Необходимость избавляет нас от трудностей выбора. - Вовенарг
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 107, 8 June 1994


aircraft (the civilian equivalent of the C-130 military transport)
chartered by the US State Department was forced to land near Sochi
by Russian fighters after it reportedly violated Russian air
space, according to Western press reports. The aircraft was later
allowed to continue on its flight to Tbilisi, to which it was
reportedly carrying embassy supplies and diplomatic pouches
containing classified materials. Confusion initially surrounded
the incident as US officials at first denied that the flight was
sponsored by the US government, and then acknowledged it. The
Russian Foreign Ministry gave a note to US Ambassador Thomas
Pickering stating that the aircraft did not have clearance to fly
over Russia (a charge rejected by the flight crew) and called for
"disciplinary measures" to be taken against the crew. The note
also called for measures to be taken to prevent similar "dangerous
incidents" in the future, according to ITAR-TASS.  John
Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

DEFENSE BUDGET BATTLES CONTINUE. The battle over the Russian
defense budget continued to rage on several fronts on 7 June
according to ITAR-TASS and Interfax reports. The Federation
Council, representing regional interests, issued a statement
noting that up to 8 million jobs depended on the defense budget,
and urged the Duma to support the Council's call for an 18
trillion ruble increase. In the Duma, however, the Committtee on
Budget and Taxation called for only a 3.5 trillion ruble increase.
The Duma's committee on defense (which is sympathetic to the
russian military's call for more money) held hearings the same day
in which defense ministry officials described the military as
chronically underfunded and unable to meet its debts to servicemen
or the defense industry. In contrast, Ministry of Finance
officials told the same committee that they might even favor
cutbacks in some areas, such as salary and even housing programs.
Finally, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev weighed in with an
interview in Trud, rebutting claims that military reform has
stalled, and stating that the military was on a "starvation diet."
John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

government sources in Bonn, Reuters on 7 June reported that German
officials are concerned that senior Russian military officers may
be trying to exert influence over states formerly part of the USSR
and that Russian intervention in regional conflicts could set an
undesirable precedent for Russia to play a special role in the
collapsed empire. "Russia must be prevented from operating without
an international mandate," one source was quoted as saying, "there
are ambitions in military circles to use the CIS for [Russia's]
own ends." The same sources suggested that Western states were
themselves divided over whether to intervene with peacekeepers in
CIS conflicts, but they emphasized that "all Russian military
measures for keeping or imposing peace should be carried out with
utmost transparency . . . with the help of UN or CSCE observers.
They rejected Russian proposals to subordinate NATO to the CSCE
and to turn the CIS into a UN regional organization.  Stephen
Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

HIDDEN DEFENSE EXPENDITURES? Rossiiskaya gazeta of 7 June carries
a commentary alleging that much of the current debate over
Russia's proposed level of defense spending is misleading because
the state budget carries numerous other defense-related
expenditures that are not being counted as such. Charging that
Russia remains on a "war-time budget," the article alleges that,
with the inclusion of expenditures for Internal Affairs Ministry,
Border, and other special forces, as well as other hidden
expenses, actual defense spending in the budget amounts to some 80
trillion rubles. Current debate in the parliament has involved
raising the proposed budget from 37 trillion rubles to up to 55
trillion rubles. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.


Ministry of Foreign Affairs has lodged a protest with the British
Embassy in Moscow over the signing of a British-Azerbaijani
memorandum on cooperation in prospecting for oil and gas in "the
so-called Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian Sea", according to
ITAR-TASS of 7 June quoting Izvestiya. Speaking at a press
briefing in Moscow, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii
Karasin stated that Moscow does not recognize unilateral actions
by Caspian littoral states outside the framework of an appropriate
agreement, given the possible dangers to the Caspian eco-system;
he hoped that such an agreement outlining the mechanisms for
cooperation could be concluded soon, Interfax reported.  Liz
Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

Russian military official told Interfax on 7 June that claims that
Russian peacekeeping troops were already being deployed in
Abkhazia were untrue, and that Russian President Boris Yeltsin had
given no instructions to the Defense Ministry to proceed with the
deployment--a formulation that ignores the fact that the Russian
parliament must (theoretically) give its consent also. A spokesman
for the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet told ITAR-TASS on 7 June that there
were no UN or CIS peacekeeping troops in Abkhazia. The head of the
Georgian Interior Ministry troops told Interfax that the first
stage of the disengagement of forces in the Abkhaz conflict zone
could begin "within five days" and that contingents from almost
all CIS states will take part; it has already been decided where
the Russian contingent is to be deployed.  Liz Fuller, RFE/RL,

. . . AND FOR NAGORNO-KARABAKH. The Grachev plan for a Karabakh
ceasefire which envisaged deployment of an overwhelmingly Russian
monitoring force has been amended, and Russian troops will now
constitute only one third of the CIS contingent, Interfax reported
on 7 June quoting unnamed sources close to the Azerbaijani
leadership. The Russian troops will remain in Azerbaijan for no
longer than six months. This agreement was reportedly reached
during talks on 4 June in Baku between Azerbaijani Foreign
Minister Hasan Hasanov and Russian special mediator for Karabakh,
Vladimir Kazimirov. Britain has also offered to provide a
contingent of troops to participate in the ceasefire monitoring
under the auspices of the CSCE, according to ITAR-TASS of 7 June
quoting the British Ambassador in Baku, Thomas Young.  Liz Fuller,
RFE/RL, Inc.

GRACHEV TO TRANSCAUCASUS. On 8 June Russian Defense Minister Pavel
Grachev began a four-day visit to the Transcaucasus republics
where he is expected to discuss the establishment of Russian
military bases in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. According to
Interfax, Defense Ministry spokesperson Elena Agapova said that
Russia planned to establish three such bases in Georgia, two in
Armenia, and an early warning radar facility in Azerbaijan.
(ITAR-TASS mentioned only one base in Armenia) It is believed that
the new bases will be established on the basis of existing Russian
facilities. Grachev, who will meet with the leaders of each of the
Transcaucasus republics, is also scheduled to visit Abkhazia and
Adzharia, according to ITAR-TASS. Talks during his trip will also
deal with Russian peacekeeping activities in Nagorno Karabakh and
Abkhazia.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

reported from Brussels on 7 June that Moscow is pressuring
Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan to renegotiate a CFE-related
(Conventional Forces in Europe) sharing-out agreement in a way
that would permit Russia to base more military hardware in the
Caucasus region without violating the CFE Treaty. Russia, which
has unsuccessfully tried to win NATO approval for a raising of
Russian sub-limits in the region, apparently wants to increase its
proportion of forces in the region at the expense of the three
Transcaucasus republics. NATO sources were quoted as saying that
Azerbaijan had rejected the Russian request, that Armenia's
position was unclear, and that Georgia might have little choice
but to agree.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

Minister Georgii Kondratev on 6 June blamed hard-line foes of the
Tajik government for the killings of Russian officers, and
asserted that the opposition is preparing for major military
strikes along the Afghan-Tajik border, as well as within
Tajikistan. Interfax also quoted him as saying that Russia's 201st
motorized infantry division (concentrated in and around Dushanbe)
and the Russian border guards in Tajikistan are capable of
stopping opposition military activity, both within Tajikistan and
along its borders. The re-marks are likely to fuel Tajik
opposition complaints that Russia's role is not that of a neutral
arbitrator, but that of protector of the pro-Communist government.
The same day, Tajikistan's deputy security minister told Interfax
that military patrols which began after the recent killings had
significantly improved the security situation in Dushanbe.  Keith
Martin, RFE/RL, Inc.


Moscow nationalist weekly Patriot, no. 20/1994, "Dniester
Republic" Supreme Soviet Chairman Grigorii Marakutsa said that
Transdniester was "an inalienable part of the Russian state's
southern region, [which] also includes Crimea, Odessa Oblast, and
a number of other [Ukrainian] oblasts, [and is] known as
Novorossia." Terming it "ancestral Russian land," Marakutsa
further claimed that "the great majority of the Dniester people
gravitate toward Russia . . . The Dniester republic's sovereignty
is obviously not an obstacle to its accession to Greater Russia .
. . We are realists and understand that the matter is not to be
settled today." [Russians form 25.5% of Transdniester's population
and are mostly nonnative there.] Tiraspol's would-be foreign
minister, Valerii Litskay, told Basapress on 4 June that the
"Dniester" authorities maintain "working-level contacts with
Crimea's leaders." Tiraspol apparently feels encouraged by
developments in nearby Crimea to reaffirm its sympathy for the
"Novorossia" idea which envisages carving a Russia-oriented state
out of southern and eastern Ukraine and Transdniester.  Vladimir
Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

that a Russian delegation is scheduled to arrive in Kiev on 8 June
to continue Black Sea Fleet negotiations. The delegation is to be
led by the top fleet negotiator, Yurii Dubinin, and will include
the commander of the Russian navy, Admiral Feliks Gromov.
Agreement on the division of the fleet itself was reached in
April, but the issue of naval bases remains to be resolved. Ustina
Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

media reported that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has
accepted proposals for a four-month ceasefire. Karadzic, who is
currently at Geneva talks attended also by Bosnian Muslim and
Croat leaders, had earlier insisted on a permanent ceasfire.
Meanwhile, Bosnian Muslim and Croat leaders continue to express
reservations about the four-month ceasefire, suggesting that such
a relatively lengthy period of time would offer Bosnian Serb
forces the opportunity to consolidate their hold over the roughly
70% of Bosnia and Herzegovina they now control. Talks are
scheduled to resume 8 June, and within days may be moved to a
location in Bosnia. In other news, agencies report renewed
fighting throughout northern Bosnia and other locations. On 7 June
Reuters reported exchange of fire between Serb and Muslim troops
near Gorazde.  Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

KUCAN IN ZAGREB. On 7 June HINA reported that Slovenian President
Milan Kucan had arrived in Zagreb for meetings with his Croatian
counterpart, Franjo Tudjman. It was the first meeting between the
two leaders in about twenty months, and Kucan described the dialog
as "open" and "tough." Uppermost on the agenda was discussion
concerning what is seen by Kucan and Tudjman as the threat of
Italian irredentism with regard to the Istrian peninsula, shared
by Slovenia and Croatia. Following their meeting, Tudjman
indicated that he and Kucan had not found solutions to the
territorial and economic disputes between Slovenia and Croatia,
but that some common ground had been forged towards a common
position on what is viewed as a potential threat from Italian
foreign policy.  Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

ZAGREB, KNIN AGREE TO TALKS. On 7 June DPA reported that Croatia
and leaders from the breakaway Republic of Serbian Krajina have
agreed to hold a round of talks in the Serb-controlled town of
Plitvice, on 16 and 17 June, aimed at improving bilateral economic
relations. Earlier, in March of 1994, Croatian authorities and
rebel Serbs in the RSK had agreed to a ceasefire deal, which has
held. Following talks on economic relations, representatives from
Zagreb and the RSK capital, Knin, may move to the next level of
negotiations which are expected to center on Krajina's political
status.  Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

the leader of New Democracy, Dusan Mihajlovic. New Democracy,
which campaigned in the Serbian parliamentary elections of
December 1993 along with Vuk Draskovic and the Democratic
Opposition of Serbia (DEPOS), holds six seats in the Serbian
legislature and broke from DEPOS to support the Socialist Party of
Serbia (SPS), which holds 123 seats in the 250-seat legislature.
In defending the decision to support an SPS government, Mihajlovic
stressed that a party's effectiveness improves immeasurably when
it moves out of opposition. Showing no remorse about leaving
Draskovic's coalition, Mihajloivc observed that "Time will show
the magnitude of the mistakes and lost chances that Draskovic and
[opposition Democratic Party leader Zoran] Djindjic had." Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

CZECH ECONOMIC DATA. The Czech government's report on economic
developments in the first quarter of 1994 indicates that at the
end of March the country had the budget surplus of some 4 billion
koruny. Consumer prices rose by 2.4% in the first three months and
the unemployment rate stood at 3.5% in March and at 3.3% in April.
The country's GDP rose by .5%-2.0% during the first three months
in comparison with the same period of 1993; direct foreign
investment reached $200 million. The country had a trade deficit
of 2.1 billion koruny at the end of March, despite the fact that
export to developed countries rose by 9% in comparison with the
first three months of 1993. The overall deficit was due mainly to
a sharp decrease of exports to Slovakia.  Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

June the Slovak parliament approved an amendment to the law on
parliamentary elections, TASR reports. Slovak citizens older than
18 have the right to vote if they are present in any election
district during the election period. According to the previous
law, only citizens with permanent residence in Slovakia could
vote. The amendment also deals with election procedures, requiring
all voters to verify their state citizenship with their ID cards
or passports before they can vote. Voters will receive their
ballots at the site of elections, and mayors of all towns and
villages are required to deliver information concerning lists of
candidates to voters at least three days before the elections. Of
122 deputies present, 69 approved the law, 51 voted against and 2
abstained. Elections will be held on 30 September and 1 October.
Concerning Slovak television, the parliament rejected for the
second time a private candidate to take over the second Slovak
station, STV 2. The Board for Television and Radio Broadcasting
proposed ESPE as the candidate for the license earlier this year,
after the parliament rejected its first choice, CTV.  Sharon
Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

poll conducted by the Slovak Statistical Office from 2 to 10 May,
49% of respondents agreed that Slovakia's membership in NATO will
be necessary, TASR reported on 7 June. Of these, 15% regarded
Slovakia's application to join NATO as absolutely necessary, and
34% said it was likely to be necessary. On the reverse side, 18%
said that membership in NATO would be unnecessary, and 11% said it
would be absolutely unnecessary. (Men tended to be more negative
towards NATO than were women.) Another 22% were undecided.
Concerning the influence of incorporation into NATO on Slovakia's
defense ability, 37% said they expected it to improve, with more
support coming from respondents with higher education levels.
Meanwhile, 28% said they did not expect any change, 4% said they
expected a deterioration, and approximately one third of
respondents were undecided.  Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

COALITION TALKS BEGIN IN HUNGARY. The Hungarian Socialist Party,
the former reform communists, and the liberal Alliance of Free
Democrats concluded their first round of talks on 7 June, MTI
reports. The talks focused on the structure of the new government
and will deal with personnel questions only after agreement had
been reached on institutional matters. The two parties entrusted
10 committees with working out the details of the coalition
agreement. The committees deal with, among others, economic,
agricultural, cultural, media, minority, and environmental issues.
AFD chairman Ivan Peto called the talks "extremely encouraging and
effective," while HSP chairman Gyula Horn stressed the talks had
been "constructive and open." Horn expressed the hope that the
coalition agreement would be signed by 24 June so that the two
parties' congresses could approve it before the new parliament
convenes on 28 June. The next round of talks is expected to take
place on 9 June.  Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.

POLISH POLICE TO GET NEW POWERS. The government approved a package
of draft legislation on 7 June that would significantly expand the
powers of the police in the battle with organized crime and
corruption, PAP reports. President Lech Walesa attended the
cabinet session, apparently to underline his constitutional
prerogative to supervise domestic security. The new measures would
expand the list of crimes for which the police may request
permission to monitor telephone conversations and correspondence.
At present, wiretapping is allowed only in cases of murder and
crimes covered by international agreements, such as terrorism or
kidnapping. The government also proposed legalizing "sting"
operations, with the proviso that police functionaries may not
take the initiative themselves, for example by offering a bribe or
the sale of narcotics. Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej
Milczanowski stressed that the use of the new measures would be
carefully controlled; electronic eavesdropping would still require
the approval of the chief prosecutor (ex officio the justice
minister). Milczanowski said that the government had not proposed
creating the institution of "state's witness" because of
objections from the justice ministry. He added that the government
will ask the Sejm to authorize the internal affairs minister to
provide the courts with files on secret police informers in murder
or manslaughter cases.  Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

POLAND'S DEFENSE REFORM DELAYED. The National Defense Committee
(KOK) convened 7 June but was apparently unable to reach agreement
on constitutional authority over the chief of the General Staff,
PAP reports. President Lech Walesa wants the office subordinated
directly to him, while the government would like it to come under
the defense minister's supervision. The cabinet was set to approve
a military reform package including the government's formula on 24
May. On Walesa's insistence, however, it put off any final action
to allow KOK to discuss the matter. Defense Minister Piotr
Kolodziejczyk's only comment after the KOK session was, "The
execution has been postponed." Walesa's national security adviser
Jerzy Milewski said that KOK "may" meet to continue discussion on
20 June. The members of KOK are: the president; the prime
minister; the Sejm and Senate speakers; the ministers of finance,
defense, foreign affairs, and internal affairs; the General Staff
chief; and two officials from the president's office. Louisa
Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

Tribunal ruled on 7 June that the clause in the law on public
broadcasting requiring radio and TV programming to "respect
viewers' religious feelings" and "respect Christian values" does
not violate constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion and
speech. The provision was questioned by 89 left-wing deputies who
argued that world view questions should not be the subject of
legal prescriptions. In its ruling, the tribunal stressed that the
clause should not be understood as a directive to propagate
Christian values. It criticized the wording of the law as
ambiguous but argued that it was constitutional. The law was
adopted in December 1992. The "Christian values" clause was
included at the urging of deputies from the Christian National
Union, which is no longer represented in the parliament. PAP
reports that the Sejm leadership had difficulty in finding a
deputy who would agree to appear before the tribunal to defend the
contested clause.  Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

LABOR CAMP TRIAL RESUMES IN BULGARIA. After a one-year delay due
to the death of a key defendant, ex-Deputy Interior Minister
Mircho Spasov, the trial against three former guards at Bulgarian
labor camps operating between 1959 and 1962 resumed on 7 June.
Agencies report that Prosecutor General Ivan Tatarchev personally
attended the session of the military court to read out the
accusations that Nikolay Gazdov, Yuliyana Razhgeva and Petar
Gogov--former chief of the notorious Lovech camp--had killed 14
inmates for having committed minor offenses such as telling
anti-Communist jokes. Tatarchev asked the court to convict the
three to 20 years imprisonment and rejected the argument of the
defense that the statute of limitations had run out, noting that
the crimes were kept secret until 1990. In line with previous
rulings, the court postponed a final decision on the statute of
limitations and said it would first establish if the accused had
committed the crimes. It is estimated that 147 prisoners died
while serving sentences in the inhuman Lovech and Skravena labor
camps. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

Romania and the Palestine Liberation Organization signed in
Bucharest an agreement on rebuilding infrastructure in the areas
of limited Palestinian self-rule, Radio Bucharest reports. The
agreement was signed by Farouk Kaddoumi, head of the PLO's
political department, and Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor
Melescanu. The accord provides for the building of a cement
factory and a training program for Palestinian workers. It also
envisages cooperation in highways, ports and airports in the Gaza
strip and Jericho area. Melescanu said the projects will depend on
international financial aid, including a $2.4 billion loan from
the World Bank. Romania further offered fifty scholarships for
Palestinians students in Romania specializing in economy and other
fields.  Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

MOLDOVA SCRAPS ROMANIAN ANTHEM. Over the pro-Romanian minority's
protests, the Moldovan parliament voted overwhelmingly on 7 June
to scrap the anthem, "Awake ye Romanian," which hitherto served as
Moldova's state anthem and is also Romania's national anthem.
Agrarian deputies in the previous parliament, unaware of the
anthem's text, had been rushed by Popular Front deputies into
voting for it in the chaotic circumstances of August 1991 and were
later unable to reverse the measure; but President Mircea Snegur
never signed it into law. In the debate on 7 June 1994, the
Agrarian majority's deputies argued that Moldova must not be
confused with Romania and needs to express its distinct national
identity. They were joined by the ethnic Ukrainian and Russian
deputies in adopting the traditional Moldovan song "Our Language"
as a provisional anthem, pending a competition for a final choice
for which "Our Language" will also be entered.  Vladimir Socor,
RFE/RL, Inc.

SWEDISH PREMIER IN ESTONIA. On 7 June Estonian Prime Minister Mart
Laar welcomed his Swedish counterpart, Carl Bildt, in Korgessaar
on the island of Hiiumaa, where a new water purification
installation will be built with Swedish assistance, BNS reports.
Their talks centered on the deadlock in the negotiations on the
withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia. On 8 June Bildt will
visit Tallinn and tour Paldiski where two nuclear reactors at the
Russian submarine base are to be dismantled.  Saulius Girnius,
RFE/RL, Inc.

the head of the Russian delegation negotiating with Lithuania,
began two days of talks with his Lithuanian counterpart Virgilijus
Bulovas, Radio Lithuania reports. Lithuania is reluctant to sign a
special agreement on transit to and from Kaliningrad which Russia
is demanding as a condition for ratifying the most favored nation
trade agreement signed in November 1993. The talks also discussed
the opening of three international customs posts and several posts
for only Russian and Lithuanian citizens. Russian Deputy Foreign
Minister Vitalii Churkin arrived in Tallinn for two days of talks
with his Estonian counterpart Raul Malk. Their talks will focus on
the withdrawal of Russian troops and the rights of Russian
military retirees.  Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

Radio Lithuania on 8 June Adolfas Slezevicius described his
meeting with Valdis Birkavs the previous day as very useful in
discussing mutual relations and preparing for the meeting of the
three Baltic premiers in Tallinn on 13 June. Slezevicius noted
that some progress was made in determining the Lithuanian-Latvian
sea border, but the matter will be discussed further by groups of
experts. The long delays in crossing the Lithuanian-Latvian land
border were also mentioned as needing resolution.  Saulius
Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

Results from a Belarus-wide opinion survey in April showed that of
the four leading candidates for president, Alyaksandr Lukashenka
held the lead, with 25% of respondents saying they would vote for
him. Vyacheslau Kebich, the conservative prime minister, was in
second place, with 16%; Stanislau Shushkevich was preferred by
just 11%; while Popular Front leader Zyanon Paznyak polled a scant
6 percent. Lukashenka is a procommunist deputy in parliament who
represents the interests of the state farm apparatus. When
cross-tabulated with other opinion questions, respondents who said
they would vote for either Lukashenka or Kebich proved to be
considerably more anti-market, anti-Western, and pro-Russian than
Shushkevich and Paznyak supporters. The survey was based on a
representative sample of 2,030 and conducted by the Minsk-based
NOVAK organization.  Kathleen Mihalisko, RFE/RL, Inc.

parliament has refused to approve the 3 June agreement with
Ukraine, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported on 7 June. The agreement
was meant to resolve the tensions which arose after the Crimean
parliament had voted to restore the 1992 constitution. Under its
terms the Ukrainian constitution was given precedence over Crimean
laws and affirmed that Crimea was a part of Ukraine. Serhii
Nikulyn, head of the parliamentary group that signed the
agreement, said that the document was agreed on in order to avoid
forceful confrontation and that it did not include any binding
commitments. Nonetheless, the parliament decided to form a new
commission for further negotiations with Ukraine.  Ustina Markus,
RFE/RL, Inc.

   [As of 1200 CET]
  Compiled by Bess Brown and Jan de Weydenthal
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.)
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