I'm going to turn on the light, and we'll be two people in a room looking at each other and wondering why on earth we were afraid of the dark. - Gale Wilhelm
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 115, 20 June 1994


announced on 17 June that Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev
was expected to sign the NATO Partnership for Peace accord in
Brussels on 22 June, Western agencies reported. Although the
announcement suggested that the two sides had overcome differences
that were apparent at a recent NATO meeting in Istanbul, the same
sources suggested that tensions remained over the conditions to be
contained in a separate agreement regulating bilateral relations
between NATO and Russia. AFP, quoting Western experts, noted on 17
June that Russia's willingness to sign the partnership agreement
after months of hesitation may signal that the Russian military
leadership had decided it has more to gain by joining the plan
than by opposing it. On 18 June Russian Deputy Foreign Minister
Vitalii Churkin met with senior NATO officials in Brussels,
Reuters reported; the two sides were said to have proclaimed that
efforts at cooperation were back on track.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL,

Reuters described as a clear sign of Vietnam's diminishing
importance to Russia, Boris Yeltsin on 17 June canceled a planned
meeting with visiting Vietnamese Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet. A
senior Kremlin official was quoted as saying that Yeltsin was
"busy with urgent state affairs" and that the cancellation was not
the result of political tensions. Whatever the reasons for the
cancellation, most sources in Moscow continued to present Kiet's
visit, which resulted in the signing of a cooperation treaty, as a
successful one.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

Duma failed on 17 June to take a vote on President Yeltsin's
recent decree on fighting organized crime. The decree, which gives
law enforcement organs powers beyond those stipulated in existing
legislation, has been criticized by the majority of the Duma
factions. On 17 June after several hours of debate, the Duma ran
out of time before taking a vote on the decree, Interfax reported.
The Duma Committee on Security drafted a resolution which calls
for Yeltsin to suspend his decree because it violates the
constitution and the criminal code. The Duma is expected to review
the decree again this week.  Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.

Minister Andrei Kozyrev told the State Duma on 17 June that Moscow
would support the imposition of sanctions by the international
community against North Korea if Pyongyang creates a "precedent of
destruction of the international system of nuclear
non-proliferation." AFP quoted Kozyrev as saying that allowing
North Korea to violate these international accords would make it
"impossible to forbid dozens of other states who are on the point
of developing a nuclear capacity to do the same thing." Kozyrev
called for sanctions to be applied "in stages, starting with the
softest measures," and suggested that a failure by Pyongyang to
comply could result in "the most extreme measures" being taken.
According to AFP, Kozyrev made no mention of Russia's desire that
an international conference on Korea be held in tandem with the
imposition of sanctions.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

IZVESTIYA INTERVIEW. Although Kozyrev did once again raise the
idea of a conference in an 18 June interview published by
Izvestiya, his most recent remarks appeared to signal that, for
the time being at least, Moscow has decided to coordinate its
position with Washington. In the interview Kozyrev spoke of a
"pro-North Korean lobby" in the Duma comprised, he said, of
"ultranationalists and a certain section of the communists and
agrarians." He argued that by supporting North Korea on this
issue, these forces were in fact threatening to undermine the
nuclear non-proliferation regime in a fashion that could have dire
consequences for Russia insofar as it could lead to the formation
of a "nuclear belt along Russia's southern borders by the end of
this millennium." It is perhaps worth noting that Kozyrev's
remarks come only days after an announcement that Russian experts
would help Iran complete its Bushehr nuclear plant, a development
worrying to many in the West because of fears that Iran is
attempting to develop nuclear weapons; the Soviet Union provided
expertise for the development of North Korea's nuclear industry.
Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

speak with many voices, however. In an interview with Japanese TV
on 17 June, Russia's Minister of Atomic Energy, Viktor Mikhailov,
criticized efforts to impose sanctions on North Korea because, he
said, they would lead to the isolation of Pyongyang. Mikhailov
also said that the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) was
making excessive demands on North Korea, and he expressed his
belief that North Korea was more than ten years away from
acquiring nuclear weapons.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

Komsomolskaya pravda on 18 June suggests that the Russian foreign
ministry is leaning towards lifting the current UN sanctions
against Iraq. The paper claims that the foreign ministry is in
favor of a six-month "trial period" during which sanctions would
be suspended, and if successful they could be permanently lifted.
The suggestion for a six-month trial period is not new, however.
On 25 March, a foreign ministry official informed Interfax of such
a plan, noting that one condition for the lifting of sanctions
would be Iraq's recognition of Kuwait's current borders. Russia
has also been pushing for UN approval to deliver humanitarian aid
to Iraq, most notably equipment for a power station currently
waiting at dockside in Jordan, and resuming the substantial trade
with Iraq that existed before sanctions were imposed.  John
Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

that Minister of the Economy Aleksandr Shokhin has announced that
a new package of presidential decrees will include a "dramatic
reduction of mobilization plans and reserve capacities" in the
defense industry. While defense orders have plunged in recent
years, the defense industry has not reduced employment
accordingly, hence the new decree may be a move to shut down idle
production lines and fire workers. If implemented, such a move
could drive unemployment up rapidly, particularly in areas with
heavy defense industry concentrations. In related news, Interfax
reports that the State Duma will consider the budget for the last
time on 22 June. Izvestiya on 16 June published figures showing
that the current (relatively tight) budget has received the most
votes in favor from the relatively conservative Agrarian Party,
Russian Communist Party, Liberal Democratic Party, and the least
from the democratically oriented bloc of Russia's Choice and
YABLOKO, which have called for deeper spending cuts.  John
Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

Russian Journalists is expected to adopt a newly drafted ethics
code for journalists on 21 June, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 June.
Among other things, the code discourages reporters from accepting
bribes for writing stories favorable to politicians or companies.
For instance, during the 1993 parliamentary election campaign, the
Russian media reported instances when journalists were approached
by electoral candidates with offers of high fees for articles
favorable towards those making the offers or against their
competitors. The new code also stresses the need clearly to
distinguish facts from opinion, and proposes that the press
withhold the names of crime victims and witnesses. ITAR-TASS
quoted a spokesman for the Union of Journalists as saying that
"signing the code would mean voluntarily assuming serious
responsibilities, and a readiness to make the activities of the
Russian press more civilized." Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.

BALKARS WANT OWN REPUBLIC. A conference of Balkar elders has
called on Russia to allow the National Council of the Balkar
People to sign the federal treaty on behalf of the Balkars,
Interfax reported on 19 June. Khadis Dinaev, a council member,
told Interfax that if this request was rejected, the Balkar people
would regard the treaty as null and void on its soil. The
conference also called on the forthcoming congress of the Balkar
people to work for a federal Kabardino-Balkaria consisting of a
Kabardin and a Balkar republic. If the leadership of the
Kabardino-Balkar republic rejected this idea, the conference said,
then Balkaria should become a constituent part of the Russian
Federation in its own right, as the first congress of the Balkar
people had demanded.  Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.

BURYAT ELECTIONS INCONCLUSIVE. None of the four candidates for the
post of first president of Buryatia received the necessary number
of votes in the elections on 16 June, Interfax reported on 17 June
citing the republic's electoral commission. A second round will
therefore be necessary between the two most successful
candidates--Leonid Potapov, the chairman of the Buryat Supreme
Soviet, who received 46 percent of the votes, and Aleksandr
Ivanov, the chairman of the State Committee for the Economy. In
the simultaneous elections to the new Buryat parliament, the
Popular Khural, candidates were elected in only 9 of the 65
constituencies. The date for the repeat elections has not yet been
set.  Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.


RUSSIANS LEAVING TAJIKISTAN. Approximately 2,000 people,
overwhelmingly Russians and other Slavs, are emigrating from
Tajikistan each month, Radio Rossii reported on 17 June, citing
official statistics. Altogether, only 120,000 Slavs remain in the
republic, including not more than 80,000 Russians; before the
Soviet Union's collapse and the civil war in Tajikistan, over
600,000 Russians lived in the republic, many occupying key
positions in ministries and industry. The exodus continues despite
numerous concessions to Russian-speakers made by the Tajik
government, such as offering them dual citizenship; most Russians
apparently find the political situation too tense and economic
prospects too bleak to stay. Radio Rossii's report did not specify
if the figure for Russians remaining in Tajikistan includes
Russian servicemen stationed in the republic, said to number over
20,000.  Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc.

overcome chronic economic stagnation, the Armenian parliament is
considering a new foreign investment law liberalizing conditions
for foreign investors, the Journal of Commerce reported on 17
June. Under the new legislation, foreigners may invest in either
drams or foreign currency, in cash, real estate or other property,
stock, debentures or other securities. Such investment will not be
subject to confiscation or nationalization except under conditions
of force majeur.  Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

A WEEKEND OF FIGHTING IN BOSNIA. International media reported over
the weekend of 17-19 June that fighting between Bosnian government
troops and those of local potentate Fikret Abdic intensified in
the Bihac area of northwestern Bosnia. Serb and Muslim forces,
moreover, engaged in an artillery slugging match at Doboj and
Gradacac in north-central Bosnia. Both towns were mainly Muslim
before the Serbs launched their war in 1992, taking and
"ethnically cleansing" Doboj in the process. Gradacac, however,
has been defended by joint Croat-Muslim forces despite the war
between those two sides in 1993 and has withstood a Serb siege
lasting two years. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic
characteristically blamed the Muslims for the fighting and warned
them that the Serbs might launch a "counter-offensive" in the
Ozren area southeast of Doboj.  Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

diplomatic front, US envoy Charles Redman discussed the
international "contact group's" proposal for the embattled
republic with its president, Alija Izetbegovic, and his Croatian
counterpart, Franjo Tudjman. The latter said that the plan was the
best one on offer, while Bosnia's ambassador to Switzerland noted
that his country's parliament will probably endorse it on 22 June.
Rump Yugoslav Foreign Minister Vladislav Jovanovic, however, said
that the mediators were trying to "punish the Serbs." Reuters
carried the stories on 18 and 19 June. Finally, on 18 June 250
Turkish soldiers left Istanbul on two ships for Bosnia, where they
will be joined by airborne forces. Muslim and Croat officials have
welcomed the idea of stationing Turkish troops near their forces,
who will, in any event, kept well away from Serbian troops. Serbia
and Turkey are historical enemies, and Serb commanders have
repeatedly warned of real trouble if the two sides come in
contact.  Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

SERBIA UPDATE. On 18 June international media reported that rump
Yugoslavia's National Bank plans to issue a limited number of gold
coins, or "gold dinars", pegged to the value of the precious metal
on the world market. Bank governor Dragoslav Avramovic has said
that Belgrade will guarantee a minimum exchange rate, and
announced that the first coins would be used to buy surplus grain
from Serbia's farmers. In other news, on 19 June Reuters reported
that a high level Serbian delegation, headed by Deputy Foreign
Minister Radoslav Bulajic, is in Iraq to discuss prospects for
bilateral trade when international sanctions are lifted against
the two pariah states. Finally, on 20 June Politika runs an
interview with Mira Markovic, wife of Serbian President Slobodan
Milosevic and Serbian communist party leader, in which she
propagates her controversial vision of Balkan unity. Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

LILIC FAILS TO GET VISA. On 17 June Politika reported on rump
Yugoslav President Zoran Lilic's failure to get a visa from Swiss
authorities to attend the Crans-Montana forum on economic and
political questions. It ran the headline: "An Act of
Discrimination of the Highest Order." Belgrade authorities have
condemned the Swiss government's denial of the visa, and the
entire rump Yugoslav delegation planning to attend the meetings
has canceled its trip in protest, Tanjug reports. Sources for the
Swiss government, however, point out that the denial of the visa
was in keeping with the intent of the UN-imposed sanctions against
rump Yugoslavia for its role in fomenting the Bosnian war.  Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

CENTRIST COALITION IN SLOVAKIA. Slovak media reported on 18 June
that the leadership of the National Democratic Party had decided
that the party leaders will run on the ticket of Prime Minister
Jozef Moravcik's Democratic Union in the fall elections. NDP
chairman Ludovit Cernak told CTK that his party had been weighing
offers from the DU and the right-of-center Christian Democratic
Movement to run on their tickets but decided for the DU because
"the main priority of his party is to create a centrist bloc."
Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

CZECH, SLOVAK PREMIERS MEET. Meeting at the economic forum in
Crans-Montana, Switzerland, on 18 June, Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus
and his Slovak counterpart, Jozef Moravcik, discussed bilateral
relations, agreeing that the two countries must preserve the
Czech-Slovak customs union, CTK reported. In his speech at the
forum, Moravcik said that positive changes had occurred in the
Slovak economy since his government took over in March. He said
that the unemployment rate was 14.4% and the annual inflation rate
23.5% at the end of 1993. Austria was the biggest foreign investor
in Slovakia, with 23%, followed by Germany, with 21%, and the
Czech Republic with 13%.  Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

quoted Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus as saying that his
country will send a mission of experts to Moldova and Georgia,
which have asked for Czech assistance in carrying out economic
reform. Speaking to journalists in Crans-Montana, Klaus said that
he also held bilateral talks with representatives from Armenia and
Belarus and they too were interested in the Czech economic model.
According to Czech Economics Minister Karel Dyba, Ukraine also
showed interest in cooperation with the Czech Republic, but he
added that "caution is necessary because the situation in Ukraine
is not sufficiently transparent for interesting projects to be
realized there." Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, Miguel Martinez,
arrived in Prague for a three-day official visit to the Czech
Republic, CTK reported on 19 June. Martinez is scheduled to meet
with Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, Deputy Foreign Minister Pavel
Bratinka, and Parliament Chairman Milan Uhde. He will also hold a
lecture at Prague's Charles University about the Council of
Europe's role in new European structures.  Jan Obrman, RFE/RL,

Cermak, spokesman for the Czech Ministry of Trade and Industry,
disputed a report of the Stockholm-based International Peace
Research Institute (SIPRI) claiming that the Czech Republic is the
world's sixth-biggest arms exporter, AFP reported on 18 June. He
said his ministry has contacted the institute demanding an
explanation and that the information be rectified. Cermak said
that in 1993 Czech arms sales totaled $167 million, while SIPRI
gave them as $484 million. In another development, Defense
Minister Antonin Baudys arrived in Stockholm at the head of a
Czech Army delegation, CTK reported on 19 June. Baudys is to hold
talks with his Swedish counterpart and foreign ministry officials,
and sign a memorandum of understanding. They will also discuss
plans for a joint military exercise. Also on 19 June, Army General
Staff Chief General Jiri Nekvasil left for a visit to the United
States.  Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

ILIESCU PROMULGATES LAW ON RADIO, TV. Radio Bucharest reported on
17 June that President Ion Iliescu promulgated the Law on the
Organization and Functioning of the Romanian Societies of Radio
and Television. Iliescu signed the document less than two hours
after it was adopted by the two chambers of the parliament in a
joint session. The law, which was the object of heated debates in
parliament over several months, provides for parliamentary control
over national radio and TV programs. Its adoption was welcomed by
Eugen Preda, director of the Romanian Radio Society and by Dumitru
Iuga, the leader of the Free Radio and TV Trade Union, who decided
to break a 26-day-old hunger strike protesting the delay in
passing the law.  Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

Romania on 16 June signed a memorandum in Washington on future
cooperation on defense and military issues. The document, which
was described as "non-binding" by the US Department of Defense,
was signed by Romanian Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca and US
Deputy Secretary of Defense John Deutch. who stood in for Defense
Secretary William Perry. An RFE/RL correspondent in Washington
quoted a spokeswoman for the Defense Department as saying that the
memorandum "will set the stage for future military-to-military
cooperation." Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

MARTINEZ IN ROMANIA. From 17 to 19 June, Miguel Angel Martinez,
the chairman of the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly,
paid an official visit to Romania. On 17 June Radio Bucharest
broadcast live the address delivered by Martinez to a joint
session of the two houses of the Romanian parliament. Martinez,
who met with President Iliescu, Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu and other
high-ranking Romanian officials, suggested that he was seeking
first-hand information on the situation in Romania. In May Romania
rejected a report by the Council of Europe criticizing the
country's treatment of ethnic minorities.  Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL,

voters cast ballots in Poland's local government elections on 19
June, according to initial polling data. These were Poland's first
local elections since May 1990, when Solidarity citizens'
committees won control of most city and village councils. This
time around the "postcommunist" ruling coalition has hopes of
extending its political dominance to the local level, with the
Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) taking the cities and the Polish
Peasant Party (PSL), the rural districts. Official results are not
expected until the end of the week. Fragmentary returns suggest
that while the SLD is doing well in urban areas, right-wing
coalitions are also making a respectable showing, especially
considering their disgrace in the 1993 Sejm elections. Of 80 city
council seats in Lodz, for example, the SLD took 36, a right-wing
coalition, 23, and a centrist coalition led by the Freedom Union
(UW), 17. Turnout in Lodz was 25%. In Warsaw, polling data showed
the UW leading slightly, with 21% of the vote, followed by an
SLD-PSL coalition, with 19%, and two right-wing coalitions, with
14% and 7%, respectively. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

on the eve of the local government elections, the Polish Bishops'
Conference on 18 June condemned the ruling coalition for allegedly
reverting to communist methods, PAP reports. The bishops argued
that "postcommunist forces" and "various lay groups" are
deliberately delaying ratification of the concordat with the
Vatican because they are unwilling to accept the Church as an
autonomous and independent force. This approach, the bishops
argued, reflects "the sad legacy of communist mentality and of the
totalitarian state." The episcopate also castigated the Sejm for
adopting liberal abortion provisions, arguing that no believer
should heed, support, or obey such "immoral legislation." The
bishops accused the ruling coalition of doing battle with
"Christian values" rather than fighting widespread poverty. Gdansk
Archbishop Tadeusz Goclowski told PAP that the sharp statement was
meant as a "dramatic response" to the Sejm's abortion vote, which
he called a "provocation in the face of the nation." Sejm Speaker
Jozef Oleksy (SLD) criticized the bishops' statement as
"inappropriate." Opinion polls have shown consistently that a
substantial majority of Poles favors largely unrestricted access
to abortion.  Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

CULTURE MINISTER SNUBS WALESA. Polish Culture Minister Kazimierz
Dejmek refused to attend a meeting of the President's Council for
Culture on 16 June, PAP reports. The presidential council, which
has a purely advisory function, was planning to discuss a document
criticizing the current government's cultural policy. Dejmek, a
representative of the pre-1989 cultural establishment, has made
several controversial funding decisions that have revived the old
animosities within the creative professions. At the meeting
President Lech Walesa complained that the council was not
performing the "inspiring" role he had expected of it. Chairman
Andrzej Wajda and his deputy Andrzej Sicinski submitted their
resignations.  Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc.

Socialist Party economist Laszlo Bekesi and Alliance of Free
Democrats economic expert Marton Tardos told MTI on 17 June that
representatives of their parties have reached agreement on
economic policy. Bekesi and Marton head a special economic
committee which has the task of preparing the way for the
coalition. The economic agreement, outlined in a 20-page document,
lays emphasis on investment, accumulation of capital, and savings.
It regards the reduction of the state budget deficit as a priority
and wants to achieve this mainly through the reduction of
expenditures. The agreement envisions an increase in consumer
taxes, and seeks to stimulate investment through tax exemptions.
Bekesi characterized that one-week talks as very "thorough and
very effective," and expressed the hope that the agreement, will
serve as the basis of the coalition government's economic policy.
Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.

parliamentary faction leader of the Hungarian Socialist Party,
Zoltan Gal, met on 17 June with representatives of organizations
representing 1956 revolutionaries. Conveying a message from HSP
party leader and prime minister designate Gyula Horn, Gal told the
representatives that the HSP has a lot of "empathy" for those who
participated in the 1956 revolution and the new government will do
everything in its power to help alleviate the veterans' financial
problems. Gal said that the meeting was necessary because the
HSP's views of 1956 were misrepresented during the election
campaign, and some 1956 organizations were concerned about the
party's stance. He stressed the need for national reconciliation,
and reiterated that there will be no restoration of the old regime
in Hungary. One 1956 representative said that the veterans
expected a public apology from Horn, while others were of the
opinion that the fact that Horn had laid a wreath at a memorial to
the uprising's victims on 16 June spoke for itself. Horn had been
a member of the pro-Soviet militia that helped to defeat the
uprising and restore communism in Hungary. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL,

ARAB LEAGUE LEADER IN BULGARIA. The Secretary General of the Arab
League, Esmat Abdel-Meguid, spent 16 and 17 June in Bulgaria. One
reason for his official visit was to acquaint himself with
improvements in the situation of Bulgaria's more than one million
Moslems since 1989. Former communist leader Todor Zhivkov had
launched campaigns to forcibly assimilate the Turkish and Pomak
[Bulgarian Moslem] communities. The Arab League leader told
journalists he had been convinced that all Bulgarian citizens have
now won equal rights, and he indicated that the issue may soon be
dropped from the Islamic Conference Organization's agenda. In his
talks with political leaders, including President Zhelyu Zhelev
and Foreign Minister Stanislav Daskalov, Abdel-Meguid was
reportedly most interested in Sofia's opinions on the Bosnian war,
the Middle East peace process, and the ongoing military conflict
in Yemen. He said Bulgarian leaders had provided assurances that
its arms industry, which prior to the conflict had concluded
several export deals with Yemen, has ceased all deliveries.  Kjell
Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

Algirdas Brazauskas returned the local elections law to the Seimas
for further consideration, BNS reported on 17 June. Reacting to
protests by the Union of Poles of Lithuania and other
organizations representing ethnic minorities, he urged the
parliament to permit social organizations and not just political
parties to nominate candidates for local elections. Brazauskas
also proposed that the requirement that elections are valid only
if a minimum of 25% of the eligible voters participate be dropped.
Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

council of Pro-Patria, the leading party in Estonia's ruling
coalition, met in Tartu to discuss the general political situation
in the country, BNS reports. It elected three new deputy chairmen:
Heiki Raudla, Andres Ammas, and Kalle Jurgenson. The council
called for improving the work of the party's regional branches and
establishing a body of local representatives that would meet
"fairly often." The party's secretary general, Tiit Arge, told a
press conference that he had not received a formal statement from
parliament chairman Ulo Nugis about his leaving the party. Nugis,
who had been defeated by Prime Minister Mart Laar in elections for
Pro-Patria's chairman on 11 June, had expressed his intention to
quit the party.  Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

 [As of 1200 CET]
  Compiled by Liz Fuller and Patrick Moore
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
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