|Подобно тому, как бывает болезнь тела, бывает также болезнь образа жизни. - Демокрит|
No. 111, 14 June 1994
RUSSIA GRACHEV: ARMED FORCES TO BE CUT. Following parliament's rejection of his call for a significant increase in the proposed military budget and subsequent criticism by President Boris Yeltsin of the army's reform efforts, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev announced on 13 June that the authorized strength of the Russian armed forces would be reduced to 1.9 million by 1 October 1994. Current authorized strength of the army is 2.2 million, although the actual number of men and women in uniform is believed to be less than 1.5 million. Interfax reports Grachev said that the reductions would effect officers as well as soldiers, and that 270 generals would be dismissed by the end of the year. In his 10 June remarks, Yeltsin had suggested that the military leadership should cut its forces more rapidly (although he referred in a puzzling fashion to Russia's inability to maintain an army of three million). Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF TARGETS. The figure of 1.9 million is only the latest in a series of manpower targets that have been announced by military leaders since the establishment of a Russian army in the spring of 1992. The original target was 1.5 million, although there was some disagreement over when this level would be reached. Following the October 1993 routing of the Russian parliament, military leaders urged that the nation maintain an army of at least 2.1 million. More recently, there were intimations that the army would aim for a figure of 1.9 million by 1 January 1995. The formal numbers are to some extent academic; draft deferments, draft resistance, the low prestige of the military as a career, and the voluntary withdrawal from the army of thousands of young officers have all conspired to keep actual manpower levels well below the authorized levels. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. DEATHS IN THE RUSSIAN ARMY. Interfax on 12 June quoted the head of a Russian association that defends the rights of Russian servicemen as saying that 25-30 Russian soldiers and officers died daily and that the number of such deaths was twice what the Defense Ministry admitted. Anatolii Alexeyev also claimed that the Military Prosecutor's office was failing to investigate the culpability of commanding officers for the deaths of Russian soldiers. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV ON BOSNIA SANCTIONS. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev warned that unilateral lifting sanctions against Bosnia while maintaining them against Serbia, would "create a new political situation" according to a Reuters report of 14 June. Kozyrev reportedly went on to warn that it could bring back "the worst years of the Cold War" according to the dispatch. Kozyrev spoke to reporters after meeting with Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, who is in Moscow to receive a prize for his poetry from the Russian Writers' Union. Details of the meeting have not been disclosed. The tough, and even threatening, language is a departure from Kozyrev's usually more cautious approach, and is a clear reaction to calls from the US Congress to remove the embargo on weapons to Bosnia. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. FOREIGN POLICY CLUBS. Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 2 June about the fifth conference of the "Suzdal Club," one of several foreign policy lobbies in Russia. The Suzdal Club was formed two years ago to bring together scholars and experts for the study of foreign policy issues and, more importantly, to introduce new ideas into policy-making by linking these people with policy-makers. Such organizations are gaining popularity in Russia. The Council for Foreign and Defense policy maintains an influential membership of both experts and policy-makers, and it has had a palpable impact on Russian foreign policy. (See RFE/RL Daily Report, 6 June 1994). Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. CLUB '93. Another such organization, "Club '93," maintains a membership of experts both inside and outside of the government. It was formed in the spring of 1993 with the expressed aim of redirecting Russia's domestic and foreign policies. According to the New Times (no. 6, 1994), this group played a major part in the "ideological shift" that took place in Russian foreign policy. The thesis driving the club's members is the belief that Russia's problems cannot be solved by programs but by "the adoption of new ideologems." Club '93, which boasts about 50 members, is chaired by State Duma deputy Vyacheslav Nikonov, and its members include Presidential Councilors Andranik Migranyan, Georgii Satarov, Sergei Karaganov, as well as Gorbachev Foundation staffers Aleksei Salmin and Viktor Kuvaldin. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. GAIDAR ELECTED CHAIRMAN OF NEW PARTY. Former acting prime minister Egor Gaidar has been elected chairman of the newly founded party, Russia's Democratic Choice, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow reported on 13 June; 498 delegates to the founding congress of the party voted in favor of Gaidar and 14 voted against. The party's main core is the State Duma faction, Russia's Choice. The new party intends to represent the interests of businessmen, bankers and those regional leaders who have benefited from and support market-oriented reforms. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. BURYAT ELECTIONS. Three elections blocs have formed for the election of the first president of Buryatia and the new Buryat parliament, the Popular Khural, on 16 June, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 June. Three of the four presidential candidates lead these blocs. The Minister of Education Sergei Namsaraev heads the "Education and the Future" movement, which was set up by those working in education. The Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Leonid Potapov heads the "Social Justice" bloc which includes women's, veterans', and youth organizations, the republican sections of the communist and agrarian parties of Russia, and the trades union council. The chairman of the State Committee for the Economy Aleksandr Ivanov heads the "For a Worthy Life" bloc, which has the support of the executive structures and commerce. The fourth candidate is a private entrepreneur. Earlier attempts had been made to exclude Potapov from the running by setting an upper age-limit of 55 years. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. ARMED CLASH IN GROZNYI. At least eight people were killed as a result of armed clashes between government troops and members of opposition groups in the Chechen capital, Groznyi on 12 and 13 June, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. The reports are somewhat confused, but it appears that following a government decision on 10 June that illegal armed bands should be disarmed without delay, the leaders of two of the largest of such bands, Ruslan Labazanov and Khoza Suleimanov, brought their men into the center of Groznyi and tried to negotiate with the government. When this failed, they held a demonstration demanding inter alia the resignation of President Dzhokhar Dudaev. As a result of the government action, Suleimanov was seriously wounded and taken into custody. The whereabouts of Labazanov, who was described by Komsomolskaya pravda on 4 May as enjoying popularity in certain circles comparable with that of Dudaev, is not known. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. PRESIDENT OF TUVA ON EVE OF YELTSIN'S VISIT. The President of Tuva Sherig-ool Oorzhak told ITAR-TASS on 11 June that he regards Yeltsin's planned visit to Tuva on 15-16 June as a step on the part of the center to meet the interests of the regions. Referring to Moscow's objections to certain aspects of the Tuvin constitution, Oorzhak said that local circumstances accounted for the Tuvin constitution's rejection of private ownership of land and the irreplaceability of judges. As for the other contraventions of the Russian constitution, including the right of secession, Oorzhak hoped that Moscow "will understand us correctly," and that Yeltsin's visit will finally dispel "the myth of the existence of so-called Tuvin separatism." Oorzhak said Tuva urgently needed assistance in reforming its economy; this had been self-sufficient when Tuva was independent (i.e. until 1944), but under Soviet rule it had become "hopelessly subsidized." Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS RUSSIAN-MOLDOVAN TROOP TALKS UPDATE. Following last week's unproductive ninth round of bilateral negotiations, which seemed to inch toward regularizing the status of Russian troops in Moldova, the new Moldovan Foreign Minister, Mihai Popov, reaffirmed Chisinau's demand for the withdrawal of Russia's 14th Army "without any linkage to other issues." He will take up the matter with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev this week in Moscow, Popov told Interfax on 13 June. Meanwhile, Maj.-Gen. Stepan Kitsak and Maj.-Gen. Vladimir Atamanenko, former officers of the 14th Army now commanding "Dniester" forces, warned on Tiraspol TV that Russia and Moldova were about to agree on a division of the 14th Army's assets between them in the event of a future withdrawal. In that case, the commanders said, the "Dniester republic" will claim all of the Army's equipment, Basapress reported from Tiraspol on 13 June. The Supreme Soviet in Tiraspol has already passed an edict to that effect. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KAZAKHS CRITICIZE CHINESE TEST. Kazakhstan's Foreign Ministry has issued a statement criticizing China's underground nuclear test of 10 June. Almaty Radio on 11 June quoted the ministry as saying, "It worries us that this test was carried out in a neighboring state and might cause serious problems in ecology and health." China's test site, Lop Nor, is located 1,000 kilometers east of the Chinese-Kazakh border, and Kazakhstan's President, Nursultan Nazarbaev, has repeatedly warned of the environmental risks for his republic from continued testing at Lop Nor, citing contamination at the former Soviet nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk (in northern Kazakhstan) as evidence. Chinese Premier Li Peng, while in Almaty in April 1994, assured Nazarbaev that the tests pose no threat to Kazakhstan; while he confirmed that China is seeking a complete nuclear test ban by 1996, he refused to rule out continued testing in the meantime. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. AKAEV ON RUSSIAN EXODUS. Kyrgyzstan President Askar Akaev has expressed grave concern about the continuing emigration of ethnic Russians from the republic, calling it a "catastrophe" for both Kyrgyzstan and Russia, Interfax reports. Akaev blamed the Russians' departure on general problems, such as the collapse in living standards, but also on specific issues related to local difficulties with economic reform, the declaration of Kyrgyz as the official language and preferential treatment for ethnic Kyrygz. According to the president, 170,000 of the 918,000 Russians living in the republic in 1990 have left; Russians now account for 17 percent of the population, as opposed to 21.2 percent in 1990. Many of the emigres are reportedly having trouble finding housing and employment in Russia. Akaev's remarks were made at the opening of a roundtable forum in Bishkek, entitled "Russians in Kyrgyzstan," on 11 June; the roundtable is to discuss ways of improving conditions for Russians in Kyrygzstan. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW UZBEK PARTY FORMED. Radio Liberty's Uzbek Service has learned that a new political party, Istiqlal Yoli (Independence Path), was founded in Tashkent on 12 June. The formation of the party is largely the work of Shadi Karimov, who had formerly belonged to the main opposition movement, Birlik, and the only opposition party to be legally recognized (but since banned), Erk. Karimov, whose opposition credentials are questioned, especially after he issued a scathing criticism of Erk and its leader, Muhammed Saleh, says that his new party wants to work with Uzbekistan's president, Islam Karimov, but would like to see changes is some unspecified policy areas. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE RUSSIAN HELICOPTER DEFECTS FROM BOSNIAN SERBS TO MUSLIMS. AFP reports on 14 June that a Russian MI-17 "HIP" helicopter with two pilots bolted from Bosnian Serb forces on 8 June and went over to the Muslim side. AFP says it obtained confirmation of the story but the defectors' motives remain unclear. They reportedly brought other "presents to prove their good intentions" when they left Serb lines near Mt. Vlasic for the Bosnian Third Corps to the east at Zenica. It was the first such defection of Russians in the conflict, but the Muslims said they do not need more men and it is unlikely the Russians will stay there. The helicopter, however, is another matter for the equipment-starved Muslims, and they have already begun putting the machine through tests. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. OTHER DEVELOPMENTS FROM THE BATTLEFIELDS. Belgrade dailies on 14 June quote UN representative Yasushi Akashi as calling the Muslim and Croat shelling of Brcko "reprehensible." Brcko is a mainly Muslim town in northeast Bosnia taken by the Serbs in 1992 and subsequently "ethnically cleansed." It is a vital point along the northern corridor linking Serbia with its conquests in Bosnia and Croatia. Meanwhile, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung says that the Serbs have promised to help beleaguered Bihac warlord Fikret Abdic with tanks and heavy artillery in his battle with Bosnian government forces. The paper adds that Serb forces twice shelled a UNPROFOR armored patrol near Maglaj in north central Bosnia in a deliberate attack, to which the UN forces responded with fire. Finally, Borba reports that Krajina Serbs have refused admission to their territory to the US ambassador Croatia, and Politika adds that Krajina Serbs will not talk to the Croatian government unless they are accepted as equals. The Krajina rebels fear that Belgrade will make a deal with Zagreb at their expense and have seemed increasingly nervous in recent months. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ANOTHER TOP CROATIAN POLITICIAN DISTANCES HIMSELF FROM TUDJMAN. Vecernji list on 11 June ran an interview with Franjo Greguric, the vice-president of the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) and the head of the oil enterprise INA, the largest company in Croatia. He is generally regarded as a moderate and is one of the republic's most prominent political figures. He told the Zagreb daily, which is close to the HDZ, that President Franjo Tudjman has carried out his job, but that people around him have misused their positions. He also criticized the attacks on former members of the HDZ's left wing, who have since left to found their own party. Greguric argues that it is impossible that these men are as wicked as the HDZ now makes them out to be and that it is not right that they are demonized more than Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic is. While Greguric does not directly attack Tudjman, the gist of his criticism is clear. Many observers have suggested in the wake of the split in the HDZ this spring that the president must now either align himself with the "critical mass" at the center of his party or risk becoming a captive of the Right. His main advantage to date is that the opposition has yet to mount a credible challenge to him, but this could change if the electorate comes to perceive him as the man responsible for the disasters in Bosnia last year and for undemocratic practices at home. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIANS IN MACEDONIA CRITICIZE CENSUS. The planned census in Macedonia has been criticized by both ethnic Albanian parties in the Macedonian parliament--the Party of Democratic Prosperity and the Democratic People's Party--Rilindja reported on 7 June. After a joint meeting of political parties and other ethnic Albanian institutions on 6 June in Skopje, they complained about the alleged poor preparation of the census, saying that large parts of the population have not been issued census forms and that registration started too late. In a joint declaration the Albanians also said that ethnic Albanians from the bureau of statistics were not duly included in the process. The parties concluded that "the census can not be carried out successfully if the gaps and confusion connected with it are not eliminated." Meanwhile in Sofia, the independent Standart daily on 9 June quoted the leader of Macedonia's pro-Bulgarian Party for Human Rights, Iliya Ilievski, as warning his party would not recognize the census since the Bulgarian language is not going to be mentioned in the questionnaire. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. ETHNIC SERB FROM KOSOVO NAMED TIRANA AMBASSADOR. On 11 June Albanian media reported that Zivorad Igic, an ethnic Serb from Kosovo, was named Belgrade's new ambassador to Tirana. Igic is one of eleven recent Serbian diplomatic appointments, and is among those whose career is profiled by the Belgrade daily Borba on 14 June. The Albanian daily Rilindja reported that Igic was selected for the post because he "met the wishes of the Kosovars [meaning, Serbs in Kosovo] and the demands of the republican and federal rump Yugoslav governments." The daily also calls the appointment, which has yet to be accepted by Tirana, "a provocation", since it regards Igic as a staunch supporter of Serbian President Milosevic's anti-Albanian policies in Kosovo and has described him as "the father of Apartheid" there. The daily also hints that the Igic appointment may be a ploy to derail possible Albanian-Serbian dialogue focusing on the question of Kosovo's political status and which have been pursued by Albanian President Sali Berisha and Albanian Kosovar leader Ibrahim Rugova. Louis Zanga and Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. MASSIVE VOTER ABSTENTION IN LOCAL BULGARIAN ELECTION. Analyzing the results of an election for mayor in the city of Veliko Tarnovo in central Bulgaria, domestic newspapers on 14 June above all try to explain why only 34.26% of the 81,244 registered voters bothered to cast their ballots. As a result, the election results on the previous day had been declared invalid. The Union of Democratic Forces daily Demokratsiya carries a commentary implying that a large part of its electorate is presumably disillusioned by the fact that the former mayor, a UDF nominee, was recently convicted for corruption. In support of this view, the article points out that this is the first time in the post-1989 era that the Bulgarian Socialist Party would have won a plurality of votes in the city; the BSP candidate garnered 45.08% and the UDF contestant merely 34.59% of the votes. In contrast, Standart suggests that widespread voter abstention should be seen as a protest in view of the perception that the major parties have been trying to direct the local campaigns from their Sofia headquarters, being concerned exclusively about political ramifications on the national level. Otechestven vestnik says a new round will be scheduled for either 19 or 26 June. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIANS IN SLOVAKIA WANT CULTURAL AUTONOMY. In an interview with Slovak Radio on 13 June, Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement Chairman Bela Bugar said the basic condition for the further development of the identity of ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia is the right to have educational and cultural autonomy. He said, however, that Hungarian representatives do not demand territorial autonomy; they simply want to have their rights protected by Slovak law. Bugar said that Slovak fears of the severing of southern Slovakia constitute historical prejudice, which should be eliminated. Coexistence Chairman Miklos Duray said it is necessary to find agreement between representatives of the Hungarian minorities in other states and the future coalition government in Hungary, creating harmony which would be useful for all of Central Europe. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. MECIAR'S PARTY LEADS ATTACK ON PRESIDENT. In a press conference of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia on 13 June, Tibor Cabaj, chairman of the MDS parliamentary caucus, said that his party would submit a petition to the Slovak Constitutional Court to start proceedings against President Michal Kovac. The reason for the attack is the failure of Kovac to declare a referendum on early elections and the mandates of parliamentary deputies after a petition presented by the MDS had gained the required 350,000 signatures in early March. Instead, on 16 March Kovac's office had announced that only about 232,000 of the names were valid; thus the referendum drive was canceled. Cabaj said the petition was signed by over 370,000 citizens and that the president had failed "to fulfill his duty." In other political news, the Democratic Union announced on 13 June that it is prepared to begin discussions with the National Democratic Party on possible cooperation in the upcoming parliamentary elections. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN JEWISH COMMUNITY GETS NEW LEADER. Scientist Nicolae Cajal has been elected president of Romania's Federation of Jewish Communities, Radio Bucharest announced on 13 June. The 75-year old Cajal, who is also vice-president of the Romanian Academy, will take over some of the responsibilities formerly held by Chief Rabbi Moses Rosen, who died last month. He succeeds Rosen only in lay functions, whereas the responsibilities of the Jewish community's religious leadership will be taken over by a rabbi. Rosen had held both posts since 1948. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA'S PARLIAMENT SPEAKER IN PRAGUE. Speaking to CTK during his four-day visit, Romanian parliament speaker Adrian Nastase urged closer political and economic cooperation between Romania and the Czech Republic. Nastase argued that since the collapse of communism five years ago, East European countries have focused mainly on their internal problems and that the time has come to be more active in international relations, not only with the West but "between ourselves, in Central Europe." Czech President Vaclav Havel is to visit Romania at the end of June. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SHAKE-UP IN POLISH PRESIDENT'S OFFICE. Polish President Lech Walesa appointed former Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski to serve as head of his National Security Bureau (BBN) and secretary of the National Defense Committee (KOK) on 13 June, Polish TV reports. Goryszewski was one of Poland's most prominent Catholic politicians until his party's defeat in the 1993 elections. He replaces Jerzy Milewski, who had served as the highest-ranking presidential security official since January 1991. After the new government was formed in November, Milewski had also served as first deputy defense minister, a linkage of posts that many political figures criticized as inappropriate. The president apparently suggested that Milewski resign during a KOK meeting on 7 June, on the grounds that Milewski was overburdened. Walesa's motives in the shake-up are unclear. Goryszewski's appointment may be an early attempt to court the Catholic vote; or it may be connected with Walesa's ongoing battle with the government for direct presidential control over the military command. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH DEFENSE SPOKESMAN FIRED. In a further development suggestive of the confusion that reigns in Polish civil-military relations, Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk on 13 June fired the defense ministry's press spokesman for publishing a controversial article on military issues without official approval, PAP reports. In the 9 June issue of Gazeta Wyborcza, Col. Wieslaw Rozbicki had questioned the wisdom of Poland's accession to the CFE treaty, on the grounds that it required excessive disarmament by an already strapped army. He also defended the recent transfer of military intelligence (WSI) from the minister of defense to the General Staff, arguing that "it is better for national security if a civilian minister does not have full information provided by WSI." These remarks drew indignant protests from the Sejm's National Defense Committee on 11 June. The committee condemned Rozbicki for questioning government policy and "failing to understand the basic principle of full state control over the armed forces." In a letter to the committee expressing regret, Kolodziejczyk castigated Rozbicki for holding "completely wrongheaded" views. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE PROBLEMS AT CHORNOBYL. The head of Ukraine's state accident control center, Serhii Nazarenko, announced that there has been an increase in the amount of contaminated water leaking from the cooling pond where spent fuel rods are kept in Chornobyl, Ukrainian television reported on 10 June. At that time Nazarenko said the problem did not pose any immediate dangers. On 13 June UNIAN reported that the leak had still not been pinpointed and that two tons of radioactive water had been leaking daily since 7 June. The radiation level is around 1.0 microcuries per liter. The leakage is taking place in the second reactor which was shut down in 1991 because of a fire. The level of radioactivity is still reportedly acceptable and efforts are being made to locate the leak which include draining the pond. Ukraine is said to be considering reopening the second reactor because of its energy crisis. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. ZLENKO ON UKRAINE AND THE EU. Ukrainian delegates are to meet with EU representatives in Luxembourg on 13-14 June to sign an agreement on partnership which was reached on 8 February, Ukrainian television reported on 12 June. The agreement would be the first between the EU and a former Soviet republic. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko says the agreement is important in several respects. Politically it gives Ukraine a degree of national security, while economically it sets forth the terms for trade between Ukraine and the EU and is Ukraine's opening for establishing normal economic relations with western Europe. One of the main issues receiving special attention in the deal is nuclear safety in Ukraine and aid in helping close down the Chornobyl nuclear power station. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC PRIME MINISTERS MEET IN TALLINN. On 13 June Adolfas Slezevicius (Lithuania), Valdis Birkavs (Latvia), and Mart Laar (Estonia) met in Tallinn and formed a Baltic Council of Ministers, Reuters reports. They signed an agreement on parliamentary and government cooperation which was represented as "a historic step towards the integration of the Baltic States into the European Union." They issued a joint statement demanding that all Russian troops leave Latvia and Estonia by 31 August unconditionally. Laar noted that an agreement on cooperation in customs and border control would be signed at their next meeting. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. SIX NEW MINISTERS IN LITHUANIA. On 10 June Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius nominated six new ministers whom President Algirdas Brazauskas approved, Radio Lithuania reports. Deputy Foreign Minister Vladislavas Domarkas (55) was named Education and Science Minister; former Culture and Education Minister Dainius Trinkunas (63) Culture Minister; head of the Dambrava Forestry Research Institute Albertas Vasiliauskas (59) Forestry Minister; and presidential advisor on economic and social policy Aleksandras Vasiliauskas (54) Economics Minister, effective immediately. Former deputy head of the Environment Protection Department Bronius Bradauskas (50) will become Environment Protection Minister from 15 June. Social Security Minister Laurynas Mindaugas Stankevicius (59) will become Government Reforms and Local Rule Minister from 1 July. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW LEADERSHIP FOR LATVIA'S TWO LARGEST CITIES. Following the local elections throughout Latvia, the elected representatives have been busy forming new governments. Baltic media reported on 13 June that Aleksjs Vidavskis, who ran on the left-of-center Concord Party ticket, will be the new mayor of Latvia's second largest city Daugavpils. Maris Purgailis of Latvia's National Independence Movement (LNIM) will be the new mayor of Riga. The 60-member city council of Riga consists of representatives of 16 political organizations. The majority of representatives can be described as right-of-center and are members of either LNIM and the Green Party, which ran in the elections on a joint ticket. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVAN POPULAR FRONT THREATENS STREET ACTIONS. For the first time since the Popular Front's heavy defeat in the February legislative elections, 5,000 of its supporters rallied on 12 June, without authorization, in Chisinau's central square. As reported by Radio Bucharest and Basapres on 12 and 13 June, the Front's leaders accused Moldova's leadership and parliament of inflicting social hardships on the populace and of national treason for joining the CIS; and they reaffirmed their commitment to unification with Romania. They called on their supporters to use extraparliamentary methods of struggle against the government, including unauthorized demonstrations in central Chisinau in the weeks ahead. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Patrick Moore The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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