 ministries will be allotted to the HSP. There will also be some joint direction: the ministry of culture will have an HSP state secretary while there will be AFD state secretaries in the ministries of agriculture, and industry and trade. The post of parliamentary chairman will go to the HSP, while the AFD, the Hungarian Democratic Forum, and the Independent Smallholders' and Civic Party will fill the three deputy chairman posts. The AFD will chair the parliament's constitutional, defense, and foreign relations committees. The HSP and the AFD have yet to reach full agreement on substantive policy questions and on a mechanism for resolving disputes over policy and personnel. It is also yet to be decided which party will oversee the secret services. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH REPUBLIC TO SEEK EU MEMBERSHIP BEFORE '96. The Czech Republic will apply for European Union membership ahead of the 1996 EU intergovernmental conference on the status of potential new members, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said according to the 20 June issue of the Journal of Commerce. The paper quotes Klaus as having said that his government's main aim is "to create all the preconditions on our side and on the side of the EU." Klaus also stressed that his country is offering free-trade agreements to "everyone" and pleaded for an expansion of the Central European Free Trade Association, consisting of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Hungary. The Czech premier also criticized the West for instigating a new debate about "fair trade" which is really aimed at providing "new ammunition for protectionism." Klaus complained that Czech exports of steel, textiles, and agricultural machines to the EU have been blocked by using the "fair trade argument." He added that "to force us to accept Western standards would lead to higher unemployment and a reduction of the country's competitiveness." Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN OPPOSITION MOVES ON CENSURE MOTION. On 20 June the parties belonging to the Democratic Convention of Romania, the country's main opposition alliance, agreed on the draft of a censure motion against Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu's government. On the same day another major parliamentary opposition group, the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front, announced that it would join forces with the DCR on the motion, Radio Bucharest reports. The resolution attacks Vacaroiu's left-wing minority cabinet over its performance in the economic and social fields. The DCR and the DP-NSF further agreed on continuing their attempt to impeach President Ion Iliescu for having allegedly overstepped his constitutional prerogatives. In a separate move, the Democratic Agrarian Party, which has long been an ally of the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania, announced that it plans to introduce its own censure motion against the cabinet because of the serious situation in agriculture. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN SHIPBUILDERS ON STRIKE. Romanian shipbuilders in the Black Sea port of Constanta went on strike on 20 June to back demands for a 100% pay increase, Radio Bucharest and Reuters report. A representative of the management admitted that the strikers' claims were justified, but added that the shipyard cannot meet the demands for lack of money. According to Radio Bucharest, the strike means daily losses of some 100 million lei. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN DEFENSE MINISTER SEES MOLDOVA AS POTENTIAL THREAT . . . In a speech on "Romania's Security Interests" to the Atlantic Council in Washington during an official visit, Romanian Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca listed potential threats to his country's security. After mentioning the political situation in Russia and Russian-Ukrainian disputes, Tinca said--as quoted on 16 June by RFE/RL's correspondent present at the occasion--that "a radicalization of the Moldovan leadership's attitudes toward Romania could diminish Romania's security even further." Asked to elaborate, Tinca criticized Moldova's leaders for being unfriendly to Romania and for refusing integration of the two countries. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . WHILE OPPOSITION CHIEF CLAIMS BESSARABIA, NORTH BUKOVINA. Addressing a Romanian audience in Paris, Corneliu Coposu, chairman of Romania's opposition coalition, the Democratic Convention, and leader of its largest component, the National Peasant-Christian Democratic Party, said that Romania "should have decreed the reincorporation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina into the mother country," and attacked the government for failing to claim the territories. He also denounced Romania's recognition of Moldova as an independent state, according to the transcript published in the pro-opposition weekly Lupta of June 1994. Coposu also denounced Ukraine's Christian Democratic Party for its refusal to concede on the issue. Northern Bukovina and parts of Bessarabia currently belong to Ukraine while most of Bessarabia is in Moldova. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. ANOTHER POLITICAL PARTY IN LATVIA. On 18 June in Riga, delegates to the seventh congress of Latvia's National Independence Movement decided that the popular movement, founded in the summer of 1988, should become Latvia's National Conservative Political Party. Aristids Lambergs, an LNIM deputy to the Saeima, was elected the party's chairman. According to Latvian media of 20 June, the founding members of the LNCP are those approximately 250 congressional delegates who voted for the party's formation. Just prior to the congress, LNIM had 36 regional chapters with a total of 2,373 members. Given that recently LNIM suffered from internal dissension, it is unlikely that all of its members will transfer their allegiance to the LNCP. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. SIGNATURES FOR LITHUANIAN REFERENDUM HANDED IN. On 20 June more than 560,000 signatures (only 300,000 were required) calling for a referendum on unlawful privatization and compensation for people's savings were presented to the office of Seimas chairman, Ceslovas Jursenas, Radio Lithuania reports. Jursenas said that he would ask the Seimas to charge the Chief Elections Commission to verify the validity of the signatures within 15 days. Jursenas also said that he would recommend extending the current session of the Seimas from 30 June to 22 July. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. CRIME DECREASES IN THE BALTIC STATES. The Lithuanian Statistics Department announced that 21,551 crimes were reported in the first five months of 1994 or 19.5% fewer than in the same period in 1993, BNS reported on 20 June. The number of crimes reported in Estonia and Latvia in the same periods decreased by 11% and 30%, respectively. Per 10,000 population, 58 crimes were committed in Lithuania with 94 and 64 committed in Estonia and Latvia, respectively. Lithuania was also the most successful in solving the crimes; in May 43% were solved while in Estonia and Latvia only about 24%. The number of serious crimes in Lithuania in 1994, however, increased by 9.5% over 1993 with the number of murders rising from 115 in 1993 to 193 in 1994. The number of crimes involving firearms also increased from 101 to 131. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Patrick Moore The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. 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