|History is made out of the failures and heroism of each insignificant moment. - Franz Kafka|
No. 114, 17 June 1994
RUSSIA KOZYREV: RUSSIA WILL NOT SUPPORT RESOLUTION ON NORTH KOREA. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev announced on 16 June that Russia would oppose a US-drafted UN resolution imposing sanctions on North Korea because Washington had neglected to consult with Moscow on the resolution. Kozyrev claimed that the resolution contradicted an agreement on joint action that had been reached during telephone conversations between the presidents and the foreign ministers of the two countries. "We decided to work together on a resolution that would provide for sanctions on the one hand, and for an international conference on the North Korean problem on the other . . . we agreed not to advance unilateral initiatives," Kozyrev was quoted by Interfax as saying. As The New York Times observed, it was not clear to what extent Kozyrev's statement was driven by internal Russian politics and to what extent it was the result of genuine anger. The newspaper also said that Kozyrev is to outline the government's position on North Korea to the Duma on 17 June. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA, VIETNAM SIGN FRIENDSHIP TREATY. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and his Vietnamese counterpart, Ko Van Kiet signed a new friendship treaty in Moscow on the evening of 16 June, AFP and ITAR-TASS reported. Earlier in the day AFP had reported that disagreements over Vietnam's repayment of an estimated $9 billion in debts to Russia and over Russia's use of the Cam Ranh naval base were delaying the signing. There were also said to be differences over the disposition of thousands of Vietnamese workers in Russia. Details of the agreement, which replaces a 1978 Treaty signed with the Soviet Union, were not available. The two sides also signed agreements on investment, and on scientific and technical cooperation in agriculture and fishing. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA, GERMANY TO HOLD PEACE CELEBRATION. Eastern and Western agencies reported on 16 June that Russian and German parliamentarians have agreed to set up a joint committee to prepare a celebration of next year's 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. The agreement came during a visit to Germany by the speaker of the Russian Duma, Ivan Rybkin. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIAN-US EXERCISES TO BE HELD. Pentagon sources said on 16 June that some 300 US Marines and an equal number of Russian naval infantry will conduct joint exercises near Vladivostok beginning on 18 June, AFP reported. The six-day operation will reportedly be devoted to training for rescue and humanitarian missions. Joint maneuvers to prepare for peacekeeping activities were to have been held in Russia in July, but were postponed because of opposition from Russian parliamentarians. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. MOSCOW PREPARING TO AID RUSSIAN MINORITIES. Russian President Boris Yeltsin intends to make public by the end of June a comprehensive program of aid to ethnic Russians living abroad in the former USSR, Interfax reported on 16 June. The program, which seems sure to exacerbate tensions between Russia and its neighbors, was described by Abkulakh Mikitaev, the Chairman of the Citizenship Committee of the President's Office; that program emphasizes Russia's intention to secure the rights of permanent residents of the former Soviet republics who are not citizens and reaffirms Russia's adherence to the notion of dual citizenship and to its desire that Russian be made the second official language in the former Soviet states. It also reflects Moscow's desire to guarantee the rights of Russians in Estonia and Latvia and to provide concrete aid to retired servicemen in the Baltic States. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. KOZYREV FAVORS CONFEDERATION. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told a session of the Council on Foreign Policy in Moscow on 16 June that Russia would unequivocally support the desire of any former Soviet republic to set up a confederation, or even a union, according to Interfax. Kozyrev reportedly praised the fact that the process of separation in the former USSR had proceeded peacefully, and attributed to Russia the "strength to avoid confrontation and bloodshed." He said that it was now "necessary to advance toward setting up a real commonwealth rather than a neutral community." Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. ARMY TO AID IN FIGHTING CRIME? Reuters, quoting an unnamed government official, reported on 16 June that Boris Yeltsin has ordered the Russian armed forces to prepare to aid in the fight against crime. The agency also quoted an article in the Defense Ministry newspaper Krasnaya zvezda in which an Interior Ministry (MVD) officer, Lieut. Col. Aleksei Petrov, said that the Ministry of Defense could transfer troops to MVD control, help in the training of MVD forces, and "hand over appropriate, unused. . . military bases for the use" of the MVD. The article said that the Yeltsin decree had been signed in recent days, but had not yet been published. One of several controversial provisions included in a Russian military doctrine approved in the fall of 1993 sanctioned the domestic use of regular army forces. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. TATARSTAN MINISTER DEFENDS YELTSIN'S ANTI-CRIME DECREE. The Minister of Internal Affairs of Tatarstan, Iskander Galimov, has praised Yeltsin's recent anti-crime decree, which has been described as unduly harsh in other quarters. In an interview with ITAR-TASS on 15 June, Galimov said that the decree borrowed much from the anti-crime decree adopted in Tatarstan a year ago. The decree had been very successful in reducing crime, Galimov added, and Tatarstan's performance in this area has been highly praised by Yeltsin during his recent visit to Tatarstan. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN PROMISES TUVA CONSIDERABLE ASSISTANCE. During his visit to Tuva on 16 June Russian President Boris Yeltsin acknowledged that the economic situation in the republic was much worse than in the rest of Russia and that the republic could not manage on its own, Interfax reported. Yeltsin promised Tuva 14 billion rubles to complete a sheepskin coat factory, which would boost animal husbandry and create new jobs. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin said that when the factory started operating at full capacity in a few years time Tuva would no longer need to be subsidized. Yeltsin also promised 2.5 billion rubles for the construction of a new national museum to help preserve the Tuvin nation and its culture. Yeltsin said that relations between Russia and Tuva, which were strained a couple of years ago, were now normal. Ann Sheehy SIBERIAN POPULATION COULD DECLINE BY A THIRD. If present demographic trends continue, the population of Siberia could decline by a third in the next 15-20 years, according to the chairman of the presidium of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Valerii Trufakin, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 June. Trufakin said that the life expectancy of males had declined to 59 years, and that in 1993 the number of Siberians went down by 100,000. Trufakin called for the settlement in Siberia of Russian-speakers from other CIS states and of inhabitants of the European part of Russia. He said 1-2 million people should be brought in annually for the next ten years. Otherwise Siberia could turn into a reserve area for the settlement of people from the overpopulated south of the planet. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIKS COMMENT ON TALKS. With Tajik peace talks set to begin in Teheran on 18 June, the leader of the government delegation, Labor Minister Shukurdzhon Zukhurov, and the chief opposition negotiator, Otokhon Latifi, have explained their respective positions to Interfax. Zukhurov said the government would concentrate on a cease-fire, the return of refugees, and the creation of a new constitutional system. The last point is the focus of opposition anger: Latifi accused the government of violating an agreement reached at the first talks in April in Moscow by introducing a draft constitution without consulting Tajik refugees outside the country. Both negotiators stressed the need for a peaceful settlement, with Latifi warning that failure would lead to Afghan-like conditions. Interfax also reported that Tajikistan's Islamic opposition leader, Ali Akbar Turadzhonda, is expected to take part in the talks; he lives in exile in Teheran. Keith Martin, RFE/RL Inc. NEW UZBEK CURRENCY. ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 16 June that Uzbek President Islam Karimov has decreed the creation of a new currency, effective 1 July. The new money, to be called "sum", will replace the sum-coupon, which has served as an interim currency while Uzbekistan tries to distance itself from the ruble; one sum will equal 1000 sum-coupons (officially, $1 equals about 4000 sum-coupons, though the unofficial rate is up to ten times that amount). Calling the move necessary for the country's independence, Karimov said that the introduction had been well prepared, taking into account the advice of organizations such as the International Monetary Fund. In 1993, the Uzbek government had severely criticized Kyrgyzstan for introducing its own currency. Keith Martin, RFE/RL Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN FAILS TO END BIHAC FIGHTING. Reuters reported on 16 June that UN commanders spoke unsuccessfully with officials from the Bosnian government and from the forces of Bihac rebel kingpin Fikret Abdic to try to end the fighting there. Abdic is not party to the current cease-fire that is generally holding elsewhere in the embattled republic. Meanwhile in London, members of the international "contact group" met to hammer out their latest strategy, but no details were announced. Finally, Croatia is denying entry to 462 refugees driven out of the Banja Luka area by the Serbs. The Zagreb authorities say they have no accommodations for the latest arrivals, but they have been known in the past to deny entry to groups of refugees to call world attention to Croatia's problems in caring for displaced persons. Refugee relief accounts for the second largest item in the state budget after defense. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. KRAJINA TALKS COLLAPSE. International media report that talks scheduled to begin on 16 June between Zagreb and representatives from the self-styled breakaway Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK), which covers about a quarter of Croatia's territory, have broken down at least temporarily. On the surface, Serb objections to the number of Croatian journalists intending to cover the proceedings triggered the collapse. HINA notes, however, that disputes over the agenda and composition of the delegations were also contributing factors. On 17 June, moreover, a Reuters report suggests that diplomatic sources speculate that the Serb side likely torpedoed talks for fear that they would amount to a forum in which Krajina would be pressured into abandoning its ultimate objective of union with Serbia. The 16 June round of talks was to have focused on economic issues, and follows in the wake of a March cease-fire deal. The issue of Krajina's political status is slated for negotiations after outstanding economic matters are dealt with. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. CALL FOR INDEPENDENT SERBIAN MEDIA. On 15 June the International Herald Tribune features an article by Branislav Milosevic, chairman of the Independent Media Association of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and deputy managing director of the independent Belgrade daily Borba, in which he appeals for international support for independent Serbian media. Milosevic, critical of hard-line rump Yugoslav authorities for violating basic human rights, observes that it is particularly difficult for independent media to thrive in a country where "prejudices and half-truths" are blended "into a fabric of national delusion promoted [by the regime] as representing the highest national interests." Such oppressive conditions, concludes Milosevic, make support for independent Serbian media imperative, which would also amount to "a strategic investment in democracy" in Serbia. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. FUEL EMBARGO VIOLATED ALONG BULGARIA'S WESTERN BORDER. Bulgarian and Western media report that gasoline continues to trickle into rump Yugoslavia despite new government measures taken in early 1994 to stem that development. On 17 June major dailies write about Bulgarian police cracking down on a gang of hijackers who attacked and drove off with 14 Serbian trucks carrying 100 tons of fuel, returning them two days later after having been paid a ransom of DM 162,000. Another report quotes customs officials at the Bregovo border crossing confirming that private vehicles every day bring some 20 tons of fuel into Serbia. Earlier this month eight Bulgarian railway workers were arrested for helping to break the sanctions. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc. BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT ADOPTS CONTROVERSIAL LAW ON JUDICIARY. Early on 17 June the National Assembly passed on its second reading the Law on the Judiciary, BTA reports. The law is controversial particularly because it contains a paragraph saying that everybody occupying top positions in the Bulgarian judiciary need to have served at least five years as judges or prosecutors. Otechestven vestnik and Demokratsiya point out that most jurists who meet that requirement necessarily must have been appointed to their jobs already under communist rule, and warn that the new legislation could be used to purge courts from anti-communists. The papers also cite the widely held suspicion that the controversial paragraph was included in the law primarily so that two of the country's present top jurists and former lawyers, Prosecutor General Ivan Tatarchev and Supreme Court Chairman Ivan Grigorov, could be ousted. According to the text adopted, jurists who do not meet the requirements will have to be replaced within one month. In a comment, the Supreme Judicial Council called several of the passages of the law "absurd" and said it threatens to clog up the entire judicial system. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc. EU TO COMPENSATE BULGARIA FOR LOST TRADE OPPORTUNITIES. On 15 June the European Union and Bulgaria initialed an agreement aimed at making up for trade opportunities which Bulgaria could not take advantage of in 1993, due to a 7-month delay on the part of the EU in ratifying an interim trade accord. Quoting Foreign Ministry officials, BTA said compensation would be made through an increase of Bulgaria's import quotas to the European Union during 1994 and 1995, and corresponding to the unutilized quotas agreed for 1993. According to official estimates, the late enforcement of the accord cost Bulgaria some $200 million in trade revenues. The interim accord will regulate economic relations until the EU's national parliaments have all ratified the association agreement signed 8 March 1993. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIAN LABOR PROTEST ENDS. The labor demonstrations in Bucharest ended on 16 June, Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. The government and the trade unions that organized the protest agreed to wage increases of just over 8 %, although the unions had been asking for 50%. Bogdan Hossu, leader of the Alfa union cartel, said the agreement was "not a full victory, but is acceptable." Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIAN-USA MILITARY AGREEMENT. Romania's Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca and US Deputy Secretary of Defense John Deutch signed a military cooperation agreement in Washington , international media reported on 16 June. Tinca, who is paying a three-day visit to USA, met on the same day US Secretary of Defense William Perry and held talks at the State Department on Romania's participation in NATO's Partnership For Peace program. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc. ILIESCU AND THE IMPEACHMENT PROCEDURE. In a statement released on 14 June and carried by Radio Bucharest, President Ion Iliescu rejected the accusations that he had been interfering with the due process of justice in statements made last month that called on local government authorities not to implement decisions of courts of justice concerning the return of property seized by the communists. Iliescu said the decisions were not legal, since a law on property return has yet to be passed. Earlier on 14 June, the opposition parties called on Iliescu to explain to parliament his statements. They said the president's answer will determine whether or not the impeachment procedure initiated by the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic will continue. For the time being the procedure will be suspended, but if Iliescu does not explain his remarks to parliament by the end of the month, the opposition said, it will be resumed. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc. ANNIVERSARY OF IMRE NAGY'S EXECUTION IS MARKED. On 16 June, the anniversary of the day former Hungarian Premier Imre Nagy was executed for his role in the 1956 Revolution, he was honored in the cemetery where his remains were reburied five years ago, MTI reports. The ceremony was attended by Hungarian Socialist Party Leader Gyula Horn, who is practically certain to become Hungary's next Prime Minister. Horn had been a member of the pro-Soviet militia that helped to defeat the 1956 Revolution and restore communism in Hungary; and the ceremony's political significance was underscored by the presence of Imre Nagy's daughter Erzsebet, of representatives of all the parliamentary parties, and of several organizations that helped to keep the spirit of Nagy and the Revolution alive. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc. POLITICAL PARTIES PROTEST HUNGARIAN POLICE BRUTALITY. On 16 June various political parties called for an investigation of police conduct against soccer fans following a game held the previous evening, MTI reports. Police beat up the fans for no apparent reason. Interior Minister Imre Konya expressed his shock and ordered an immediate investigation. Some politicians fear that following the good showing of the ex-communists in the May elections, some policemen might return to a style often practiced under communism when dissidents were beaten up. Some political parties also demanded that the head of the Budapest police resign immediately. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc. POLAND ON EVE OF LOCAL ELECTIONS. On 19 June Polish voters will elect 52,173 councilors to Poland's 2,465 local administrative units or gminas. Most of the candidates belong to local coalitions. Members of the ruling postcommunist coalition--the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL)--are mostly campaigning under their own party colors; the opposition parties have formed a number of different local coalitions. The PSL is expected to sweep most of the rural councils, where voting is by majority, and its candidates are often unopposed. There is keener competition in the municipalities, where election will take place by proportional representation. Quoting latest opinion polls, Rzeczpospolita reported on 17 June that 20% of voters favor unaffiliated candidates; 17% prefer the SLD; 14%--the PSL; and 9%--the opposition Freedom Union. The remaining parties all got 5% or less. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. POLAND'S GDP UP 3.8% IN 1993. The Main Statistical Office reported on 10 June that the Polish economy grew 3.8% in 1993, according to initial figures. In current prices, GDP amounted to 1,556 trillion zloty, or $2,227 per capita, putting Poland at a level just slightly lower than Mexico or Malaysia. As Rzeczpospolita noted in its 11-12 June issue, the private sector is the force driving Polish economic growth. Value added in the private sector grew 10% in 1993 but fell roughly 3% in the state sector. Private consumption rose 4.6% in real terms in 1993 and amounted to 63% of GDP. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc. NEW STANDBY AGREEMENT FOR POLAND. Poland and the IMF have agreed a new draft standby agreement for the period from August 1994 to December 1995, PAP reported on 15 June. The draft, expected to be signed in July or August, provides $900 million to finance imports and implement Poland's agreement with the London Club of creditors. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL Inc. NEW POLITICAL PARTY IN SLOVAKIA. On 14 June Slovak emigre Rudolf Mosny announced that he has founded a political party called New Slovakia. The party, which espouses modern liberalism, aims to positively influence the economic transformation process and to help restore confidence in the administration. He noted particular concern about the low standard of living of a large portion of the Slovak population and criticized political instability and corruption, Narodna obroda reported on 15 June. Mosny also stressed the importance of Slovakia's integration into Europe. The party already has the 10,000 signatures needed to register for participation in the elections, although it is uncertain whether it will pass the 5% hurdle to make it into parliament. Mosny, who was made the party's honorary chairman, was educated in New York and said he owns seven restaurants in that state, as well as a controlling stake in the Saris Brewery in eastern Slovakia, Reuters reported. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL Inc. KLAUS' WIFE ELECTED TO CZECH ELECTRIC COMPANY BOARD. CTK reported on 16 June that Livia Klausova, the wife of Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, had been elected to the board of directors of the Czech Electric Company (CEZ). She was nominated to the post by Industry Minister Vladimir Dlouhy and the Sporitelni Investicni Spolecnost, a private investment company. Speaking on NOVA TV after her election, Klausova rejected accusations that her appointment presented a conflict of interest. A number of Czech politicians and journalists have criticized her election, pointing out that the majority shareholder in CEZ is the National Property Fund, the government's top privatization agency. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. UPDATE ON BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL RACE. On 16 June Interfax reported on the election program of the chairman of the Union of Agrarians and Collective Farms, Aleksandr Dubko. According to Dubko, what Belarus needs is a close alliance with Russia and Ukraine so as not to lose those markets before they are filled by the West. He also intends to preserve social benefits such as free medical services and education, and believes that pensioners, veterans, invalids, and other less-privileged groups should have access to some staples at subsidized prices. He described his economic program as based on the principle of "family-economy-state" and said it was necessary to have a planned basis for the market economy and guarantee prices for agricultural and industrial products. In other news, the prosecutor general's office ruled that the German-printed campaign materials confiscated from presidential candidate Aleksandr Lukashenka were in violation of the electoral law which forbids any foreign assistance towards a candidate's election campaign. On 15 June Belarusian television reported that the Central Electoral Commission has criticized presidential candidates for not meeting enough with the electorate. It was also reported that the chairman of the Party of Communists of Belarus, Vasil Novikau, denounced the BPF opposition as having switched from being a group promoting democratic reform in the country to a straightforward radical nationalist bloc. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc. CRIMEAN 1992 CONSTITUTION IN EFFECT. On 11 June the Crimean parliamentary newspaper Krymskiye izvestiya formally published the text of the 6 May 1992 constitution, which makes the Crimea virtually an independent state. The publication thereby brings that document into effect. On 11 June Ukrainian radio reported that the Ukrainian and Crimean parliamentary working group has asked the Crimean parliament to send fully authorized representatives to Kiev for the parliamentary sessions dealing with drafting Ukraine's constitution on 15 June. In other news, it was reported that 58 Tatar families from Tajikistan have taken over two nine-story buildings in Yalta and refuse to move. Tatars, whom Stalin brutally deported from the Crimea, have been moving back from Central Asia and Russia in large numbers. A group of Crimean deputies has gone to Yalta to examine the situation. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc. KRAVCHUK ON CRIMEA. On 16 June ITAR-TASS reported on a speech by Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk during his visit to Odessa. In it Kravchuk said that Kiev's problems with the Crimea should be solved within the context of the Ukrainian constitution. He added that Kiev would not impede the autonomous republic's drive for more independence and was ready to consider proposals in this regard. Yet he emphasized that the territorial integrity of Ukraine is "untouchable" and would be defended in accordance with the constitution. In an opinion poll taken in Russia regarding the issue of the Crimea and reported by Interfax, respondents were asked whether Russia should interfere between Crimean authorities and Kiev. Some 35% of those polled felt Russia should be involved; 30% said Russia should not; 7% said they did not know about the conflict between Ukraine and the Crimea; 8% said they did not care about the conflict between Ukraine and the Crimea; and 20% said it was difficult to say how Russia should behave. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc. NO CONFIDENCE VOTES FAIL IN LITHUANIA AND ESTONIA. On 16 June, the Lithuanian parliament in sessions broadcast live by Radio Lithuania rejected a no-confidence motion, which had been proposed by the Social Democratic Party against the government of Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius. The government was accused of failing to fulfill the campaign pledges of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party, thereby bringing about the continuing decline of the economy. Only 51 deputies voted for the motion with 65 opposed. It needed 71 votes to pass. The same day the Estonian parliament rejected a no-confidence motion against Interior Minister Heiki Arike, BNS reports. Although the vote was 43 to 13 with five abstentions against the minister, he remained in office since 51 votes were needed. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. PROMINENT LITHUANIAN DIPLOMAT DIES. On 13 June Stasys Lozoraitis, born on 2 August 1924, died in Washington, Radio Lithuania reports. His father had been the head of the Lithuanian diplomatic corps in exile from 1940 until dying in 1983. Lozoraitis served in various posts in the Lithuanian exile representation at the Vatican before moving to the US in 1983, where he subsequently headed the Lithuanian delegation. He played a central role in the campaign for international recognition of Lithuania's independence. While serving as ambassador to the US from September 1991, Lozoraitis was defeated by Algirdas Brazauskas in the presidential elections in February 1993. He was subsequently appointed ambassador to Italy. He is to be buried in Putnam, Connecticut on 17 June. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. NON-CITIZENS ORGANIZE IN LATVIA. Diena reported on 14 June about the results of a poll, started on 1 May, intended to choose spokesmen for all the non-citizens of Latvia. Some 23,000 participated in the poll--about 18,000 in Riga and about 5,000 in Daugavpils--organized by the Apartheid league, i.e. representing those Russians and others affected by policies which they liken to apartheid. The respondents suggested most frequently as their representatives Sergejs Dimanis, Vladlen Dozortsev, Tayana Zhdanok, Leonid Kurdyumov, and Modris Lujans. According to the Citizenship and Immigration Department, there are about 700,000 non-citizens residing in Latvia of whom about 645,000 have indicated interest in becoming citizens. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. ONE OF TIRASPOL SIX RELEASED. One of the "Tiraspol Six" detainees has been released and delivered to right-bank Moldova by the "Dniester republic" authorities, Basapress reported on 16 June. The six activists of the Moldovan Popular Front were sentenced for "terrorism" in 1993 in a lengthy show trial which attracted extensive international intercession. The other five, including one sentenced to death, remain in detention in Transdniester. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Patrick Moore The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. 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