У людских достоинств, как и плодов, есть своя пора. - Ф. Ларошфуко
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 114, 17 June 1994


Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev announced on 16 June that
Russia would oppose a US-drafted UN resolution imposing sanctions
on North Korea because Washington had neglected to consult with
Moscow on the resolution. Kozyrev claimed that the resolution
contradicted an agreement on joint action that had been reached
during telephone conversations between the presidents and the
foreign ministers of the two countries. "We decided to work
together on a resolution that would provide for sanctions on the
one hand, and for an international conference on the North Korean
problem on the other . . . we agreed not to advance unilateral
initiatives," Kozyrev was quoted by Interfax as saying. As The New
York Times observed, it was not clear to what extent Kozyrev's
statement was driven by internal Russian politics and to what
extent it was the result of genuine anger. The newspaper also said
that Kozyrev is to outline the government's position on North
Korea to the Duma on 17 June.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc.

Viktor Chernomyrdin and his Vietnamese counterpart, Ko Van Kiet
signed a new friendship treaty in Moscow on the evening of 16
June, AFP and ITAR-TASS reported. Earlier in the day AFP had
reported that disagreements over Vietnam's repayment of an
estimated $9 billion in debts to Russia and over Russia's use of
the Cam Ranh naval base were delaying the signing. There were also
said to be differences over the disposition of thousands of
Vietnamese workers in Russia. Details of the agreement, which
replaces a 1978 Treaty signed with the Soviet Union, were not
available. The two sides also signed agreements on investment, and
on scientific and technical cooperation in agriculture and
fishing.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc.

agencies reported on 16 June that Russian and German
parliamentarians have agreed to set up a joint committee to
prepare a celebration of next year's 50th anniversary of the end
of World War II. The agreement came during a visit to Germany by
the speaker of the Russian Duma, Ivan Rybkin. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL

RUSSIAN-US EXERCISES TO BE HELD. Pentagon sources said on 16 June
that some 300 US Marines and an equal number of Russian naval
infantry will conduct joint exercises near Vladivostok beginning
on 18 June, AFP reported. The six-day operation will reportedly be
devoted to training for rescue and humanitarian missions. Joint
maneuvers to prepare for peacekeeping activities were to have been
held in Russia in July, but were postponed because of opposition
from Russian parliamentarians.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc.

Boris Yeltsin intends to make public by the end of June a
comprehensive program of aid to ethnic Russians living abroad in
the former USSR, Interfax reported on 16 June. The program, which
seems sure to exacerbate tensions between Russia and its
neighbors, was described by Abkulakh Mikitaev, the Chairman of the
Citizenship Committee of the President's Office; that program
emphasizes Russia's intention to secure the rights of permanent
residents of the former Soviet republics who are not citizens and
reaffirms Russia's adherence to the notion of dual citizenship and
to its desire that Russian be made the second official language in
the former Soviet states. It also reflects Moscow's desire to
guarantee the rights of Russians in Estonia and Latvia and to
provide concrete aid to retired servicemen in the Baltic States.
Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc.

KOZYREV FAVORS CONFEDERATION. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei
Kozyrev told a session of the Council on Foreign Policy in Moscow
on 16 June that Russia would unequivocally support the desire of
any former Soviet republic to set up a confederation, or even a
union, according to Interfax. Kozyrev reportedly praised the fact
that the process of separation in the former USSR had proceeded
peacefully, and attributed to Russia the "strength to avoid
confrontation and bloodshed." He said that it was now "necessary
to advance toward setting up a real commonwealth rather than a
neutral community." Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc.

ARMY TO AID IN FIGHTING CRIME? Reuters, quoting an unnamed
government official, reported on 16 June that Boris Yeltsin has
ordered the Russian armed forces to prepare to aid in the fight
against crime. The agency also quoted an article in the Defense
Ministry newspaper Krasnaya zvezda in which an Interior Ministry
(MVD) officer, Lieut. Col. Aleksei Petrov, said that the Ministry
of Defense could transfer troops to MVD control, help in the
training of MVD forces, and "hand over appropriate, unused. . .
military bases for the use" of the MVD. The article said that the
Yeltsin decree had been signed in recent days, but had not yet
been published. One of several controversial provisions included
in a Russian military doctrine approved in the fall of 1993
sanctioned the domestic use of regular army forces.  Stephen Foye,

Minister of Internal Affairs of Tatarstan, Iskander Galimov, has
praised Yeltsin's recent anti-crime decree, which has been
described as unduly harsh in other quarters. In an interview with
ITAR-TASS on 15 June, Galimov said that the decree borrowed much
from the anti-crime decree adopted in Tatarstan a year ago. The
decree had been very successful in reducing crime, Galimov added,
and Tatarstan's performance in this area has been highly praised
by Yeltsin during his recent visit to Tatarstan.  Ann Sheehy,

Tuva on 16 June Russian President Boris Yeltsin acknowledged that
the economic situation in the republic was much worse than in the
rest of Russia and that the republic could not manage on its own,
Interfax reported. Yeltsin promised Tuva 14 billion rubles to
complete a sheepskin coat factory, which would boost animal
husbandry and create new jobs. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr
Shokhin said that when the factory started operating at full
capacity in a few years time Tuva would no longer need to be
subsidized. Yeltsin also promised 2.5 billion rubles for the
construction of a new national museum to help preserve the Tuvin
nation and its culture. Yeltsin said that relations between Russia
and Tuva, which were strained a couple of years ago, were now
normal.  Ann Sheehy

demographic trends continue, the population of Siberia could
decline by a third in the next 15-20 years, according to the
chairman of the presidium of the Siberian branch of the Russian
Academy of Medical Sciences, Valerii Trufakin, ITAR-TASS reported
on 15 June. Trufakin said that the life expectancy of males had
declined to 59 years, and that in 1993 the number of Siberians
went down by 100,000. Trufakin called for the settlement in
Siberia of Russian-speakers from other CIS states and of
inhabitants of the European part of Russia. He said 1-2 million
people should be brought in annually for the next ten years.
Otherwise Siberia could turn into a reserve area for the
settlement of people from the overpopulated south of the planet.
Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc.


TAJIKS COMMENT ON TALKS. With Tajik peace talks set to begin in
Teheran on 18 June, the leader of the government delegation, Labor
Minister Shukurdzhon Zukhurov, and the chief opposition
negotiator, Otokhon Latifi, have explained their respective
positions to Interfax. Zukhurov said the government would
concentrate on a cease-fire, the return of refugees, and the
creation of a new constitutional system. The last point is the
focus of opposition anger: Latifi accused the government of
violating an agreement reached at the first talks in April in
Moscow by introducing a draft constitution without consulting
Tajik refugees outside the country. Both negotiators stressed the
need for a peaceful settlement, with Latifi warning that failure
would lead to Afghan-like conditions. Interfax also reported that
Tajikistan's Islamic opposition leader, Ali Akbar Turadzhonda, is
expected to take part in the talks; he lives in exile in Teheran.
Keith Martin, RFE/RL Inc.

NEW UZBEK CURRENCY. ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 16 June
that Uzbek President Islam Karimov has decreed the creation of a
new currency, effective 1 July. The new money, to be called "sum",
will replace the sum-coupon, which has served as an interim
currency while Uzbekistan tries to distance itself from the ruble;
one sum will equal 1000 sum-coupons (officially, $1 equals about
4000 sum-coupons, though the unofficial rate is up to ten times
that amount). Calling the move necessary for the country's
independence, Karimov said that the introduction had been well
prepared, taking into account the advice of organizations such as
the International Monetary Fund. In 1993, the Uzbek government had
severely criticized Kyrgyzstan for introducing its own currency.
Keith Martin, RFE/RL Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

UN FAILS TO END BIHAC FIGHTING. Reuters reported on 16 June that
UN commanders spoke unsuccessfully with officials from the Bosnian
government and from the forces of Bihac rebel kingpin Fikret Abdic
to try to end the fighting there. Abdic is not party to the
current cease-fire that is generally holding elsewhere in the
embattled republic. Meanwhile in London, members of the
international "contact group" met to hammer out their latest
strategy, but no details were announced. Finally, Croatia is
denying entry to 462 refugees driven out of the Banja Luka area by
the Serbs. The Zagreb authorities say they have no accommodations
for the latest arrivals, but they have been known in the past to
deny entry to groups of refugees to call world attention to
Croatia's problems in caring for displaced persons. Refugee relief
accounts for the second largest item in the state budget after
defense.  Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.

KRAJINA TALKS COLLAPSE. International media report that talks
scheduled to begin on 16 June between Zagreb and representatives
from the self-styled breakaway Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK),
which covers about a quarter of Croatia's territory, have broken
down at least temporarily. On the surface, Serb objections to the
number of Croatian journalists intending to cover the proceedings
triggered the collapse. HINA notes, however, that disputes over
the agenda and composition of the delegations were also
contributing factors. On 17 June, moreover, a Reuters report
suggests that diplomatic sources speculate that the Serb side
likely torpedoed talks for fear that they would amount to a forum
in which Krajina would be pressured into abandoning its ultimate
objective of union with Serbia. The 16 June round of talks was to
have focused on economic issues, and follows in the wake of a
March cease-fire deal. The issue of Krajina's political status is
slated for negotiations after outstanding economic matters are
dealt with.  Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc.

Herald Tribune features an article by Branislav Milosevic,
chairman of the Independent Media Association of the Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia and deputy managing director of the
independent Belgrade daily Borba, in which he appeals for
international support for independent Serbian media. Milosevic,
critical of hard-line rump Yugoslav authorities for violating
basic human rights, observes that it is particularly difficult for
independent media to thrive in a country where "prejudices and
half-truths" are blended "into a fabric of national delusion
promoted [by the regime] as representing the highest national
interests." Such oppressive conditions, concludes Milosevic, make
support for independent Serbian media imperative, which would also
amount to "a strategic investment in democracy" in Serbia.  Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL Inc.

and Western media report that gasoline continues to trickle into
rump Yugoslavia despite new government measures taken in early
1994 to stem that development. On 17 June major dailies write
about Bulgarian police cracking down on a gang of hijackers who
attacked and drove off with 14 Serbian trucks carrying 100 tons of
fuel, returning them two days later after having been paid a
ransom of DM 162,000. Another report quotes customs officials at
the Bregovo border crossing confirming that private vehicles every
day bring some 20 tons of fuel into Serbia. Earlier this month
eight Bulgarian railway workers were arrested for helping to break
the sanctions.  Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.

on 17 June the National Assembly passed on its second reading the
Law on the Judiciary, BTA reports. The law is controversial
particularly because it contains a paragraph saying that everybody
occupying top positions in the Bulgarian judiciary need to have
served at least five years as judges or prosecutors. Otechestven
vestnik and Demokratsiya point out that most jurists who meet that
requirement necessarily must have been appointed to their jobs
already under communist rule, and warn that the new legislation
could be used to purge courts from anti-communists. The papers
also cite the widely held suspicion that the controversial
paragraph was included in the law primarily so that two of the
country's present top jurists and former lawyers, Prosecutor
General Ivan Tatarchev and Supreme Court Chairman Ivan Grigorov,
could be ousted. According to the text adopted, jurists who do not
meet the requirements will have to be replaced within one month.
In a comment, the Supreme Judicial Council called several of the
passages of the law "absurd" and said it threatens to clog up the
entire judicial system.  Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.

the European Union and Bulgaria initialed an agreement aimed at
making up for trade opportunities which Bulgaria could not take
advantage of in 1993, due to a 7-month delay on the part of the EU
in ratifying an interim trade accord. Quoting Foreign Ministry
officials, BTA said compensation would be made through an increase
of Bulgaria's import quotas to the European Union during 1994 and
1995, and corresponding to the unutilized quotas agreed for 1993.
According to official estimates, the late enforcement of the
accord cost Bulgaria some $200 million in trade revenues. The
interim accord will regulate economic relations until the EU's
national parliaments have all ratified the association agreement
signed 8 March 1993.  Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.

ROMANIAN LABOR PROTEST ENDS. The labor demonstrations in Bucharest
ended on 16 June, Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. The
government and the trade unions that organized the protest agreed
to wage increases of just over 8 %, although the unions had been
asking for 50%. Bogdan Hossu, leader of the Alfa union cartel,
said the agreement was "not a full victory, but is acceptable."
Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.

Gheorghe Tinca and US Deputy Secretary of Defense John Deutch
signed a military cooperation agreement in Washington ,
international media reported on 16 June. Tinca, who is paying a
three-day visit to USA, met on the same day US Secretary of
Defense William Perry and held talks at the State Department on
Romania's participation in NATO's Partnership For Peace program.
Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.

14 June and carried by Radio Bucharest, President Ion Iliescu
rejected the accusations that he had been interfering with the due
process of justice in statements made last month that called on
local government authorities not to implement decisions of courts
of justice concerning the return of property seized by the
communists. Iliescu said the decisions were not legal, since a law
on property return has yet to be passed. Earlier on 14 June, the
opposition parties called on Iliescu to explain to parliament his
statements. They said the president's answer will determine
whether or not the impeachment procedure initiated by the National
Peasant Party Christian Democratic will continue. For the time
being the procedure will be suspended, but if Iliescu does not
explain his remarks to parliament by the end of the month, the
opposition said, it will be resumed.  Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.

anniversary of the day former Hungarian Premier Imre Nagy was
executed for his role in the 1956 Revolution, he was honored in
the cemetery where his remains were reburied five years ago, MTI
reports. The ceremony was attended by Hungarian Socialist Party
Leader Gyula Horn, who is practically certain to become Hungary's
next Prime Minister. Horn had been a member of the pro-Soviet
militia that helped to defeat the 1956 Revolution and restore
communism in Hungary; and the ceremony's political significance
was underscored by the presence of Imre Nagy's daughter Erzsebet,
of representatives of all the parliamentary parties, and of
several organizations that helped to keep the spirit of Nagy and
the Revolution alive.  Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.

various political parties called for an investigation of police
conduct against soccer fans following a game held the previous
evening, MTI reports. Police beat up the fans for no apparent
reason. Interior Minister Imre Konya expressed his shock and
ordered an immediate investigation. Some politicians fear that
following the good showing of the ex-communists in the May
elections, some policemen might return to a style often practiced
under communism when dissidents were beaten up. Some political
parties also demanded that the head of the Budapest police resign
immediately.  Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.

POLAND ON EVE OF LOCAL ELECTIONS. On 19 June Polish voters will
elect 52,173 councilors to Poland's 2,465 local administrative
units or gminas. Most of the candidates belong to local
coalitions. Members of the ruling postcommunist coalition--the
Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party
(PSL)--are mostly campaigning under their own party colors; the
opposition parties have formed a number of different local
coalitions. The PSL is expected to sweep most of the rural
councils, where voting is by majority, and its candidates are
often unopposed. There is keener competition in the
municipalities, where election will take place by proportional
representation. Quoting latest opinion polls, Rzeczpospolita
reported on 17 June that 20% of voters favor unaffiliated
candidates; 17% prefer the SLD; 14%--the PSL; and 9%--the
opposition Freedom Union. The remaining parties all got 5% or
less.  Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc.

POLAND'S GDP UP 3.8% IN 1993. The Main Statistical Office reported
on 10 June that the Polish economy grew 3.8% in 1993, according to
initial figures. In current prices, GDP amounted to 1,556 trillion
zloty, or $2,227 per capita, putting Poland at a level just
slightly lower than Mexico or Malaysia. As Rzeczpospolita noted in
its 11-12 June issue, the private sector is the force driving
Polish economic growth. Value added in the private sector grew 10%
in 1993 but fell roughly 3% in the state sector. Private
consumption rose 4.6% in real terms in 1993 and amounted to 63% of
GDP.  Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.

NEW STANDBY AGREEMENT FOR POLAND. Poland and the IMF have agreed a
new draft standby agreement for the period from August 1994 to
December 1995, PAP reported on 15 June. The draft, expected to be
signed in July or August, provides $900 million to finance imports
and implement Poland's agreement with the London Club of
creditors.  Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc.

NEW POLITICAL PARTY IN SLOVAKIA. On 14 June Slovak emigre Rudolf
Mosny announced that he has founded a political party called New
Slovakia. The party, which espouses modern liberalism, aims to
positively influence the economic transformation process and to
help restore confidence in the administration. He noted particular
concern about the low standard of living of a large portion of the
Slovak population and criticized political instability and
corruption, Narodna obroda reported on 15 June. Mosny also
stressed the importance of Slovakia's integration into Europe. The
party already has the 10,000 signatures needed to register for
participation in the elections, although it is uncertain whether
it will pass the 5% hurdle to make it into parliament. Mosny, who
was made the party's honorary chairman, was educated in New York
and said he owns seven restaurants in that state, as well as a
controlling stake in the Saris Brewery in eastern Slovakia,
Reuters reported.  Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc.

on 16 June that Livia Klausova, the wife of Czech Prime Minister
Vaclav Klaus, had been elected to the board of directors of the
Czech Electric Company (CEZ). She was nominated to the post by
Industry Minister Vladimir Dlouhy and the Sporitelni Investicni
Spolecnost, a private investment company. Speaking on NOVA TV
after her election, Klausova rejected accusations that her
appointment presented a conflict of interest. A number of Czech
politicians and journalists have criticized her election, pointing
out that the majority shareholder in CEZ is the National Property
Fund, the government's top privatization agency.  Jiri Pehe,

reported on the election program of the chairman of the Union of
Agrarians and Collective Farms, Aleksandr Dubko. According to
Dubko, what Belarus needs is a close alliance with Russia and
Ukraine so as not to lose those markets before they are filled by
the West. He also intends to preserve social benefits such as free
medical services and education, and believes that pensioners,
veterans, invalids, and other less-privileged groups should have
access to some staples at subsidized prices. He described his
economic program as based on the principle of
"family-economy-state" and said it was necessary to have a planned
basis for the market economy and guarantee prices for agricultural
and industrial products. In other news, the prosecutor general's
office ruled that the German-printed campaign materials
confiscated from presidential candidate Aleksandr Lukashenka were
in violation of the electoral law which forbids any foreign
assistance towards a candidate's election campaign. On 15 June
Belarusian television reported that the Central Electoral
Commission has criticized presidential candidates for not meeting
enough with the electorate. It was also reported that the chairman
of the Party of Communists of Belarus, Vasil Novikau, denounced
the BPF opposition as having switched from being a group promoting
democratic reform in the country to a straightforward radical
nationalist bloc. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc.

parliamentary newspaper Krymskiye izvestiya formally published the
text of the 6 May 1992 constitution, which makes the Crimea
virtually an independent state. The publication thereby brings
that document into effect. On 11 June Ukrainian radio reported
that the Ukrainian and Crimean parliamentary working group has
asked the Crimean parliament to send fully authorized
representatives to Kiev for the parliamentary sessions dealing
with drafting Ukraine's constitution on 15 June. In other news, it
was reported that 58 Tatar families from Tajikistan have taken
over two nine-story buildings in Yalta and refuse to move. Tatars,
whom Stalin brutally deported from the Crimea, have been moving
back from Central Asia and Russia in large numbers. A group of
Crimean deputies has gone to Yalta to examine the situation.
Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc.

KRAVCHUK ON CRIMEA. On 16 June ITAR-TASS reported on a speech by
Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk during his visit to Odessa. In
it Kravchuk said that Kiev's problems with the Crimea should be
solved within the context of the Ukrainian constitution. He added
that Kiev would not impede the autonomous republic's drive for
more independence and was ready to consider proposals in this
regard. Yet he emphasized that the territorial integrity of
Ukraine is "untouchable" and would be defended in accordance with
the constitution. In an opinion poll taken in Russia regarding the
issue of the Crimea and reported by Interfax, respondents were
asked whether Russia should interfere between Crimean authorities
and Kiev. Some 35% of those polled felt Russia should be involved;
30% said Russia should not; 7% said they did not know about the
conflict between Ukraine and the Crimea; 8% said they did not care
about the conflict between Ukraine and the Crimea; and 20% said it
was difficult to say how Russia should behave. Ustina Markus,

Lithuanian parliament in sessions broadcast live by Radio
Lithuania rejected a no-confidence motion, which had been proposed
by the Social Democratic Party against the government of Prime
Minister Adolfas Slezevicius. The government was accused of
failing to fulfill the campaign pledges of the Lithuanian
Democratic Labor Party, thereby bringing about the continuing
decline of the economy. Only 51 deputies voted for the motion with
65 opposed. It needed 71 votes to pass. The same day the Estonian
parliament rejected a no-confidence motion against Interior
Minister Heiki Arike, BNS reports. Although the vote was 43 to 13
with five abstentions against the minister, he remained in office
since 51 votes were needed. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.

born on 2 August 1924, died in Washington, Radio Lithuania
reports. His father had been the head of the Lithuanian diplomatic
corps in exile from 1940 until dying in 1983. Lozoraitis served in
various posts in the Lithuanian exile representation at the
Vatican before moving to the US in 1983, where he subsequently
headed the Lithuanian delegation. He played a central role in the
campaign for international recognition of Lithuania's
independence. While serving as ambassador to the US from September
1991, Lozoraitis was defeated by Algirdas Brazauskas in the
presidential elections in February 1993. He was subsequently
appointed ambassador to Italy. He is to be buried in Putnam,
Connecticut on 17 June. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.

NON-CITIZENS ORGANIZE IN LATVIA. Diena reported on 14 June about
the results of a poll, started on 1 May, intended to choose
spokesmen for all the non-citizens of Latvia. Some 23,000
participated in the poll--about 18,000 in Riga and about 5,000 in
Daugavpils--organized by the Apartheid league, i.e. representing
those Russians and others affected by policies which they liken to
apartheid. The respondents suggested most frequently as their
representatives Sergejs Dimanis, Vladlen Dozortsev, Tayana
Zhdanok, Leonid Kurdyumov, and Modris Lujans. According to the
Citizenship and Immigration Department, there are about 700,000
non-citizens residing in Latvia of whom about 645,000 have
indicated interest in becoming citizens. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL

ONE OF TIRASPOL SIX RELEASED. One of the "Tiraspol Six" detainees
has been released and delivered to right-bank Moldova by the
"Dniester republic" authorities, Basapress reported on 16 June.
The six activists of the Moldovan Popular Front were sentenced for
"terrorism" in 1993 in a lengthy show trial which attracted
extensive international intercession. The other five, including
one sentenced to death, remain in detention in Transdniester.
Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Patrick Moore
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
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