Старайся прежде быть мудрым, а ученым - когда будешь иметь свободное время. - Пифагор
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 116, 21 June 1994


CHERNOMYRDIN TO WASHINGTON. Russian Prime Minister Viktor
Chernomyrdin arrived in Washington on 21 June to begin four days
of talks with top US officials on a broad array of issues.
RFE/RL's Washington correspondent reported that the two countries
are expected to sign more than a dozen cooperation agreements and
statements on such topics as environmental protection, joint space
exploration, and the establishment of an oil-and-gas technical
center in Russia. Chernomyrdin is scheduled to co-chair, with US
Vice President Al Gore, a commission dealing with nuclear and
energy issues, while on 23 June he is to meet with President Bill
Clinton for talks on international developments, including the
crisis on the Korean Peninsula. According to an Izvestiya
commentary on 21 June, Chernomyrdin also intends to raise once
again the subject of full Russian membership in the G-7--he
suggested that if Russia puts its economic house in order a
transformation of the organization into the G-8 might be
expected--and also what Moscow believes are continuing
restrictions on Russian-US trade. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

NATO-RUSSIA UPDATE. NATO and Russia continued their diffident
dance of courtship over the weekend of 18-19 June, with NATO
sources saying on 20 June that the two sides had met to finalize a
joint declaration which will be issued when Foreign Minister
Andrei Kozyrev signs the Partnership for Peace agreement, an event
scheduled for 22 June. Reuters quoted NATO diplomats as saying
that the Russians "had backed off on some of their demands and
accepted that NATO has to put certain very clear limits on the
relationship." The short political declaration was described as
recognizing that Russia had a particular weight in Europe and
outlining general principles of the relationship between NATO and
Russia. The document, which reportedly commits Russia to active
participation in the partnership and envisions consultations on
European security issues, will nevertheless have no legal status.
Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

the presidential administration, Sergei Filatov, said on 20 June
that President Yeltsin will not revoke his recent decree giving
law enforcement organs sweeping powers to fight crime, despite
opposition from the State Duma. The majority of the Duma factions,
including the reformist Russia's Choice, say the decree violates
the constitution and the criminal code. Filatov was quoted by
Russian TV as saying Yeltsin's administration acknowledged that
there was a danger the decree could infringe upon human rights in
some cases. He added, however, that it was necessary to get the
fight against crime on track. Filatov said two years of talk about
fighting crime had not yet produced any concrete legislation,
therefore Yeltsin's decree was necessary. The official also added
that the decree had full support of regional leaders.  Vera Tolz,
RFE/RL, Inc.

VARENNIKOV'S COUP TRIAL RESUMES. The trial of the former Soviet
Deputy Defense Minister Valentin Varennikov will resume in Moscow
on 21 June, ITAR-TASS reported. Varennikov is the only one of the
leaders of the August 1991 attempted coup who is still on trial.
Varennikov refused to accept an amnesty granted by the State Duma
in February to the organizers of the coup. The cases against other
eight defendants were closed by Russia's Prosecutor General in
May, but Varennikov demanded that his trial continue. He hopes
that the trial will prove his innocence. Varennikov faces charges
of high treason and conspiring to seize power.  Vera Tolz, RFE/RL,

Minister Pavel Grachev addressed the Federation Council on 21 June
Ostankino TV reported, stating that Russian troops were prepared
to start peacekeeping operations in Georgia, but urging that
funding for the operation not be taken from the defense budget but
from other sources. Reuters reported on the same day that the
Federation Council overwhelmingly voted in favor of sending
Russian peacekeepers, reversing a previous rejection of the
proposal. The move clears the way for the introduction of up to
3,000 troops into the area. Some units already in place near the
conflict zone started engaging in peacekeeping operations such as
mine clearing even before formal approval was granted.  John
Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

reported on a protest held by Russian defense industry workers
outside the Council of the Federation building on the same day.
Workers from the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapons laboratory were
prominent amongst the protesters. Speaker of the Federation
Council Vladimir Shumeiko addressed reporters in front of the
crowd, calling their demands "justified" and again calling on the
State Duma to meet with the Council of the Federation to reach a
compromise on the defense budget, which the Council has argued
must be substantially increased. Shumeiko warned that throwing
millions of defense workers out of work could lead to a "social
explosion" that would render the Civic Accord meaningless. John
Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

HOW BIG IS THE RUSSIAN MILITARY? Izvestiya on 17 June tried to
clear up the ongoing confusion concerning the size of the Russian
military. In recent comments President Yeltsin has claimed that
the military is still 3 million strong. Citing the Ministry of
Defense, however, Izvestiya notes that there are two different
strengths--the assigned strength, and the actual number of people
in uniform. Thus, on 1 May 1992 (just before the Russian military
was formed) there were 2.8 million personnel slots, but only about
2 million people serving. According to Chief of the General Staff
Mikhail Kolesnikov, on 16 June 1994, the number of slots has been
decreased to 2.2 million but the number serving is "significantly
fewer." Given the previous shortfall, and the continuing decline
in draft intake rates, recent estimates of perhaps only 1.5
million troops or fewer thus seem plausible. Kolesnikov also noted
that there are currently some 50,000 border guard troops
(significantly less that other estimates of 100,000-200,000),
350,000 interior ministry troops, and some 70,000 railroad troops,
as well as miscellaneous troops associated with other ministries,
for a total of some 800,000 people in uniform, but not serving
under the Ministry of Defense. (It is not clear, however, whether
the latter figures represent personnel slots or serving
personnel.) John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.


UNITED COMMAND FOR BALTIC SEA FLEET. Oleksandr Moroz, chairman of
the Ukraine Supreme Soviet, during a presidential campaign speech
in Donetsk called for setting up a united rather than a joint
command for the Russian and Ukrainian fleets in the Baltic Sea,
Interfax reported on 20 June. Noting that the objectives of the
two fleets would be increasingly identical, Moroz said that the
experience of creating NATO's navy could be drawn upon in setting
up the command. Rear Admiral Aleksandr Penkin, aide to the Baltic
Sea Fleet (BSF) Commander, said that keeping the BSF in one piece
was the only sensible way out of the deadlock on its future. He
hoped that Moroz's statement was sincere and not just campaign
rhetoric.  Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

the second anniversary of the "Dniester republic"'s and the
Russian 14th Army's victory over Moldova in that city, the army's
commander, Lt.-General Aleksandr Lebed, was repeatedly booed and
whistled at during his speech, ITAR-TASS and Basapress reported on
19 and 20 June, respectively. With "Dniester" president Igor
Smirnov looking on, and defying the heckling, Lebed chastised the
Tiraspol leaders for corruption, unwillingness to settle the
conflict with Moldova peacefully, and for having "repaid Russia
with black ingratitude" by sending fighters to support the
antigovernment side in Moscow in October 1993. The rally cheered a
Serbian nun who conveyed greetings from Serbian and Russian
volunteer fighters in the former Yugoslavia, described
Transdniester as "spiritually related to Serbia," and accused
"America and international Zionism" of harboring designs on the
region. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.


NIYAZOV IN TURKEY. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov
began an official visit to Turkey on 20 June, telling his Turkish
opposite number, Suleyman Demirel, that he rejoices over the good
relations that have developed between the two countries in the
years since Turkmenistan's independence, Russian and Turkish news
agencies reported. Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller told
Niyazov soon after his arrival in Ankara that Turkey's
Export-Import Bank has opened a credit line of $90 million for
Turkmenistan to promote trade between the two countries. Demirel
told Niyazov that the Turkish government is eager to start
construction of a pipeline to ship Turkmen gas to Europe, a
project of great importance to Niyuazov. Western governments have
been concerned about Niyazov's cozy relations with Iran; his visit
to Turkey may help to allay their fears.  Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

with Japanese businessmen visiting Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan's Prime
Minister Apas Dzhumagulov appealed for Japanese investment in the
reconstruction of defense, engineering and food processing
industries in his country, Interfax reported on 20 June. He also
asked for Japanese participation in developing Kyrgyzstan's
considerable hydroelectric potential. According to Dzhumagulov,
who heads a Kyrgyz-Japanese Economic Cooperation Commission,
Kyrgyzstan's government has set up a reconstruction and
development bank on the Japanese model to mobilize state resources
in support of small and medium-sized businesses in certain
priority fields. The same day President Askar Akaev told Japan's
new ambassador that no country has done more than Japan to promote
economic restructuring in Kyrgyzstan.  Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

TAJIK PEACE TALKS BEGIN. Talks aimed at establishing a truce in
the Tajik civil conflict began in Teheran on 18 June, and are
expected to last ten days. The talks, sponsored by the UN, are
being attended by representatives of the Tajik government and
opposition, as well as mediators and observers from Russia, Iran
and Pakistan. According to the UN special envoy for Tajikistan,
Ramiro Piriz-Ballon, a ceasefire is a prerequisite for the
difficult task of finding a lasting peaceful settlement, which is
expected to be tackled at the next round of peace talks,
tentatively scheduled for Pakistan in late July, AFP reported.
Ballon was also quoted as saying that the UN is ready to
"immediately send its representatives to Tajikistan" to verify
compliance with any agreement. The opposition's top negotiator,
Otakhon Latifi, told Interfax on 18 June that the opposition is
ready to agree to a ceasefire along the Tajik-Afghan border during
the talks; this would be a significant concession, since the
status quo favors the government, and many opposition leaders are
skeptical about the authorities' willingness to compromise.
According to AFP, Iran's foreign minister, Ali Akbar Velayati,
urged the two sides to show "political courage and tolerance," and
said that Iran would "not hesitate" to send peacekeeping troops,
if asked by the UN.  Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

reports on 21 June that the 260 Bosnian refugees who arrived in
no-man's-land on the Croatian border last week are the victims of
a new Serbian ploy to create an "ethnically pure" region around
Banja Luka. The villagers had originally been driven from Bronzani
Majdan in February, but left Banja Luka voluntarily when Serb
officials promised them "passage to Croatia, a transit visa across
that country, and the promise of a visa to live in Sweden." A UN
official on the scene said that "the Serbs have collected them
(Muslims and Croats) all in the city of Banja Luka and said, 'now,
let's get rid of them.'" Another UN spokesman said that "the Serbs
are using this as a test case to see whether the (UN refugee
agency) and Croatia take them." Refugee relief is already the
second largest item in the Croatian state budget after defense.
Serb forces took Banja Luka in 1992 and made it into one of their
major centers, driving out Muslims and Croats and destroying
centuries-old mosques in the process.  Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

Language Service said on 20 June that UN commander Gen. Sir
Michael Rose wants to meet with Muslim and Serb officers on 25
June to patch up the leaky truce that went into effect ten days
ago. Fighting has centered mainly on the Doboj-Gradacac area
northwest of Tuzla, as Muslims seek to put pressure on the
northern corridor linking Serbia with its conquests in Bosnia and
Croatia. Reuters quoted UN sources as wondering why the Serbs have
yet to respond in force, noting that "usually the Serbs go
ballistic" under Muslim attack. The news agency added that their
had been a "'substantial' exchange of small arms fire" between
British UNPROFOR troops and Muslims near the beleaguered Muslim
enclave of Gorazde in eastern Bosnia. Finally on the diplomatic
front, AFP says that the meeting of the "contact group" originally
slated for 22 June to finalize a partition plan has been postponed
to the first three days of July. Major powers are expected to
endorse the project at the G-7 summit in Naples starting on 8
July.  Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

reportedly led to the retirement of the Sandzak's mainly Muslim
Party of Democratic Action's General Secretary Rasim Ljajic.
Politika said on 17 June that he will return to his medical
practice. The Belgrade daily alleges that political differences
between SDA President Sulejman Ugljanin, who fled the country
under threat of arrest by Serb police in May 1993, and Ljajic
about whether to raise or reduce political tensions in the region
prompted Ljajics decision. Since Ugljanin's escape, Ljajic has
effectively led the party. Politika quoted the Istanbul paper
Zaman as saying that Ugljanin's main aim is the unification of
Sandzak, a region divided between Serbia and Montenegro, with the
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Ljajic reportedly
judges "the political reality in the region" differently
Meanwhile, Ugljanin urged representatives of the Swiss government
not to finance a camp for Serbian and Montenegrin refugees due to
be set up in the Sandzak, Politika reported the same day. Fabian
Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc.

CENSUS STARTS IN MACEDONIA. The census in Macedonia, which will
take place between 21 June and 5 July, has been widely disputed.
The ethnic Albanian parties as well as the Union of Serbs and
Montenegrins in Macedonia have expressed doubts about the
reliability of the census results to come, Politika reported on 17
June. The union's leader Nebojsa Tomovic claims that about 80% of
the Serbs in Skopje and more than 90% in some other districts have
not gotten Macedonian citizenship and therefore will not be
included in the survey. Elsewhere, Serbs and Montenegrins have
allegedly been warned to list themselves as Macedonians.
Meanwhile, Macedonian-Serbian relations continue to deteriorate
following repeated border violations by the rump-Yugoslav army,
Rilindja reported on 16 June.  Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc.

an ethnic Macedonian youth in a scuffle between Macedonians and
Albanians on 19 June appears to have increased interethnic
tensions on the eve of the census. MILS and Nova Makedonija
reported the next day that two Albanians were arrested while
trying to cross the border a few hours after the incident and are
believed to be the main attackers. Another two young Albanians
have also been detained, whereas eight Macedonians had to receive
medical treatment. MILS described the current situation in Tetovo,
which in recent years has been a scene of repeated interethnic
conflict, as "calm, but tense." Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

elections on 19 June provided a rare occasion in Poland: good news
for all major political forces. In urban areas, where proportional
voting systems were used, the "postcommunist" Democratic Left
Alliance (SLD) emerged as the largest single force, winning a
plurality in 17 cities. SLD leaders boasted that their
representation had increased tenfold in comparison to May 1990,
when the last elections were held. But the SLD is unlikely to
dominate the city councils, as it is outnumbered in most places by
the combined forces of the centrist and right-wing opposition.
Right-wing coalitions won the largest share in six cities, all
located along Poland's eastern border. The Freedom Union (UW) won
in six cities, including Warsaw, Gdansk, Poznan, and Cracow.
Turnout nationwide was 35.8%, according to initial figures.
Participation was higher in rural areas (38.5%) than cities
(29.2%). There was no general anti-incumbent trend. Full results
are not yet in from rural districts, where voting was conducted
according to a majority system. The results here are likely to be
far less revealing--although the Polish Peasant Party stands to
gain--as most rural candidates have no formal party affiliation.
Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

right-wing parties in the local elections will reorient Polish
politics. In the parliamentary elections of 1993, the Catholic
parties and other right-wing forces fragmented into hostile camps
and failed to win any seats in the Sejm, despite substantial voter
support. In the local elections, by contrast, the right-wing
parties successfully forged broad local coalitions (often
including up to a dozen partners). Although Labor Minister Leszek
Miller (SLD) attempted to portray the election outcome as a defeat
for the Catholic hierarchy, the success of right-wing coalitions
also reflected the mobilizing force of the Church, which issued a
strong statement criticizing the ruling "postcommunist" coalition
on the eve of the elections. With turnout generally low, Catholic
voters apparently had a greater impact. SLD leader Aleksander
Kwasniewski welcomed the return of the Right as "an element of
normality." The challenge for the right-wing parties is now to
cement their coalitions into viable political forces.  Louisa
Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

maneuvers including warships from the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization as well as from its former enemies in the Black Sea
region have been scheduled for July, Bulgaria's top military
officer announced on 20 June. General Lyuben Petrov, chief of the
Bulgarian General Staff, told a press conference in Sofia that
seven states participating in the Partnership for Peace
program--the United States, Turkey, Greece, Russia, Ukraine,
Romania and Bulgaria--have agreed to conduct joint exercises on
the Black Sea to enhance mutual confidence and regional stability.
The multilateral maneuvers will go by the name Breeze '94. The
announcement was made during a visit to Sofia by the Deputy
Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces, southern Europe, Gen.
Antonio Milani. BTA and Western agencies also quoted Milani as
saying that a team of US, Turkish, Greek, Italian officers have
traveled to the port of Varna to discuss the possibility of
holding regular exercises with Bulgarian naval forces.  Kjell
Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

SLOVAK PRESIDENT IN THE US. Speaking to journalists in Washington
on 20 June, the first day of his six-day visit to the United
States, Slovak President Michal Kovac said that Slovakia has
become politically more stable in the last four months since the
current coalition government took over, which has contributed to
the "intensification of US-Slovak relations." Kovac further argued
that the economic situation in Slovakia has improved slightly
since the new government entered office and that there is "a
degree of social peace" in the country now. On 21 June Kovac and
his Hungarian counterpart, Arpad Goncz, are to meet jointly with
US President Bill Clinton. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

Hungarian Socialist Party and the Alliance of Free Democrats
reached preliminary agreement on 20 June on the distribution of
government and parliamentary posts, MTI reports. HSP chairman
Gyula Horn and his AFD counterpart Ivan Peto announced that the
AFD will take over three ministries: those of interior, traffic
and communications, and culture. The rest of the 12 ministries
will be allotted to the HSP. There will also be some joint
direction: the ministry of culture will have an HSP state
secretary while there will be AFD state secretaries in the
ministries of agriculture, and industry and trade. The post of
parliamentary chairman will go to the HSP, while the AFD, the
Hungarian Democratic Forum, and the Independent Smallholders' and
Civic Party will fill the three deputy chairman posts. The AFD
will chair the parliament's constitutional, defense, and foreign
relations committees. The HSP and the AFD have yet to reach full
agreement on substantive policy questions and on a mechanism for
resolving disputes over policy and personnel. It is also yet to be
decided which party will oversee the secret services.  Edith
Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.

Republic will apply for European Union membership ahead of the
1996 EU intergovernmental conference on the status of potential
new members, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said according to
the 20 June issue of the Journal of Commerce. The paper quotes
Klaus as having said that his government's main aim is "to create
all the preconditions on our side and on the side of the EU."
Klaus also stressed that his country is offering free-trade
agreements to "everyone" and pleaded for an expansion of the
Central European Free Trade Association, consisting of the Czech
Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Hungary. The Czech premier also
criticized the West for instigating a new debate about "fair
trade" which is really aimed at providing "new ammunition for
protectionism." Klaus complained that Czech exports of steel,
textiles, and agricultural machines to the EU have been blocked by
using the "fair trade argument." He added that "to force us to
accept Western standards would lead to higher unemployment and a
reduction of the country's competitiveness." Jan Obrman, RFE/RL,

parties belonging to the Democratic Convention of Romania, the
country's main opposition alliance, agreed on the draft of a
censure motion against Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu's
government. On the same day another major parliamentary opposition
group, the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front, announced
that it would join forces with the DCR on the motion, Radio
Bucharest reports. The resolution attacks Vacaroiu's left-wing
minority cabinet over its performance in the economic and social
fields. The DCR and the DP-NSF further agreed on continuing their
attempt to impeach President Ion Iliescu for having allegedly
overstepped his constitutional prerogatives. In a separate move,
the Democratic Agrarian Party, which has long been an ally of the
ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania, announced that it
plans to introduce its own censure motion against the cabinet
because of the serious situation in agriculture.  Dan Ionescu,
RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIAN SHIPBUILDERS ON STRIKE. Romanian shipbuilders in the
Black Sea port of Constanta went on strike on 20 June to back
demands for a 100% pay increase, Radio Bucharest and Reuters
report. A representative of the management admitted that the
strikers' claims were justified, but added that the shipyard
cannot meet the demands for lack of money. According to Radio
Bucharest, the strike means daily losses of some 100 million lei.
Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

In a speech on "Romania's Security Interests" to the Atlantic
Council in Washington during an official visit, Romanian Defense
Minister Gheorghe Tinca listed potential threats to his country's
security. After mentioning the political situation in Russia and
Russian-Ukrainian disputes, Tinca said--as quoted on 16 June by
RFE/RL's correspondent present at the occasion--that "a
radicalization of the Moldovan leadership's attitudes toward
Romania could diminish Romania's security even further." Asked to
elaborate, Tinca criticized Moldova's leaders for being unfriendly
to Romania and for refusing integration of the two countries.
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

Addressing a Romanian audience in Paris, Corneliu Coposu, chairman
of Romania's opposition coalition, the Democratic Convention, and
leader of its largest component, the National Peasant-Christian
Democratic Party, said that Romania "should have decreed the
reincorporation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina into the
mother country," and attacked the government for failing to claim
the territories. He also denounced Romania's recognition of
Moldova as an independent state, according to the transcript
published in the pro-opposition weekly Lupta of June 1994. Coposu
also denounced Ukraine's Christian Democratic Party for its
refusal to concede on the issue. Northern Bukovina and parts of
Bessarabia currently belong to Ukraine while most of Bessarabia is
in Moldova. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

ANOTHER POLITICAL PARTY IN LATVIA. On 18 June in Riga, delegates
to the seventh congress of Latvia's National Independence Movement
decided that the popular movement, founded in the summer of 1988,
should become Latvia's National Conservative Political Party.
Aristids Lambergs, an LNIM deputy to the Saeima, was elected the
party's chairman. According to Latvian media of 20 June, the
founding members of the LNCP are those approximately 250
congressional delegates who voted for the party's formation. Just
prior to the congress, LNIM had 36 regional chapters with a total
of 2,373 members. Given that recently LNIM suffered from internal
dissension, it is unlikely that all of its members will transfer
their allegiance to the LNCP.  Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

than 560,000 signatures (only 300,000 were required) calling for a
referendum on unlawful privatization and compensation for people's
savings were presented to the office of Seimas chairman, Ceslovas
Jursenas, Radio Lithuania reports. Jursenas said that he would ask
the Seimas to charge the Chief Elections Commission to verify the
validity of the signatures within 15 days. Jursenas also said that
he would recommend extending the current session of the Seimas
from 30 June to 22 July. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

Department announced that 21,551 crimes were reported in the first
five months of 1994 or 19.5% fewer than in the same period in
1993, BNS reported on 20 June. The number of crimes reported in
Estonia and Latvia in the same periods decreased by 11% and 30%,
respectively. Per 10,000 population, 58 crimes were committed in
Lithuania with 94 and 64 committed in Estonia and Latvia,
respectively. Lithuania was also the most successful in solving
the crimes; in May 43% were solved while in Estonia and Latvia
only about 24%. The number of serious crimes in Lithuania in 1994,
however, increased by 9.5% over 1993 with the number of murders
rising from 115 in 1993 to 193 in 1994. The number of crimes
involving firearms also increased from 101 to 131. Saulius
Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

  [As of 1200 CET]

  Compiled by Liz Fuller and Patrick Moore
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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