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No. 109, 10 June 1994
RUSSIAN FEDERATION RUMORS OF CHERNOMYRDINS DEPARTURE DENIED. Vyacheslav Kostikov, the Russian presidents press secretary denied reports that Prime Minister is about to resign. According to an Interfax report of 10 June, Kostikov denounced the story as an invention and lie, and went on to suggest that such articles are of a provocative and anti-state nature. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. NATO LEADERS: NO NEW DIVIDING LINE IN EUROPE. Still trying to finesse the problem of how to draw Russia into the NATO Partnership for Peace Program without acceding to Moscows desire for a formally enhanced relationship with the Western alliance, NATO leaders meeting in Istanbul on 9 June agreed to recognize Russias special status as a major nuclear and military power, but they rejected Moscows demand for voice in NATO decision-making. According to The New York Times, a NATO communique assured representatives of Central and Eastern States that NATOs cooperation with Moscow would not signal a modern version of the 1945 Yalta accord. We will not draw new diving lines across Europe nor engage in a NATO-Russian condominium, NATO Deputy Secretary-General Sergio Balanzino was quoted as saying. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. SHUMEIKO ON FURTHER CIS INTEGRATION. Federation Council Speaker and head of the executive council of the CIS Interparliamentary Assembly Vladimir Shumeiko believes that the processes of integration in the former Soviet Union will mean the creation of a confederative, if not federative, state on one sixth of the earths surface, Interfax reported on 9 June. The agency paraphrased Shumeiko as saying that almost all of the former Soviet republics, with the exception of the Baltic states, favor integration. He said that the Soviet Union would not be revived because it rested on one pillar--the Soviet Communist Party. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. MIXED SIGNALS ON THE NORTH KOREA CRISIS. Russian Foreign Ministry officials on 9 June emphasized their preference for the use of political methods by the international community rather than sanctions as the best means for convincing North Korea to ensure the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) access to its nuclear facilities. Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin was quoted by ITAR-TASS as urging the convening of an international conference for a comprehensive examination of the problems on the Korean peninsula. If these diplomatic efforts are not successful, the sanctions proposal will have to be examined. The remarks were the latest in what have been mixed signals coming out of Moscow on the issue. As the Boston Globe reported on 8 June, Boris Yeltsin is believed to have told South Korean President Kim Young Sam during his recent visit to Moscow that Russia would endorse the sanctions. Russia has long been urging the convening of an international conference. Meanwhile, on 10 June Reuters reported that Yeltsin was expected to visit Seoul later this year, possibly in November; [an exact date has apparently not yet been fixed.] Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. MIXED SIGNALS ON THE NORTH KOREA CRISIS. Russian Foreign Ministry officials on 9 June emphasized their preference for the use of political methods by the international community rather than sanctions as the best means for convincing North Korea to ensure access to its nuclear facilities for the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin was quoted by ITAR-TASS as urging the convening of an international conference for a comprehensive examination of the problems on the Korean peninsula. If these diplomatic efforts are not successful, the sanctions proposal will have to be examined. The remarks were the latest in what have been mixed signals coming out of Moscow on the issue. As the Boston Globe reported on 8 June, Boris Yeltsin is believed to have told South Korean President Kim Young Sam during his recent visit to Moscow that Russia would endorse the sanctions. Russia has long been urging the convening of an international meeting. Meanwhile, on 10 June Reuters reported that Yeltsin was expected to visit Seoul later this year, possibly in November, but an exact date has not yet been fixed. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY IN DECLINE. The Russian government reported on 9 June that industrial production dropped 26% in the first five months of 1994 in comparison to the same period in 1993. The decline was greatest in the heavy machinery sector, where production fell 45%. Production was down 12% in the energy sector; 22% in food processing; and 35% in the chemical and petrochemical sector. In May, 5,500 large or medium-sized industrial plants (or one-fourth of the total) were forced to halt production for longer or shorter periods, according to a report from the state statistical committee. In January, the figure was 3,784. Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets called the situation in the heavy machinery sector critical and warned officials that they would be held responsible for the industrys collapse. But President Boris Yeltsins chief of staff, Sergei Filatov, told reporters that the dramatic figures on heavy industry distort the overall economic picture and fail to reflect positive trends in trade and banking. Western and Russian agencies carried the report. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GRACHEV IN ARMENIA. During his second day of talks in Erevan on 9 June, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev reached agreement with Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan on the establishment of what ITAR-TASS termed one powerful military base split between two locations, Erevan and Gyumri, which will include land, anti-aircraft and backup troops. Russia will pay no rent for the bases over the 25 year lease period; Armenia will contribute towards their upkeep. Grachev also discussed unifying the Russian and Armenian air defense systems on the basis of the CIS Collective Security Treaty. Armenian Defense Minister Serzh Sarkisyan told Interfax that the Armenian parliament would ratify the existing intergovernmental agreement on the status of Russian troops in Armenia (signed in 1992 and ratified by the Russian parliament in February 1993) some time this summer; the treaty on creation of the Russian bases would be signed by 1 September. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN SIGNS DECREE ON ABKHAZ PEACEKEEPING FORCE. On 9 June Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree ordering the Russian government to create a peacekeeeping force for deployment in Abkhazia, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. The force will be composed of three battalions from the Group of Russian Forces in the Transcaucasus. While the decree came into force on the date of signing, the date for the beginning of the peacekeeping operation must be decided by the Federation Council, which is next scheduled to meet on 21 June. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. NAZARBAEV TO PARLIAMENT ON REFORMS. Kazakhstans President Nursultan Nazarbaev appealed for parliamentary support for his reform program in a speech to the Supreme Soviet on 9 June, and told the deputies who had passed a no confidence vote in the anti-crisis program of Prime Minister Sergei Tereshchenko that he was giving the government carte blanche for 15 months to carry out the program, Russian news agencies reported. Nazarbaev said that reform of the banking and credit system has top priority in order to stop inflation and strengthen the national currency, the tenge. He also called for stopping direct and indirect grants of state funds to enterprises and more price liberalization. On non-economic issues, Nazarbaev announced a government program to cut emigration motivated by ethnic factors and called for a revised law on languages, but again rejected dual citizenship on the grounds that it would further complicate Kazakhstans already complex interethnic relations. In response to questions from the deputies, the president promised that in future local heads of administration will be elected rather than appointed. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. NAZARBAEV CALLS FOR MOVE OF CAPITAL. In his speech to the Kazakhstani Supreme Soviet on 9 June, President Nazarbaev asked the parliament to adopt his earlier proposal that the countrys capital be moved from Almaty in the extreme southeast to the city of Akmola (formerly Tselinograd) in the north-central part of Kazakhstan. Among the reasons that have been advanced to justify the move is Akmolas more central location in a more ethnically-mixed region and Almatys proximity to China. Kazakh intellectuals, who tend to favor the move, see it as a statement of Kazakhstans determination to hold on to the northern oblasts with their large Russian populations. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIANS SHELL AFGHAN TERRITORY. Russian troops along the Tajik-Afghan border shelled suspected Tajik rebel bases in northern Afghanistan on 9 June, after coming under sustained rocket attacks by the rebels, Reuters reports. The rebel attack left one Tajik government soldier dead; no casualty figures are available from the Afghan village shelled by the Russian border guards. The commander of Russias border guards in Tajikistan, Anatolii Chechulin, and a Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman both reiterated that Russia will take all necessary measures to protect its servicemen along the border and within Tajikistan; Chechulin sees the current attacks as a prelude to a larger summer offensive by the rebels. An unconfirmed Interfax report asserts that 25 insurgents were repelled on 7 June, including 10 Arabs. Meanwhile, leaflets were circulated in Dushanbe, asking for help in solving the recent murders of Russian soldiers there; Reuters quoted one leaflet as reading, The Russian army is standing against the dark forces and does everything to serve its holy duty to the brotherly Tajik people. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. CSCE TO MEET IN UZBEKISTAN. A spokesman for the Council on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) has told RFE/RL that the CSCE will hold a special seminar in Tashkent from 28-30 September 1994. The meeting will focus on conflict management and security in Central Asia, and all five Central Asian states are expected to send government delegates and representatives of non-governmental organizations. International organizations, including the UN High Commission for Refugees, have also been invited to send representatives, and the Stockholm-based Institute for Peace Research has reportedly agreed to send experts to the seminar. All the former Soviet republics in Central Asia are members of the CSCE, and several have also joined NATOs Partnership for Peace program. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS BLACK SEA FLEET TALKS END WITHOUT RESOLUTION. On 9 June Interfax reported that negotiations over the Black Sea Fleet have come to an end without any agreement on the issue of basing. The next round of negotiations is to take place in Moscow in approximately two weeks. Both sides have reportedly agreed not to give out any details of the negotiations until after Presidents Yeltsin and Kravchuk have had the opportunity to examine the proposals put forward by the negotiators. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVAN-RUSSIAN TROOP TALKS: NEW TWISTS. At the ninth round of negotiations on the future of Russian troops in Moldova, held in Moscow on 7 and 8 June, the two sides discussed and initialed several documents that would regulate the status of the Russian troops temporarily stationed in Moldova, Russian and Moldovan agencies reported. The documents cover, inter alia, Russian military overflight rights, interaction of the two sides in verifying their compliance with conventional arms control and security-building measures mandated by CSCE, legal assistance to Russian servicemen stationed in Moldova, and Moldovan contributions to social benefits of Russian servicemen and their families. The Russian side has sought all along to focus the negotiations on regularizing the presence of its troops in Moldova, rather than on the procedures for their withdrawal as the Moldovan side wants. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA UPDATE. On 10 June, as a month-long cease-fire is scheduled to go into effect in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Western media report that tension and fighting continues to mark conditions throughout the country. On 9 June Reuters reported that UN observers have concluded that Serbs continue to wage ethnic cleansing campaigns against non-Serbs throughout the region of Banja Luka. According to a spokesman for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, ethnic Serbs in the area are terrorizing people with impunity, while local Serb authorities appear unwilling to stop the practice. Meanwhile, also on 9 June AFP reported that the Bosnian army continues to make gains against Serb forces in northern and western Bosnia. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIAN POLITICAL STALEMATE. On 10 June Croatias major dailies continue to report on the countrys political crisis which has paralyzed the normal working of parliament. The opposition and the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ), which appears to be beset by its own internal schisms, have been unable to forge a compromise which would permit all parties to agree on a formula enabling parliament to go about daily business. Vecernji list carries coverage of the political stalemate under the headline Nothing New in the Sabor while Vjesnik offers the headline Blockade of Parliament Benefits No One. In its coverage and analysis of the situation, Globus offers up the conclusion that the parliamentary crisis, it seems, is not going to be resolved in the coming few days. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBS STEP UP VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO. According to the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF), Serbian authorities in the province of Kosovo, where ethnic Albanians make up roughly 90% of the population, have intensified harassment of ethnic Albanians in what the IHF fears may be a part of a deliberate Serbian policy of ethnic cleansing. The human rights group notes that Serbian harassment has been perhaps most prevalent against Albanian schools and universities in the province. In just one of at least hundreds of documented incidents, on 30 May 1994 Serbian police allegedly stormed the University of Pristina, arresting seven administrators and instructors. The victims were detained for days before being released. The IHF concludes that Serbian tactics are intimidating students and teachers and having the effect of denying hundreds of thousands of young Albanians normal intellectual development. In a separate AFP story, on 9 May Albanias President Sali Berisha and Kosovar leader Ibrahim Rugova, on a visit to Tirana, called for dialog with Belgrade, under international mediation, to discuss the status and future of the province of Kosovo. In the past, Belgrade has rejected all such calls, maintaining that the question of Kosovos status is a strictly domestic rump Yugoslav concern. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. MACEDONIAN DEVELOPMENTS. US Special envoy, Matthew Nimetz, met with President Kiro Gligorov, and foreign minister, Stevo Crnvekovski , on 8 June according to MILS. Greek-Macedonian differences along with the Greek trade blockade imposed upon Macedonia were discussed. That same day, television station A1 noted that Greece may soon propose that Macedonia be renamed The Central Balkan Republic of Macedonia. On 10 June, according to Vecer, Albanian and Macedonian agriculture officials concluded discussions in Ohrid without signing an agreement concerning cooperation because of a dispute over Macedonias official name. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. HAVEL ON RUSSIA, CENTRAL EUROPE. In an interview published in the Moscow weekly Moskovskie Novosti on 9 June, Czech President Vaclav Havel said that Central Europe is disturbed by Russian politicians who seek a veto over which multilateral organizations Central European countries join. According to Havel, these politicians seem to suggest that Central Europe is within Russias sphere of influence. It is up to Central Europeans to decide where they stand, said Havel. The Czech president is also quoted as saying that he did not think that the success of leftist parties in Central Europe signals a return to Communism. In his opinion, it is simply a part of a democratic development. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. DISCORD AMONG SLOVAKIAS ETHNIC HUNGARIAN PARTIES. Despite calls for a three-party preelection coalition among Slovakias ethnic Hungarian parties--Coexistence, the Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement and the Hungarian Civic Party--the success of such a coalition seems unlikely. Although Coexistence, which is the largest and the most popular ethnic Hungarian party, has agreed to discuss this possibility, analysts say the party will probably continue to favor its present two-party coalition with the HCDM. In a press conference of the HCP on 9 June, Chairman Laszlo Nagy said his party regards the possible candidacy of its members as independents on the election list of the two-party coalition of the Coexistence-HCDM as unacceptable, saying this solution would betray the desires of the Hungarian inhabitants of Slovakia. Nagy said it was premature to say that the possibility of discussions among the three Hungarian parties has been exhausted, TASR reports. There has also been tension between Coexistence and the HCDM, following statements of Coexistence Chairman Miklos Duray critical of the present government and the failure of three Coexistence deputies to support the road sign bill, which failed by one vote on 3 June. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM PARLIAMENTARY LEADER ELECTED. The parliamentary fraction of the HDF elected on 9 June Finance Minister Ivan Szabo as its new leader, MTI reports. Szabo pledged that the parliamentary group, which shrunk from 164 at the time of the 1990 elections to 37, would play the role of a constructive opposition and promote a dialogue between parliamentary parties. He also announced that the HDF would seek to strengthen its profile as a national Christian party. Referring to his partys defeat in the May elections, Szabo said that voters put their own interests ahead of the values that his party stood for, and vowed that in the future the HDF would convey to voters more effectively that it also represented their interests. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH OPPOSITION BOYCOTTS STRATEGY SPEECH. All four opposition parties in the Sejm walked out in protest on 9 June when the ruling coalition used its controlling majority to vote to hear the governments economic Strategy for Poland and then block any discussion of it. Deputy Prime Minister Grzegorz Kolodko thus presented his strategy to a half-empty Sejm. The Freedom Union charged the coalition with arrogance and accused it of attempting to silence the opposition. Other opposition leaders charged the coalition with using its economic strategy--which, among other things, promises an 11% increase in real wages in the next four years--to win votes in the local elections scheduled for 19 June. The Sejm leadership announced on 10 June that debate on the strategy will take place in two weeks time, or after the elections. A vote to liberalize abortion provisions (permitting abortion in cases of financial or emotional hardship) has been scheduled for 10 June, however, prompting new opposition charges that the coalition is arranging the Sejm agenda to facilitate its own victory in the local government elections. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA BALANCES BETWEEN COALITION AND OPPOSITION. Although Walesa attended Kolodkos presentation on 9 June, he moved from his usual seat to a chair in the back row of the presidential box when the opposition walked out, PAP reports. The president hailed the strategy as the best document of the past 4-5 years, but criticized the coalition for manipulative timing. In a surprise announcement, Walesa told a press conference on 9 June that he is considering appointing Henryk Goryszewski to replace Jerzy Milewski as head of his advisory National Security Bureau (BBN). Goryszewski was a vocal but relatively unimportant deputy prime minister in the Suchocka government, where he represented the Christian National Union. Since that partys defeat in the 1993 elections, he has withdrawn from politics. Milewski has been the source of friction with the coalition, as he holds both the post of deputy defense minister and the presidential post. Asked by reporters whether he would accept the BBN post, Goryszewski said, one does not refuse the president. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA SHIFTS ON WAGE CONTROLS. The Sejm voted on 9 June to reject the Senates amendments to draft legislation on wage controls in state firms, PAP reports. These amendments would have limited the validity of wage controls to the current year. The vote clears the way for President Lech Walesa to sign the wage controls into law. Although Walesa vetoed an earlier version of the bill and said repeatedly that he would not sign a new version, he told a press conference on 9 June that the current wave of strikes and the threat of new inflation will likely force his hand. Poland has been without wage controls since 1 April. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH STEEL WORKERS ON STRIKE. In a protest co-sponsored by Solidarity and the former official OPZZ union federation, workers at the Lucchini steel mill (formerly Huta Warszawa) went out on strike on 9 June, PAP reports. The strikers are demanding a 30% pay increase and the rapid modernization of the plant, which has been delayed by disputes over ownership of assets taken over by the Polish-Italian joint venture. In a referendum on 7-8 June, 80% of the work force supported the strike. The management declared the strike illegal but said it would negotiate. Meanwhile, an occupation strike shut down the Huta Katowice steel mill for the ninth day running. Workers at Fiat Auto Poland are also threatening to strike if their pay demands are not met, PAP reports. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA AMENDS PRIVATIZATION LAW. On 9 June the National Assembly adopted the final texts of the amendments in the law on privatization from 1992. Most importantly, the amendments are designed to pave way for mass privatization, not envisaged in the original legislation. BTA reports that all Bulgarian citizens aged above 18 will now be able to acquire investment bonds nominally worth 25,000 leva by paying 500 leva. The bonds cannot be resold but only used to buy shares directly in enterprises, or in investment funds acting as trusts or holding companies. Parliament also voted to establish a new organizational entity to supervise the procedure, a Center for Mass Privatization whose Executive Director will be appointed by the government. Foreign and Bulgarian observers participating in a privatization seminar held on 6 June criticized the mass privatization scheme for failing to provide people with effective ownership rights, and for being incomplete and based on outdated information about the companies slated to be privatized. Speaking on Bulgarian National Radio on 9 June, Deputy Premier and Trade Minister Valentin Karabashev--whose resignation has not yet been accepted by the cabinet--said that the government did not need change legislation in order to privatize. Karabashev pointed out that his ministry has sold 50 companies over the past 15 months and is negotiating on another 130 deals. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA ALLUDES TO TERRITORIAL ASPIRATIONS. At a news briefing on 8 June, the Romanian Foreign Ministrys chief spokesman, Mircea Geoana, said that we do not hide the fact that talks with Russia on a state treaty encounter difficulties over Romanias insistence that the document address the matter of overcoming the consequences of the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact, Radio Bucharest reports. In Romanian political parlance, that formula connotes the perceived right to reincorporate Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, which are currently in Moldova and Ukraine. The notion is common in Romanian political circles that the Russian Federation as a legal successor of the USSR bears a responsibility in this regard. Romanias negotiations on state treaties with its two eastern neighbors are also deadlocked over Bucharests reluctance to recognize Ukraines current borders and insistence to introduce language on future unification with Moldova. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAS CITIZENSHIP LAW PASSES SECOND READING. On 9 June the Saeima passed the second reading of the citizenship law proposed by the ruling coalition by a vote of 50 to 14 with 13 abstentions, Reuters reports. The law stipulates preferential naturalization of persons of whom at least one parent is an ethnic Latvian, persons who came to Latvia and lived there before 17 June 1940, Lithuanian and Estonian ethnic minorities, and spouses of Latvian citizens who have been married for at least ten years. All these groups should know the Latvian language. The law also gave preference to persons who completed the full high course in Latvian. Citizenship will not be given to persons whom a court has recognized as having propagated the ideas of chauvinism, nationalism, and fascism as well as working against Latvian independence as well as Soviet military retirees if they are not ethnic Latvians or spouses of Latvian citizens. Other people will be able to apply for naturalization from 1 January 1996 with preference given to those born in Latvia. From the year 2000 persons in other categories will be naturalized with a naturalization quota of 0.1% of Latvias citizens per year. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LOW MAY INFLATION IN LATVIA AND ESTONIA. The Latvian State Statistics Committee announced that consumer price index in May grew by only 0.2%, BNS reported on 9 June. The monthly inflation rate in the first four months of 1994 had been 3.8%, 3.4%, 1.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. In May the price of food decreased by 1.2%, while that of clothing increased by 1.5%, public utilities by 0.7%, health care by 2%, and culture and education by 2.9%. The Estonian consumer price index increased by 1.1% in May. The monthly inflation rate in the first four months of 1994 had been 5.5%, 5.2%, 8.9%, and 3.1% . Food prices in May dropped by 1.3% while manufactured goods rose by 1.2% , and services by 3.5%. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE TO SCRAP AIR CRAFT CARRIER. On 9 June Interfax reported that Ukraine had decided to scrap the aircraft carrier Varyag now under construction in the Mykolaiv shipyards. The carrier is around 65% complete, but Ukraine itself does not have any use for it and has been unable to find a buyer. There were rumors in 1992 that China was interested in purchasing the carrier, but no deal ever materialized. Deputy Prime Minister Valerii Shmarov said that Ukraine had proposed that Russia buy the carrier, but when Russia refused it was decided to scrap the vessel. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINES GAZPROM DEBT. Following a meeting between a Gazprom delegation and Ukrainian officials in Kiev on 3-4 June, it was agreed that Ukraine is to pay Gazprom $130 million this month for gas, Interfax reported on 9 June. In addition, Ukraine is to pay $500 million by the end of August and deliver facilities and services worth 500 billion rubles to pay off its over $1 billion debt. Part of the agreement calls for Ukraine to built 308,700 square meters of housing in Russia for Russian gas industry workers. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE ON BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL RACE. The leader of the Party of Popular Accord, Henadz Karpenka, has agreed to support the candidacy of the leader of the Belarusian Popular Front, Zyanon Paznyak, Belarusian radio reported on 9 June. Karpenka had been disqualified from the presidential race after the electoral commission invalidated a number of the signatures in his support leaving him short of the necessary 100,000, and several deputies retracted their support for him leaving him short of the 70 deputies signatures necessary to be placed on the ballot. In other news, Belarusian television reported that the leader of the Party of Communists of Belarus, Vasil Novikau, also a presidential candidate, has said that he does not believe any single candidate will receive enough votes in the first round of balloting to be elected president. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Jan de Weydenthal The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. 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